Chapter 13- Education (Questions)

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Broadly defined, education is:
a. spontaneous and unplanned exposure to cultural ideas and tools.
b. a program of formal and systematic instruction that deals only with developing academic skills.
c. those experiences that train and discipline mental and physical potentials.
d. the processes through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools—both general and specific—are developed.

the processes through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools–both general and specific–are developed

Which of the following is NOT a criticism that a Marxist theorist of education would make of how schools have socialized children to dominant cultural values?
a. Schools are pawns of the capitalist classes.
b. Schools teach skills that make students subordinate.
c. Schools make students too patriotic.
d. Schools socialize children to be obedient so they will become good workers.

Schools make students too patriotic.

Knowledge and skills that make someone more productive and bankable are known as:
a. human capital.
b. social capital.
c. cultural capital.
d. socialization.

human capital

Jackson’s parents pay for him to take private violin lessons and send him to language lessons after school. In the summer, he attends science camp. His parents try to take him on one vacation to a foreign country every year. Jackson’s parents hope that these activities will build his skills and better position him to get into a competitive university. Jackson’s parents are investing in his:
a. social capital.
b. cultural capital.
c. human capital.
d. community capital.

human capital

At 9:05 a.m., the bell rings and children file into their third-grade classroom. The first student to sit at his or her desk—book open and pencil ready to write—wins a star for the day. The students love this little bit of competition. This example of nonacademic socialization (which can teach students the benefit of competition) can be referred to as:
a. the silent curriculum.
b. the hidden curriculum.
c. the master curriculum.
d. the invisible curriculum.

the hidden curriculum

According to your text, approximately what percentage of the nation’s population 16 years and older is functionally illiterate?
a. 2%
b. 14%
c. 25%
d. 44%

14%

William, a 17-year-old high school student, chooses products in the grocery store by looking at the pictures on the labels of the goods on the shelves because he cannot read many of the words. William would be considered:
a. functionally illiterate.
b. innumerate.
c. unschooled.
d. functionally literate.

functionally illiterate

According to your text, approximately what percentage of the nation’s population 16 years and older is innumerate?
a. 3%
b. 14%
c. 22%
d. 46%

22%

Though she graduated from high school, Jenny does not possess the skills necessary to balance her checkbook or make change for a customer without the aid of a cash register. Jenny is:
a. undereducated.
b. unschooled.
c. innumerate.
d. functionally illiterate.

innumerate

A paradox of the American education system is that:
a. education is the only social institution that not all people have access to even though all people pay for it.
b. education is a social institution that provides everyone with equal opportunities even though students come from a variety of backgrounds.
c. education is a social institution that stratifies students based on the characteristics of their backgrounds even though it is intended to provide equal opportunity.
d. education is a social institution that reinforces existing social inequalities of race and ethnicity but equalizes opportunities for male and female students and for students of different socioeconomic backgrounds.

education is a social institution that stratifies students based on the characteristics of their backgrounds even though it is intended to provide equal opportunity

What was the Coleman Report?
a. A systematic, wide-scale evaluation of data from students and school facilities that showed that the most important factor explaining educational differences between schools is characteristics of the school.
b. A systematic, small-scale study showing lower educational performance of elementary school students attending an overcrowded Brooklyn school in a former roller skating rink compared to students attending a public school in a more affluent section of New York City.
c. A systematic, small-scale study reporting few educational differences between elementary school students attending an overcrowded Brooklyn school in a former roller skating rink compared to students attending a public school in a more affluent section of New York City.
d. A systematic, wide-scale evaluation of data from students and school facilities that showed that differences in school characteristics explained only a small portion of educational differences between schools.

A systematic, wide-scale evaluation of data from students and school facilities that showed that differences in school characteristics explained only a small portion of educational differences between schools.

