Chapter 14 Digestive System Study Guide

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Which one of the following is NOT a subdivision of the large intestine:
A) cecum
B) appendix
C) duodenum
D) colon
E) rectum

C) duodenum

The organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination of feces is the:
A) stomach
B) large intestine
C) small intestine
D) pancreas
E) lever

B) large intestine

What is the purpose of mastication:
A) to eliminate undigested food wastes from the body
B) to propel food from one digestive organ to the next
C) to transport nutrients into the blood and lymph
D) to chew, grind and tear food into smaller pieces while in the mouth
E) to move food back and forth along the walls of the small intestine

D) to chew, grind and tear food into smaller pieces while in the mouth

Amylase is an enzyme that is only able to digest:
A) protein
B) starch
C) fat
D) vitamins
E) minerals

B) starch

The number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth is:
A) 20
B) 24
C) 28
D) 32
E) 36

D) 32

The anterior chisel-shaped teeth that are adapted for cutting are called:
A) incisors
B) canines
C) premolars
D) molars
E) wisdom teeth

A) incisors

Which accessory digestive organ is situated retroperitoneal:
A) liver
B) gallbladder
C) salivary glands
D) pancreas
E) spleen

D) pancreas

Bile is produced by the __________ but stored in the __________.
A) liver; pancreas
B) gallbladder; liver
C) liver; gallbladder
D) small intestine; pancreas
E) gallbladder; pancreas

C) liver; gallbladder

Which tube brings bile directly back into the gallbladder for storage when there is no digestion occurring in the duodenum:
A) common bile duct
B) main pancreatic duct
C) cystic duct
D) accessory pancreatic duct
E) common hepatic duct

C) cystic duct

The sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes within hydrolysis reactions is called:
A) ingestion
B) propulsion
C) mechanical digestion
D) chemical digestion
E) absorption

D) chemical digestion

The propulsive process that moves food from one organ to the next is called:
A) ingestion
B) peristalsis
C) chemical digestion
D) mastication
E) absorption

B) peristalsis

The process by which food within the small intestine is mixed with digestive juices by backward and forward movement across the internal wall of the organ is called:
A) peristalsis
B) segmentation
C) defecation
D) chemical digestion
E) absorption

B) segmentation

Which one of the following is NOT one of the carbohydrates that the human digestive system is able to break down to simple sugars:
A) cellulose
B) sucrose
C) lactose
D) maltose
E) starch

A) cellulose

Proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called:
A) peptides
B) amino acids
C) polypeptides
D) fatty acids
E) glycerol

B) amino acids

Transport of digested end products from the lumen GI tract into the bloodstream or lymphatic fluid is called:
A) ingestion
B) propulsion
C) digestion
D) absorption
E) defecation

D) absorption

Digestion is primarily controlled by the:
A) sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
B) medulla oblongata
C) somatic nervous system
D) enterogastric reflex
E) parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

E) parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

The first nutrient to be chemically digested is:
A) starch
B) protein
C) fat
D) minerals
E) vitamins

A) starch

The process of swallowing is also known as:
A) mastication
B) segmentation
C) deglutition
D) defecation
E) absorption

C) deglutition

Which one of the following alimentary segments has no digestive function:
A) stomach
B) ascending colon
C) ileum
D) esophagus
E) duodenum

D) esophagus

Which digestive system organ is the target of gastrin:
A) esophagus
B) pancreas
C) stomach
D) small intestine
E) liver

C) stomach

Pepsin is necessary for the stomach to break down:
A) carbohydrates
B) proteins
C) saturated fats
D) polysaccharides
E) nucleic acids

B) proteins

What does the enterogastric reflex accomplish:
A) increases output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice
B) stimulates the release of gastric juices
C) slows the emptying of the stomach contents
D) stimulates gallbladder to contract and expel bile
E) stimulates emptying of the stomach contents

C) slows the emptying of the stomach contents

The enzyme responsible for converting milk protein in the stomach to a substance that looks like sour milk in infants is:
A) pepsin
B) salivary amylase
C) pancreatic amylase
D) bile
E) rennin

E) rennin

The journey of chyme through the small intestine takes:
A) 2-4 hours
B) 3-6 hours
C) 6-8 hours
D) 8-10 hours
E) 10-12 hours

B) 3-6 hours

Enzyme-rich pancreatic juice contains all the following EXCEPT:
A) amylase
B) trypsin
C) nuclease
D) pancreatase
E) lipase

D) pancreatase

Which of the following influence the release of pancreatic juice and bile:
A) rennin and cholecystokinin
B) gastrin and rennin
C) cholecystokinin and gastrin
D) secretin and gastrin
E) cholecystokinin and secretin

E) cholecystokinin and secretin

Which one of the following is NOT absorbed by the human large intestine:
A) water
B) vitamin K
C) some of the B vitamins
D) ions
E) protein

E) protein

The energy value of foods commonly counted by dieters is measured in units called:
B) calories
C) kilocalories
D) coenzymes
E) carb units

C) kilocalories

The process by which larger molecules or structures are built up from smaller ones is called:
A) anabolism
B) catabolism
C) metabolism
D) carbolysis
E) glycolysis

A) anabolism

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced in greatest quantity during:
A) glycolysis
B) the Krebs cycle
C) protein metabolism
D) the electron transport chain
E) fat metabolism

