chapter 13 environmental science

A __________ pollutant interacts with a part of the atmosphere and becomes a __________ pollutant.

primary; secondary

Which piece of legislation set strict standards for air quality and pollution control in the United States?

the Clean Air Act (1963) amended in 1970 and 1990

Which of the following is an unhealthy mixture of pollutants that forms over cities?

smog

Which of the following convert or remove airborne pollutants from smokestacks?

scrubbers

which of the following layers of the atmosphere is responsible for the air that we breathe?

the troposphere (also responsible for planets weather)

weather is best described as ________.

atmospheric conditions within small geographic areas over short period of time (compare to climate)

_______ are the best types of convective cells that produce global climate patterns

Hadley, ferrel, and polar(wet near equator, dry near poles and list in between)they also interact with Earths rotation to produce global wind patterns

most of indoor air pollution in the homes of people in developing countries comes from _______.

burning fuel wood

what percent of solar energy. is reflected back into space ?

30%

which of the following is a source of natural air pollution ?

volcanic eruptions (sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere)

Which of the following layers of the atmosphere is responsible for the weather that we experience on the surface of Earth?

Troposphere

Which gas makes up 78% of the molecules in the atmosphere?

N2—nitrogen

What process depends upon the cyclical, vertical movement of air currents: sinking cold, dense; and rising warm, less dense air masses?

convective circulation

Which of the following can trap pollutants at ground level and cause dangerous smog?

thermal inversions

Point sources of air pollution are __________.

specific spots--such as a factory's smokestacks--where large quantities of pollution are discharged

The EPA tracks six "criteria" air pollutants. Which of these is true of the criteria air pollutants?

Total emissions of the six have declined by over 50% since 1970(Lead is down over 99%, and the other five are down between 33% and 85%.)

What releases NO and VOC into the atmosphere, initiating the formation of photochemical smog in cities like Los Angeles and Tehran?

vehicle exhaust

1. Concentrations are elevated by hot, sunny days: photochemical smog
2. Increases exposure of organisms to ultraviolet light: stratospheric ozone depletion
3. Caused by halocarbons, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): stratospheric ozone depletion
4. Forms from emissions of sulfur dioxide: acid deposition
5. Montreal Protocol aimed to reduce emissions that cause this: stratospheric ozone depletion
6. A reaction between pollutants and atmospheric compounds that creates over 100 different chemicals: photochemical smog
7. Leaches plant nutrients from soils: acid deposition
8. Most pronounced in cities prone to inversion events: photochemical smog

1. Concentrations are elevated by hot, sunny days: photochemical smog 2. Increases exposure of organisms to ultraviolet light: stratospheric ozone depletion 3. Caused by halocarbons, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): stratospheric ozone depletion 4. Forms from emissions of sulfur dioxide: acid deposition 5. Montreal Protocol aimed to reduce emissions that cause this: stratospheric ozone depletion 6. A reaction between pollutants and atmospheric compounds that creates over 100 different chemicals: photochemical smog 7. Leaches plant nutrients from soils: acid deposition 8. Most pronounced in cities prone to inversion events: photochemical smog

What is largely responsible for the ozone hole?

chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants

Fill in the blanks: ozone is made of __________ and is broken down by __________.

oxygen; chlorine (Ozone (O3) is made of oxygen and is broken down by the chlorine in CFCs.)

In which way does acid deposition originate?

through fossil fuel combustion by cars, electric utilities, and industrial facilities (These activities burn fossil fuels, releasing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which react with water, oxygen, and oxides in the air to produce acids.)

What happens when acids from acid deposition hit topsoil?

Plants and soil organisms are harmed.

Which two pollutants are the top two responsible for lung pollution in the United States?

cigarette smoke and radon gas (Lung cancer from smoking kills 160,000 people each year, and lung cancer from radon kills 21,000 people each year.)

What describes the pattern of atmospheric conditions across larger geographic regions over years, decades, or centuries?

climate

What drives long-term climate patterns, such as the Hadley Cells at the Equator, over large geographic scales?

convective air currents (These air currents are largely driven by heat)

In which layer of the atmosphere is the "ozone layer" found?

Stratosphere (The highest concentration of the ozone layer lies about 20 km above Earth's surface. It screens out all of the U-V C and most of the skin-damaging and mutagenic U-V B.)

Which of the following results from acid deposition?

Objects made of stone, like marble headstones, are worn away.

How has the Clean Air Act's emissions trading program addressed the issue of acid deposition in the United States?

Economic incentives have encouraged polluters to invest in technologies such as scrubbers.

Which of the following states experiences the lowest levels of acid rain?