Results from the Coleman Report were surprising because findings indicated that:
a. achievement differences between schools could be explained best by family background and peers with whom children attended school.
b. black children would do best in majority black schools.
c. all students had similar outcomes.
d. schools enhance social capital more than academic skills.

achievement differences between schools could be explained best by family background and peers with whom children attended school

Thomas transfers to a new school when his family moves to a new district, and he is placed in a classroom with students who have slightly higher average math grades than he does. Thomas is concerned that he will fall behind. Based on the research, what is the most likely outcome?
a. Thomas will fall behind and should be moved into a classroom where he has the highest scores.
b. Thomas will succeed and make academic gains when he is in the classes with other high achievers.
c. Thomas will become frustrated and decide to leave school before completing his degree.
d. Thomas will make stronger academic gains if he is tracked into a class with lower-achieving students.

Thomas will succeed and make academic gains when he is in the classes with other high achievers.

One of the most interesting findings from the Coleman Report was that:
a. when upper-status students went to school with fewer lower-class students, their grades fell.
b. when lower-class students went to school with more upper-status students, their grades improved.
c. when males and females were separated in classes, both groups’ grades improved.
d. when all students were on vacation during the summer, they all lost ground with regard to knowledge.

when lower-class students went to school with more upper-status students, their grades improved.

What was the name of the landmark court ruling that mandated desegregation of American schools?
a. Brown v. Board of Education
b. Kozol v. Board of Education
c. Coleman v. Board of Education
d. STAR v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education

Which of the following is NOT a finding of research examining the effects of class size on educational achievement?
a. Schools with smaller class sizes benefit students more than schools with larger classes.
b. Class size in elementary school does not predict educational achievement as long as the classroom is composed of students of the same intelligence levels.
c. Students who have been in small classes are less likely to have discipline
problems when they are subsequently placed in regular-sized classes.
d. Short-term and long-term benefits of smaller classrooms are stronger for minority and low-income students.

Students who have been in small classes are less likely to have discipline problems when they are subsequently placed in regular-sized classes.

Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of Project STAR?
a. It was a longitudinal study that spanned four years.
b. Teachers and students were randomly assigned to small or regular-sized classes with or without a teacher’s aide.
c. The students were aged 13 to 17.
d. The study was conducted by the Tennessee State Department of Education.

The students were aged 13 to 17.

Taking into account students’ family backgrounds, ____________ schools tend to outperform ____________ schools in preparing children academically.
a. less expensive private; very expensive private
b. public; Catholic
c. non-Catholic private; Catholic
d. Catholic; non-Catholic private

Catholic; non-Catholic private

Studies show that ____________ school students score highest on achievement tests, followed by ____________ school students.
a. Catholic; secular private and public
b. secular private; Catholic and public
c. public; secular private and Catholic
d. secular private; public and Catholic

Catholic; secular private and public

Jacqui is a student at a Catholic middle school. One day she is asked by her friends from the public school to skip school. Though Jacqui wants to be with her friends and is excited by the thought of breaking the rules, she decides not to go. Jacqui is concerned that if she were seen skipping school, her actions would reflect badly on her school, her parents, and her teachers. She also does not want to undermine the trust that adults have placed in her. This example illustrates how ____________ in Catholic schools may influence behavior.
a. human capital
b. community capital
c. cultural capital
d. social capital

social capital

Which of the following would NOT be an example of social capital?
a. A high percentage of students at St. Mary’s Academy take music lessons and are taking college preparatory classes.
b. Teachers at Catholic schools and the parents of their students may interact at church.
c. Parents, teachers, and students may share similar values regarding education and will reinforce similar norms for behavior.
d. Parents volunteer to work in the library of a public school that does not have the funding to pay a librarian’s salary.

A high percentage of students at St. Mary’s Academy take music lessons and are taking college preparatory classes.

