Chapter 14 – Bureaucracy in a Democracy

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The trend in congressional oversight has been toward fewer hearings over time.


In which branch of the government is the bureaucracy located?


Why is it often harder to implement reforms in government agencies than in private companies?

Public agencies are held to a much higher standard of accountability.

Which of the following statements about the size and growth of the federal bureaucracy are accurate?

The federal civilian workforce has decreased over the last 60 years. Several recent presidents have made a point of campaigning against the size of the federal workforce.

Which of the following statements about the findings of the 9/11 Commission is accurate?

It resulted in a major consolidation of the intelligence gathering hierarchy.

Taxing and spending policies are also known as – policies, while those policies dealing with banks, credit, and currency are known as – policies.

fiscal monetary

Which of the following statements are true based on the graph?

The amount of money spent by the federal government each year has increased substantially since 1960. The amount of money spent by the federal government as a percentage of GDP has largely stayed the same since 1960.

Which of the following cannot initiate oversight of executive branch bureaucracy?

supreme court

The most sweeping changes to the civil service in the post-World War II era happened during Jimmy Carter’s presidency.


In 2015, the EPA fined Volkswagen billions of dollars for installing devices that helped their cars cheat on emissions tests. This is an example of the bureaucracy fulfilling which of its responsibilities?

enforcing laws

Choose the statements that accurately describe an aspect of the use of devolution.

Devolution of federal welfare programs has resulted in innovative, efficient programs in some states. Devolution of federal welfare programs has resulted in their near disappearance in some states.

In several states, the state government has bid out the right to run the state’s prison system to corporations and businesses. This is an example of what method of reducing government bureaucracy?


Which of the following statements accurately describe the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)?

It has been used to great effect by the private groups like the National Security Archive. President Obama has encouraged agencies to release more documents under FOIA.

The Government Accountability Office, the Congressional Research Service, and the – are three agencies created by Congress to perform constant research on problems facing the executive branch.

Congressional Budget Office

In which of the following ways can the rule-making process be influenced by politicians and interest groups?

Interest groups congress courts presidents

The Department of – contains the most federal employees. Of the two types of agencies, a federal employee is less likely to be part of -.

Veterans Affairs an independent agency than a Cabinet department.

Match each federal agency or bureau on the left to the type of agency or bureau it is an example of on the right.

government corporation: Amtrak Independent regulatory commission: CFPB Independent agency: NASA EPA

Indicate whether the following activities are a responsibility of the Treasury Department or the Federal Reserve.

Federal Reserve: monetary policy regulation of bank lending activities Treasury Department:fiscal policy printing of currency

In 1883, the – was passed in order to create the merit system for staffing the bureaucracy. It required appointees to be qualified based on -.

civil service act competitive examinations

Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the information presented in the preceding figure?

Creating more competition for federal contracts does not necessarily lower government spending. Contractor investment in lobbying does not see consistent growth over time.

Democrats favor privatization more than Republicans do.


Despite its flaws, why does the White House defend the TSA?

It provides necessary safety measures and does prevent attacks.

The largest concentration of federal workers do their job in -. The largest number of federal workers work in the Department of -.

Washington D.C. Veterans affairs

Which term describes the effort by Congress to use hearings, investigations, and other techniques to exercise control over the bureaucracy?


The purpose of job protections for civil service employees is to protect them from political interference.


In which of the following countries does the government employ a relatively high level of the workforce (more than 22 percent)?

Norway Ireland

Which of the following components make up an "iron triangle"?

congressional committee bureaucratic program or agency interest group

These are the largest subunits of the executive branch. There are 15 of them, including Agriculture and State.


What was the goal of Bill Clinton’s "National Performance Review"?

make the federal bureaucracy more efficient and effective

Secretaries are the top officials within -, the largest subunits of the executive branch, while – have the broadest discretion to make rules and have been referred to as "mini-legislatures."

departments independent regulatory commissions

How did President George W. Bush differ from the previous five presidents in his strategy for altering the executive bureaucracy?

He extended extreme political control over the bureaucracy, which he distrusted.

This independent agency is the key player in setting the nation’s monetary policy.

the federal reserve

In which of the following ways does the rule-making role of the federal bureaucracy differ from its law-enforcement role?

The rule-making role happens before the law is implemented, while the law-enforcement role happens after a law is already in place.

Match the example on the left with the concept it demonstrates on the right.

privatization: the government increases the number of contractors it uses to carry out homeland security policies. termination: the defense base closure and realignment commission (BRAC) decides to close several military bases. devolution: the federal government passes responsibility for the implementation of welfare policies to the states.

Which of the following are ways that oversight of the bureaucracy can occur?

members of congress carrying out casework congressional hearings held about specific agencies freedom of information act requests submitted by the public

Which of the following best describes the implementation role served by bureaucracies?

to create and implement rules that translate vague laws into action

Despite Edward Snowden’s leak of NSA documents, there has been no additional oversight of the agency since.


In which of the following ways does devolution differ from privatization as a means of reforming the bureaucracy?

Devolution moves the work to local governments; privatization moves the work to private companies.

Which of the following are examples of revenue agencies?

the bureau of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives the internal revenue service

Match the national security agency or department on the left to whether it primarily deals with internal security or external security on the right.

external security: department of state department of defense internal security: federal bureau of investigations department of homeland security

What category or type of agency is responsible for collecting taxes?


Which of the following statements about regulatory agencies is accurate?

A regulatory agency’s power is given to it by Congress.

Which of the following statements about termination of the bureaucracy is correct?

Very few presidents are able to successfully terminate a part of the bureaucracy

Choose all of the following ways that bureaucracies can pose a challenge to democratic governance.

They are not elected by the people. They can become entrenched organizations that serve their own interests. They can interpret laws and create rules in ways that a majority might oppose.

Different parts of the bureaucracy often focus on national security, the economy, or public welfare. Match the department, agency, or office to the task that it primarily focuses on.

national security: department of state economy: federal reserve internal revenue service public welfare: environmental protection agency department of education

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