Wyoming

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A __________ pollutant interacts with a part of the atmosphere and becomes a __________ pollutant.

primary; secondary

Which piece of legislation set strict standards for air quality and pollution control in the United States?

the Clean Air Act (1963) amended in 1970 and 1990

Which of the following is an unhealthy mixture of pollutants that forms over cities?

smog

Which of the following convert or remove airborne pollutants from smokestacks?

scrubbers

which of the following layers of the atmosphere is responsible for the air that we breathe?

the troposphere (also responsible for planets weather)

weather is best described as ________.

atmospheric conditions within small geographic areas over short period of time (compare to climate)

_______ are the best types of convective cells that produce global climate patterns

Hadley, ferrel, and polar(wet near equator, dry near poles and list in between)they also interact with Earths rotation to produce global wind patterns

most of indoor air pollution in the homes of people in developing countries comes from _______.

burning fuel wood

what percent of solar energy. is reflected back into space ?

30%

which of the following is a source of natural air pollution ?

volcanic eruptions (sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere)

Which of the following layers of the atmosphere is responsible for the weather that we experience on the surface of Earth?

Troposphere

Which gas makes up 78% of the molecules in the atmosphere?

N2—nitrogen

What process depends upon the cyclical, vertical movement of air currents: sinking cold, dense; and rising warm, less dense air masses?

convective circulation

Which of the following can trap pollutants at ground level and cause dangerous smog?

thermal inversions

Point sources of air pollution are __________.

specific spots–such as a factory’s smokestacks–where large quantities of pollution are discharged

The EPA tracks six "criteria" air pollutants. Which of these is true of the criteria air pollutants?

Total emissions of the six have declined by over 50% since 1970(Lead is down over 99%, and the other five are down between 33% and 85%.)

What releases NO and VOC into the atmosphere, initiating the formation of photochemical smog in cities like Los Angeles and Tehran?

vehicle exhaust

1. Concentrations are elevated by hot, sunny days: photochemical smog
2. Increases exposure of organisms to ultraviolet light: stratospheric ozone depletion
3. Caused by halocarbons, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): stratospheric ozone depletion
4. Forms from emissions of sulfur dioxide: acid deposition
5. Montreal Protocol aimed to reduce emissions that cause this: stratospheric ozone depletion
6. A reaction between pollutants and atmospheric compounds that creates over 100 different chemicals: photochemical smog
7. Leaches plant nutrients from soils: acid deposition
8. Most pronounced in cities prone to inversion events: photochemical smog

1. Concentrations are elevated by hot, sunny days: photochemical smog 2. Increases exposure of organisms to ultraviolet light: stratospheric ozone depletion 3. Caused by halocarbons, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): stratospheric ozone depletion 4. Forms from emissions of sulfur dioxide: acid deposition 5. Montreal Protocol aimed to reduce emissions that cause this: stratospheric ozone depletion 6. A reaction between pollutants and atmospheric compounds that creates over 100 different chemicals: photochemical smog 7. Leaches plant nutrients from soils: acid deposition 8. Most pronounced in cities prone to inversion events: photochemical smog

What is largely responsible for the ozone hole?

chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants

Fill in the blanks: ozone is made of __________ and is broken down by __________.

oxygen; chlorine (Ozone (O3) is made of oxygen and is broken down by the chlorine in CFCs.)

In which way does acid deposition originate?

through fossil fuel combustion by cars, electric utilities, and industrial facilities (These activities burn fossil fuels, releasing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which react with water, oxygen, and oxides in the air to produce acids.)

What happens when acids from acid deposition hit topsoil?

Plants and soil organisms are harmed.

Which two pollutants are the top two responsible for lung pollution in the United States?

cigarette smoke and radon gas (Lung cancer from smoking kills 160,000 people each year, and lung cancer from radon kills 21,000 people each year.)

What describes the pattern of atmospheric conditions across larger geographic regions over years, decades, or centuries?

climate

What drives long-term climate patterns, such as the Hadley Cells at the Equator, over large geographic scales?

convective air currents (These air currents are largely driven by heat)

In which layer of the atmosphere is the "ozone layer" found?

Stratosphere (The highest concentration of the ozone layer lies about 20 km above Earth’s surface. It screens out all of the U-V C and most of the skin-damaging and mutagenic U-V B.)

Which of the following results from acid deposition?

Objects made of stone, like marble headstones, are worn away.

How has the Clean Air Act’s emissions trading program addressed the issue of acid deposition in the United States?

Economic incentives have encouraged polluters to invest in technologies such as scrubbers.

Which of the following states experiences the lowest levels of acid rain?

Wyoming

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