Social capital is:
a. the knowledge and skills individuals can build to make themselves competitive.
b. the collection of relationships that can facilitate the actions and behaviors of others.
c. social class and cultural differences in types of knowledge that people can use to their advantage.
d. the center of socialization resources that a group of people has at its disposal.

the collection of relationships that can facilitate the actions and behaviors of others

When classrooms are divided into ability levels, type of preparation, or according to future plans, it is called:
a. vocational training.
b. remediation.
c. tracking.
d. college preparation.

tracking

Which of the following is NOT an argument in support of the sorting function served by schools?
a. Students are sorted in ways that reproduce existing social inequalities.
b. Students can be taught different skills and socialized in ways consistent with their likely future plans.
c. Students can be tracked into different paths according to their abilities.
d. Students who are not adequate can be eliminated.

Students are sorted in ways that reproduce existing social inequalities.

Which of the following is NOT an argument in support of tracking in schools?
a. Tracking is instrumental in preparing students for future positions in higher education or jobs.
b. Tracking creates a better learning environment because students’ goals and skills are matched to the curricula.
c. Students who are tracked into vocational-training programs are less likely to be unemployed and will enter the workforce as skilled employees.
d. Systems of tracking socialize students to the inequalities they will encounter in American society.

Systems of tracking socialize students to the inequalities they will encounter in American society.

Which of the following is NOT an argument against tracking in schools?
a. Tracking is problematic because there are differences in the content of materials and the quality of instruction among different levels.
b. Tracking benefits students in the upper and lower tracks but does not provide benefits to students who are in a general track in between vocational and college-bound students.
c. Tracking benefits children with less advantaged backgrounds, but only if their parents can advocate on their behalf to get them into college preparatory tracks.
d. Children from higher social class backgrounds are more likely to be in college preparatory tracks, even when other factors like achievement test scores are taken into account.

Tracking benefits children with less advantaged backgrounds, but only if their parents can advocate on their behalf to get them into college preparatory tracks.

The research on teacher quality demonstrates that:
a. it is difficult to identify characteristics that will make effective teachers because these characteristics are hard to quantify.
b. teachers with higher levels of education and degrees from more competitive colleges are more effective classroom leaders.
c. experience, measured by years in the classroom, is a key predictor of teachers’ effectiveness.
d. teachers are most effective when they are teaching a standardized curriculum.

it is difficult to identify characteristics that will make effective teachers because these characteristics are hard to quantify

All of the following are among the best practices for effective teaching listed by Langlois and Zales EXCEPT:
a. minimizing class time devoted to noninstructional activities.
b. maintaining a fixed routine.
c. adopting strategies to encourage students to share compliments and insults.
d. having clear expectations for acceptable behavior and consistent penalties for rule violations.

adopting strategies to encourage students to share compliments and insults

In 2008, approximately what percentage of American adults over age 25 had a college degree?
a. 13%
b. 29%
c. 41%
d. 64%

29%

One of the problems with credentialism is that more and more students (with their parents’ help) are attempting to attend private schools at higher rates or to be placed in the best tracks in their public school. This may be one of the reasons:
a. more and more employers are not askng for educational accomplishments at job interviews.
b. that parents are even attempting to have their children be accepted at the "right" day care, sometimes even before they are born.
c. fewer and fewer boys are graduating from college.
d. fewer people are able to perform their actual jobs.

that parents are even attempting to have their children be accepted at the "right" day care, sometimes even before they are born

Marilee Jones, former dean of admissions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), resigned from her position in April 2007 after it came to light that she had fabricated her academic record and claimed to have academic degrees she did not have. While this is an extreme case, it illustrates the overemphasis on qualifications such as college degrees in order to be hired for a job. This is known as:
a. credentialism.
b. overeducation.
c. educationalism.
d. the college bias.

credentialism

As more people obtain college degrees and it becomes unreasonable for students to stay in school for most of their young adulthood, what is one consequence?
a. People will begin to seek more on-the-job training, but an unintended consequence will be that only some people will be able to afford to take unpaid internships.
b. Students will begin to earn more dual majors while they are in college.
c. People will seek to differentiate themselves not only by having a degree, but also by earning degrees from the most selective and prestigious colleges and universities.
d. People will eventually give up trying to compete for jobs that require credentials of higher education, and shortages of workers will result.

People will seek to differentiate themselves not only by having a degree, but also by earning degrees from the most selective and prestigious colleges and universities.

