Chapter 13 microbiology

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How do all viruses differ from bacteria?

viruses are not composed of cells

Which of the following statements provides the most significant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals?

they cannot reproduce themselves outside a host

Which of the following statements about viral spikes is FALSE?

they are found only on noenveloped viruses

Which of the following is NOT used as a criterion to classify viruses?

biochemical tests

Which of the following is NOT utilized to culture viruses?

culture media

Bacteriophages and animal viruses do NOT differ significantly in which one of the following steps?


The definition of lysogeny is

phage DNA is incorporated into the host cell DNA

A viroid is a (n)

infectious piece of RNA without a capsid

In figure 13.1, which structure is a complex virus?


The structures illustrated in figure 13.1 are composed of


A clear area against a confluent "lawn" of bacteria is called a


Continuous cell lines differ from primary cell lines in that

continuous cell lines can be maintained through an indefinite number of generations

Which of the following is necessary for replication of a prion?


A persistent infection is one in which

the disease process occurs gradually over a long period

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

the prophage makes the host cell immune to infection by other phages

Which of the following would be the first step in biosynthesis of a virus with a -(minus) strand of RNA

synthesis of double-stranded RNA from an RNA templete

An infectious protein is a


An envelope is acquired during which of the following steps?


Which of the following statements is NOT true of lysogeny?

its causes lysis of host cells

An example of a latent viral infection is

cold sores

A virus’s ability to infect an animal cell depends primarily upon the

presence of receptor sites on the cell membrance

Assume you have isolated an unknown virus. This virus has a single, positive sense strand of RNA, and possesses an envelope. To which group does it most likely belong?


The mechanism whereby an enveloped virus leaves a host cell is called


The most conclusive evidence that viruses cause cancers is provided by

cancer following injection of cell-free filtrates

Bacteriophages derive all of the following from the host cell EXCEPT


Bacteriophage replication differs from animal virus replication because only bacteriophage replication involes

injection of naked nucleic acid into the host cell

Generally, in an infection caused by a DNA-containing virus, the host animal cell supplies all of the following EXCEPT

DNA polymerase

Which of the following places these items in the correct order for DNA-virus replication?


A viral species is a group of viruses that

has the same genetic information and ecological niche

Viruses that utilize reverse transcriptase belong to the virus families

hepadnaviridae and retroviridae

DNA made from RNA template will be incorporated into the virus capsid of


Which of the following statements about viruses is FALSE?

viruses use their own catabolic enzymes

A lytic virus has infected a patient. Which of the following would best describe what is happening inside the patient?

the virus is causing the death of the infected cells in the patient

Same viruses, such as human herpesvirus 1, infect a cell without causing symptoms, These are called

latent viruses

The following steps occur during multiplication of retroviruses. Which is the fourth step?

synthesis of double-stranded DNA

Oncogenic viruses

cause tumors to develop

Which one of the following steps does NOT occur during multiplication of a picornavirus?

synthesis of DNA

Which of the following is most likely a product of an early gene?

DNA polymerase

Most RNA viruses carry which of the following enzymes?

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

The following steps occur during biosynthesis of a + strand RNA virus. What is the third step?

synthesis of -strand RNA

What contributes to antigenic shift in influenza viruses?

a segmented genome

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