D) the electron transport chain

Which of the following chemical reactions performed by the liver creates sugars from noncarbohydrate sources such as fats and proteins:
A) anaerobic respiration
B) glycogenolysis
C) glycogenesis
D) gluconeogenesis
E) glycolysis

D) gluconeogenesis

Acidosis (ketoacidosis) occurs when __________ is digested.
A) fat
B) glycogen
C) glucose
D) protein
E) glycogen or glucose

A) fat

Which one of the following is NOT a main role of the liver:
A) to detoxify drugs and alcohol
B) to degrade hormones
C) to make cholesterol
D) to process nutrients during digestion
E) to add ammonia to the blood

E) to add ammonia to the blood

Nutrients detour through the liver via the:
A) circle of Willis
B) hepatic portal circulation
C) Bowman’s capsule
D) electron transport chain
E) glycogenesis

B) hepatic portal circulation

Which one of the following is NOT true of cholesterol:
A) it provides energy fuel for muscle contraction
B) it serves as the structural basis of steroid hormones
C) it serves as the structural basis of vitamin D
D) it is a major building block of plasma membranes
E) only about 15 percent comes from the diet

A) it provides energy fuel for muscle contraction

The hereditary inability of tissue cells to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, which can result in brain damage and retardation unless a special diet low in phenylalanine is followed, is called:
A) cystic fibrosis
B) cleft lip
C) cleft palate
D) phenylketonuria
E) tracheoesophageal fistula

D) phenylketonuria

The reflex that helps an infant hold on to the nipple and swallow is called the:
A) rooting reflex
B) nursing reflex
C) sucking reflex
D) peristaltic reflex
E) fetal reflex

C) sucking reflex

Which of these foods would be the most mineral-rich:
A) cookies
B) cereal
C) pasta
D) milk
E) cake

D) milk

The process of physically and chemically breaking food particles down is referred to as


The oral cavity is separated from the nasal cavity by the hard and soft what


The innermost layer of the alimentary canal is referred to as the


The two instrinsic nerve plexuses serving the alimentary canal are the what?

Submucosal, myenteric

The upper, expanded part of the stomach lateral to the cardiac region is called the what?


Large wrinkle-like folds in the stomach lining, present when the stomach is empty, that allow for expansion when the stomach is filling are called what?


Instrinsic factor, produced by cells in the stomach, is necessary for the absoprtion of vitamin _______ in the small intestine.


The shortest region of the small intestine.


The fingerlike projections of the small intestine that increase the surface area


Bile is formed here.


The rich capillary bed and modified lymphatic capillary found within each villus.


Cells abundant within the large intestine that produce largea mounts of lubricating mucus to aid in the passage of feces to the end of the digestive tract.

Goblet cells

The process of chewing


Number of baby teeth a child has


The material on the outermost surface of the root that attaches a tooth to the periodontal membrane is called


The enzyme produced by the salivary glands used in the breakdown of starches is


Segmentation is a type of mechanical digestion that occurs only where?

Small intestine

When digestion is not occuring in the small intesting, bile is stored where?


The process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tract is called


Two hormones that promote the release of bile and pancreatic juice into the small intesting are?

Secretin and cholecystokonin or CCK

The hormone responsible for promoting the release of pepsinogens, mucus, and hydrocholoric acid in the stomach is called


Two items absorbed through the stomach walls

Alcohol and aspirin

Hydrochloric acis is necessary in the stomach for the conversion of pepsinogen into it’s active protein-digesting form called


The chemical responsible for about half of protein digestion and all of fat digestion is

Pancreatic juice

When feces are forced into the rectum by mass movements and the wall of the rectum becomes stretched, the __________ is initiated.

Defecation reflex

The energy value of foods is measured in units called

Kilocalories or kcal

The minor nutrients consist of

Vitamins and minerals

A chemical reaction in which substances are broken down into simpler substances is referred to as


The major fuel for making ATP in most cells of the body is a type of carbohydrate known as


The specific metabolic pathway of cellular respiration in which virtually all carbon dioxide is made is the

Kreb’s cycle

Fat oxidation products can acidify the blod, a condition know as

Acidosis or ketoacidosis

The polysaccharide, glycogen, is formed from the combination of thousands of glucose molecules during a process called


The lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and other lipids to body cells is called

Low density lipoprotein – LDL

The total amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel all ongoing activities, which increases dramatically during physical exertion, is called

Total metabolic rate

The reflex that helps babies hold onto a breast or bottle and swallow is


Which of the following is NOT associated with the mouth:
A) hard palate
B) rugae
C) vestibule
D) tongue
E) soft palate

B) rugae

Which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal:
A) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
B) mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
C) pharynx, mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
D) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
E) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, stomach, large intestine

D) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

The structure that forms the anterior roof of the mouth is the

Hard palate

The fold of mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movement is called the

Lingual frenulum

Which of the following is the moist innermost layer that lines the alimentary canal


The submucosal of myenteric nerve plexus that help regulate the mobility and secretory activity of the GI tract organs are both part of the

Autonomic nervous system

Gastrin is produced in the stomach by

Enteroendocrine cells

The small intestine extends from

The pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve

What two organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine

Liver and pancreas

Enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the


The primary function of the small intestine is

Absorption of nutrients

Which one of the following is NOT a modification (which is designed to increase surface area for absorption) within the small intestine:
A) microvilli
B) villi
C) Peyer’s patches
D) circular folds
E) plicae circulares

C) Peyer’s patches

Match the following nutrients with their associated digestive enzymes:








Nucleic acids


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