Which of the following is a functionalist explanation for the increased number of Americans with college degrees throughout the course of the twentieth century?
a. Competition for scarce jobs requires that Americans become overqualified for the jobs they want.
b. Americans need to become more educated to remain competitive with workers from other countries where students outperform Americans in math and science.
c. More education increases the amount of trust individuals have in others and how much they will participate in their communities.
d. Jobs have become more skilled and technologically advanced, and a more educated workforce is necessary to fill these jobs.

Jobs have become more skilled and technologically advanced, and a more educated workforce is necessary to fill these jobs.

According to functionalist theories of education, which of the following would NOT be a function of the American education system?
a. socialization to the norms of dominant American culture
b. sorting students into adult social roles through granting certain credentials
c. indoctrination into capitalist ideology
d. custodial care for children of working parents

indoctrination into capitalist ideology

Which of the following is most likely to be a conflict perspective argument about why education levels have continually risen in the United States over the course of the last century?
a. Competition for scarce jobs requires that Americans become overqualified for the jobs they want.
b. As education became more common for all people, social elites needed to obtain more education in order to set themselves apart from others.
c. A result of industrialization is that jobs have become more and more skilled, and a more educated workforce is required to fill these positions.
d. More education increases the amount of trust people have in others, and this tends to reduce social conflicts.

As education became more common for all people, social elites needed to obtain more education in order to set themselves apart from others.

Which of the following is NOT an argument that would be made by a conflict theorist?
a. At all levels, the system of education in America produces inequality.
b. During elementary school, children are socialized to skills that will help them become adults who will be obedient workers.
c. Contrary to the American ideology, schools are not meritocratic places.
d. Schools are the one place where all children, despite their family background, can move up in the world.

Schools are the one place where all children, despite their family background, can move up in the world.

What was the nature of the scandal surrounding the SAT Reasoning Test in the spring of 2006?
a. The College Board admitted that there was a scoring error that incorrectly scored more than 4,000 tests, with the errors tending to underestimate scores.
b. The College Board admitted that there was a scoring error that incorrectly scored all of the tests taken in October 2005, and that those scores were overestimated by 10 to 25%.
c. The College Board announced that new research showed that the SAT does not accurately predict college outcomes.
d. The College Board announced that one’s high school grade point average (GPA) is a stronger predictor of college GPA in the first year than is the SAT.

The College Board admitted there is a scoring error that incorrectly scored more than 4000 tests, with the errors tending to underestimate scores.

Which of the following is NOT mentioned in your text as a criticism of using the SAT as a college admissions criterion?
a. Most of the time, college admissions officers would make the same admissions decisions using information only from students’ high school records; furthermore, low SAT scores might disqualify from admission students who are otherwise academically talented.
b. The SAT does a good job of predicting college performance for white students only; it does not, however, predict college success among black or Hispanic students.
c. The SAT does not predict college success well for older students who have been out of high school for some time; admission criteria need to be adjusted for adult students.
d. Scores on the SAT are consistently correlated with ethnicity, race, and social class; therefore, the SAT might be biased toward certain groups of students.

The SAT does not predict college success well for older students who have been out of high school for some time; admission criteria need to be adjusted for adult students.

The SAT was developed in order to provide children from public schools with a chance to demonstrate their fitness for college and to show they were as able as students from private high schools. It is therefore ironic that:
a. researchers now question how meritocratic the SAT is, because the SAT may test knowledge that is biased against certain groups.
b. elite colleges and universities are increasingly deciding to not base admissions decisions on the SAT.
c. students from private schools still score higher on the SAT.
d. students from public schools are less likely to take the SAT than are students from private schools.

researchers now question how meritocratic the SAT is, because the SAT may test knowledge that is biased against certain groups

When studies control for family background characteristics, the SAT:
a. becomes highly predictive of college success.
b. predicts college graduation rates.
c. no longer predicts college grades very well.
d. all of the above.

no longer predicts college grades very well

What might be a reason that upper-status students score higher on SATs?
a. Their IQs are higher.
b. They are less likely to actually take the test multiple times.
c. They are all white.
d. Their parents are better able to obtain help for them, as in SAT prep courses and extra tutoring if they are doing poorly in school.

Their parents are better able to obtain help for them, as in SAT prep courses and extra tutoring if they are doing poorly in school.

Affirmative action practices refer to:
a. policies that promote to higher grades students who have not completed the academic requirements needed to pass to the next grade level.
b. policies that guarantee college admission to black and Hispanic applicants.
c. policies that encourage minority recruitment on college campuses.
d. policies that grant preferential treatment to subgroups within a population.

policies that grant preferential treatment to subgroups within a population

Espenshade, Chung, and Walling (2004) studied admission to elite colleges and found that group A was four times more likely to gain admission, and group B was three times more likely to be admitted. Group A and B are, respectively:
a. black and female students.
b. Latino students and athletes.
c. athletes and legacy students.
d. black and Latino students.

athletes and legacy students

Which of the following statements is true with regard to preferential admissions to colleges and universities?
a. In the past 15 years, admissions preference for athletes has risen steadily, surpassing that of minority students.
b. In the past 15 years, affirmative action programs have taken spots away from white students at elite colleges and universities.
c. In the past 15 years, preferential admissions for minority students have taken spots away from white students at the least selective colleges and universities only, but not at elite universities.
d. In the past 15 years, affirmative action programs have not significantly increased diversity on college and university campuses.

In the past 15 years, admissions preference for athletes has risen steadily, surpassing that of minority students.

Which of the following statements is false?
a. Admissions decisions to colleges and universities include preferential treatment for race, ethnicity, gender, and other characteristics such as unusual backgrounds, leadership experiences, or having grown up in a rural area.
b. Affirmative action programs at colleges and universities are designed to provide opportunities to historically underrepresented groups and to increase diversity on campuses.
c. Abolishing affirmative action programs would significantly increase white students’ chances of gaining admission to elite schools.
d. When black and Hispanic students attend more selective colleges and universities, they have a greater chance of graduating.

Abolishing affirmative action programs would significantly increase white students’ chances of gaining admission to elite schools.

If affirmative action programs were eliminated, which group would be most likely to see an increase in chances of admission to elite colleges and universities?
a. black students
b. female students
c. Hispanic students
d. Asian students

Asian students

According to Espenshade and Chung (2005), eliminating affirmative action programs would do which of the following?
a. sharply lower the number of legacy admissions at elite colleges and universities
b. decrease black and Hispanic admission acceptance rates by one-half to two-thirds
c. increase by one-third the number of women admitted to elite universities
d. not change the percentage of minority students at elite colleges and universities

decrease black and Hispanic admission acceptance rates by one-half to two-thirds

Which of the following is NOT a sociological criticism of the idea that IQ affects educational outcomes?
a. Standardized IQ tests
measure only one kind of intelligence, and other types might be related to educational success.
b. IQ tests are culturally biased against some groups.
c. If there is a relationship between innate intelligence and educational performance, then there is no need to look at social factors.
d. There is great difficulty in measuring innate intelligence, independent of social forces that might affect cognitive development.

If there is a relationship between innate intelligence and educational performance, then there is no need to look at social factors.

Which of the following is NOT an element of socioeconomic status?
a. educational attainment
b. racial background
c. occupational prestige
d. income

racial background

With regard to race and high school graduation rates, which of the following is correct?
a. In 2007, about 95% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from high school compared to nearly 100% of whites in the same age range.
b. In 2007, about 82% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from high school compared to about 86% of whites in the same age range.
c. In 2007, about 18% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from high school compared to about 86% of whites in the same age range.
d. In 2007, about 28% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from high school compared to 45% of whites in the same age range.

In 2007, about 82% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from high school compared to about 86% of whites in the same age range.

With regard to race and college degree completion, which of the following is correct?
a. In 2007, about 86% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from college as opposed to about 28% of whites in the same age range.
b. In 2007, about 81% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from college as opposed to about 86% of whites in the same age range.
c. In 2007, about 18% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from college as opposed to about 29% of whites in the same age range.
d. In 2007, about 28% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from college as opposed to about 18% of whites in the same age range.

In 2007, about 18% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from college as opposed to about 29% of whites in the same age range.

With regard to research on the effects of race and social class on education outcomes, which of the following is true?
a. White students appear to do better than minority students until social class characteristics are controlled for; then white students have lower educational achievements than minority students.
b. When social class characteristics are controlled for, the same gaps in tests scores between black and white students remain; black students are still less likely to graduate from high school; and black students are more likely to be held back a grade.
c. White students do better than Asian American, Hispanic, and black students when social class characteristics are taken into account.
d. When social class characteristics are controlled for, test score gaps between black and white students shrink, black students have a higher high school graduation rate, and black students are less likely to be held back a grade.

When social class characteristics are controlled for, test score gaps between black and white students shrink, black students have a higher high school graduation rate, and black students are less likely to be held back a grade.

Which of the following examples would NOT be supported by the research findings on the influence of home characteristics on education?
a. During the summer, children from higher socioeconomic status backgrounds make educational gains, while children from lower socioeconomic status families experience greater summer setbacks.
b. The activities of summer camps, community programs, and home environments are not important factors in the academic achievements of higher social class children who are performing well during the school year.
c. Activities and summer programs for low-income children could help reduce some of the summer setbacks in achievement they experience.
d. Many of the differences in black-white educational achievement gaps can be explained by social class differences rather than racial differences.

During the summer, children from higher socioeconomic status backgrounds make educational gains, while children from lower socioeconomic status families experience greater summer setbacks.

Suzanne and Jessica are best friends. Both have been in the same classes throughout elementary school, and have performed similarly with respect to grades. Suzanne’s dad owns his own company, and her mom is a lawyer. Jessica’s dad is a plumber, and her mom works at Walmart. All other things being equal, which is a true statement?
a. Suzanne is more likely than Jessica to stay in school longer, score higher on cognitive tests, and be placed in college preparatory classes in high school.
b. Suzanne and Jessica are both equally likely to graduate from high school, go to college, and score the same on cognitive tests.
c. Suzanne is more likely to stay in school longer, but both girls are equally likely to be placed in college preparatory tracks in high school.
d. There is not enough information here to determine which statement is true.

Suzanne is more likely than Jessica to stay in school longer, score higher on cognitive tests, and be placed in college preparatory classes in high school.

Cultural capital refers to:
a. a regional center of arts, music, and entertainment.
b. the personal investments people can make to become more bankable and productive.
c. the benefits people derive from being in networks with other people.
d. social-class-based skills and resources that people inherit and can use to their advantage.

social-class based skills and resources that people inherit and can use to their advantage

According to Bourdieu, the three types of cultural capital are:
a. social, human, and cultural.
b. embodied, objectified, and institutional.
c. race, class, and gender.
d. innate, learned, and social.

embodied, objectified, and institutional

Which of the following illustrates the concept of cultural capital?
a. Mark, a 23-year-old welder, returns to school, completes several degrees, and eventually becomes a college professor. His sister, Jane, does not attend college and works in a retail position.
b. Chantal, a high school senior, is able to spend the summer working as a nanny for a wealthy family on Cape Cod because her mother also worked for the family. Her friends, however, remain in their hometown for the summer.
c. Joshua and Sam have both earned bachelor’s degrees from a local university and are now interviewing for the same job. When Joshua goes into the job interview, he is able to discuss art, architecture, and travel experiences he had while growing up. Sam has not had these same experiences and is not able to have the same kind of conversations with the interviewers.
d. Cesar is one of only a few Hispanic students in his high school. He does not spend time with other Hispanic students, preferring to join teams with all white students.

C

The embodied cultural capital that parents have may work with institutional cultural capital. Which of the following illustrates this?
a. If a parent has confidence in social settings, he or she may be better able to advocate for children in front of the school board or at parent-teacher meetings.
b. A parent may have more money to be able to send his or her child to private tutorials, and the child may then earn higher test scores.
c. A parent has a higher level of education and is therefore able to talk to principals and school administrators as a peer.
d. If a parent does not have time to volunteer in school, teachers may think that he or she does not care about the child.

If a parent has confidence in social settings, he or she may be better able to advocate for children in front of the school board or at parent-teacher meetings.

One of the major reasons that lower-status parents use more directives and teach their children to be more obedient than inquisitive is that:
a. they aren’t sure who all their children are.
b. they tend to have jobs that require them to be obedient and they want their children to learn this.
c. they don’t have as much patience with child rearing.
d. they don’t have the desire to be parents.

they tend to have jobs that require them to be obedient and they want their children to learn this

One of the major reasons Native Americans were placed in boarding schools for 60 years was:
a. to protect them from war.
b. to socialize them to become "civilized" Americans.
c. because Native American parents were extremely physically abusive.
d. because their parents no longer wanted them after they were assimilated into "American" culture.

to socialize them to become "civilized" Americans

Bill Cosby is concerned with black underachievement in the American school system. He suggests that:
a. more African American parents actually parent.
b. African American children begin school earlier, around the age of three.
c. white students need to tutor African American students in after-school programs.
d. white people adopt African American children into their homes to properly socialize them.

more African American parents actually parent

Which of the following scenarios illustrates "stereotype threat"?
a. Lesley, a Jewish high school senior, has applied to a number of colleges and universities including two well-known Christian universities. She is concerned that she will be defined by her Jewish identity if she attends a university with a large Jewish student body.
b. Antoine, a black student at Yale University, is nervous about taking the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). He fears that if his score is low, he will confirm negative perceptions about the intelligence of black men. His fear then affects his performance, and he scores lower on the actual test than he did on practice tests.
c. Jack, a white student seeking admission to Harvard, is concerned that he will not be admitted to the university, despite his high class rank and SAT scores. He thinks that he will be passed up by the admissions committee in favor of a student from a minority background.
d. Lee-Ann, a young black woman, decides not to apply to college despite her strong performance in college preparatory classes and good SAT scores. Her family cannot afford the tuition at a historical black university, and she is sure that at a university that does not have a large minority student body, she will be treated unfairly because of her race.

B

What is stereotype threat?
a. This is a psychological process whereby members of a negatively stereotyped group become determined to challenge the accuracy of the stereotype.
b. This is a social process in which the behaviors of members of a negatively stereotyped group are controlled by the fear that they will be exposed as belonging to the stereotyped group.
c. This is a psychological process of fear that develops when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they may confirm the stereotype.
d. This is a social process where members of a positively advantaged group actively challenge negative stereotypes of other groups.

This is a psychological process of fear that develops when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they may confirm the stereotype.

With regard to biological or genetic differences between people, sociologists have found that:
a. differences in IQ tests between minorities and nonminorities likely result from genetic differences between groups.
b. stigmatized minorities in all countries have lower IQ scores, lower educational attainment, and lower occupational status, indicating that these minorities are biologically less able to succeed.
c. stigmatized minorities in all countries have lower IQ scores, lower educational attainment, and lower occupational status, indicating that social processes of stratification and stigmatization affect the life chances of these groups.
d. differences in educational attainment between minorities and nonminorities are due to a combination of genetics and negative stereotyping.

C

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. The Maori of New Zealand have lower education qualification levels than other New Zealanders.
b. Maoris have lower educational attainment and IQ scores than non-Maori New Zealanders.
c. The Burakumin of Japan have a history of discrimination, but have similar education achievements as non-Buraku Japanese.
d. When Buraku children attend schools in the United States, they perform as well as non-Buraku Japanese children.

The Burakumin of Japan have a history of discrimination, but have similar education achievements as non-Buraku Japanese.

Contrary to popular belief:
a. girls and boys score about the same in national math tests.
b. boys are stronger readers than girls.
c. boys attend college in greater numbers than girls.
d. women and men with equal educational levels earn the same amount of money.

girls and boys score about the same in national math tests

In 2006, women earned ____________ % of bachelor’s degrees, and ____________ % of master’s degrees.
a. 70; 24
b. 15; 4
c. 58; 61
d. 78; 86

58; 61

Boys are more likely to engage in risky behaviors and experience problems at school; boys are also more likely to ____________ than girls. a. take math and science AP classes, and score higher
b. take foreign language AP tests, but score lower
c. take foreign language AP tests, and score higher
d. score higher on AP math and science tests, but lower on SAT math and science tests

take math and science AP classes, and score higher

Which of the following trends in current educational achievement is NOT supported by research evidence?
a. Only girls from homes where their parents are college-educated achieve as much as boys.
b. Girls from all backgrounds have started to perform well since the 1960s.
c. The boy-girl educational gap has a limited effect on middle- and upper-class children.
d. Boys from single-parent homes perform less well in school.

Only girls from homes where their parents are college-educated achieve as much as boys.

Which of the following is a factor affecting the strong academic performance of Asian Americans?
a. Asian Americans are biologically and genetically smarter than whites.
b. All Asian American groups are more socioeconomically advantaged, therefore social class does not work against these groups.
c. Asian Americans have not faced a history of discrimination and prejudice.
d. There is a high degree of social capital in Asian American communities, and the community reinforces norms regarding education and parenting.

There is a high degree of social capital in Asian American communities, and the community reinforces norms regarding education and parenting.

In part because of their educational success, which group has been called the "model minority" in America?
a. African Americans
b. Hispanics of Cuban descent
c. Hispanics of Puerto Rican descent
d. Asian Americans

Asian Americans

Research has shown that the ____________ the family, the ____________ the children’s achievement on test scores and grades.
a. smaller; lower
b. larger; lower
c. larger; higher
d. None of the above; family size has no effect on children’s educational achievement.

larger; lower

With regard to the effects of families on children’s educational outcomes, which of the following is true?
a. Few studies show that birth order significantly affects children’s educational attainment.
b. Children born later in a family are less likely to receive parental financial support for college because parents have exhausted their resources on the older children.
c. When a family goes from two to three children, middle children are significantly more affected by the loss of family resources.
d. Only children are an at-risk group when it comes to educational attainment.

When a family goes from two to three children, middle children are significantly more affected by the loss of family resources.

A prominent hypothesis about the effect of family size on children’s educational outcomes is the:
a. negative social learning model.
b. positive social learning model.
c. resource dilution model.
d. resource enhancement model.

resource dilution model

Which of the following scenarios does NOT illustrate the resource dilution hypothesis?
a. Peter and Dorothy have five children. They will not be able to spend equal time with all of their children each day.
b. Lukas is an only child. He does not need to compete for his parents’ time and financial resources.
c. Misha, Nisha, and Trisha are triplets. Their educational outcomes will be stronger than single-born children because they can learn from one another.
d. Jeannie had her first child five years before her second. She was able to stay home with her infant daughter when her older daughter started kindergarten.

C

What is the relationship between birth weight and education?
a. Siblings who weighed less at birth exhibit lower educational attainment than their heavier siblings.
b. Children who are born heavier are more likely to be bullied in school.
c. Low-birth-weight children tend to exhibit signs of attention problems but only through preschool age.
d. Lower birth weight predicts fewer missed days of school due to health complications.

Siblings who weighed less at birth exhibit lower educational attainment than their heavier siblings.

Which of the following is an argument in favor of school vouchers?
a. If parents cannot pay for their children to go to private schools, the state should pay.
b. Competition for spots at the best school would be given to students who are not educationally prepared. c. If schools competed for students, the quality of education would suffer.
d. In order for schooling to be equal for all children, parents should be able to decide where their children go, regardless of their ability to pay.

In order for schooling to be equal for all children, parents should be able to decide where their children go, regardless of their ability to pay.

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