Chapter 13

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Since schoolchildren judge their own talents and limitations more realistically than preschoolers,

their self-esteem may suffer as they compare themselves with others

Since Carter’s mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, Carter is often neglected, but he has a supportive group of friends. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping Carter to maintain his positive attitude?

his circle of friends

Children’s "increasing ability to regulate themselves, to take responsibility, and to exercise self-control" contributes to their


Andrea is a typical 11-year-old whose growing self-consciousness and self-criticism drive her to frequently compare herself with her peers. If Andrea is like most children, such comparisons will

decrease her self-esteem

Nine-year-old Alisha announces to her mother, "I am smart, nice, and friendly and I am so good at painting that one day I am going to sell lots of pictures." Alisha is demonstrating


Alisha’s family is experiencing multiple problems, including her mother’s illness, her father’s loss of employment, and two relatives moving into their home. Despite the stress of home life, Alisha does attend weekly church and feels welcomed by the congregation. Overall, Alisha seems to be doing fairly well despite her home life. Alisha may be

using religion as a source of support

John has repeatedly been calling Joe names. John also teases him about his haircut and his clothes. The type of bullying that John is displaying is


Compared with single-parent homes, two-parent homes usually have

higher income

The best example of an aggressive-rejected child is

Veru, who is disliked because she tells others they are stupid

The ability to regulate one’s emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination, is referred to as

effortful control

Which scenario is typical of the industry versus inferiority stage

Rudy is having difficulty in learning math, but he continues to practice.

Bullying differs from ordinary aggression because bullying attacks are


When children act as parents and try to take care of everyone, it is called


What is a hallmark of close friendships during middle childhood

same age

Jenny is always friendly. When someone tells her a secret she does not tell other friends. She also is helpful and cooperates with others to get class projects done. Other students like working with Jenny. Jenny could be defined as a _____ child


What factors generally determine whether a child is well liked by his or her peers

culture and cohort

There are many approaches to addressing the issue of bullying. Research indicates the one effective approach is

changing the school culture as a whole

Who is MOST likely to experience few psychological problems during middle childhood

Alberto, who is being raised by his biological mother and father

The kind of bully who is the most strongly disliked by peers is called a


According to the text, what method has been effective in stopping bullying in schools?

using a whole-school strategy

Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. According to Erikson, Barbara is developing a healthy sense of _____ through these tasks


Marissa and Jessica, sisters born two years apart, grew up in an impoverished, violent neighborhood. As adults, Marissa is chronically jobless and is addicted to drugs while Jessica is a professor of economics at a community college. What might explain their different life outcomes

differential sensitivity

Joshua and Jeanette are brother and sister who live with their biological parents. They live in a(n)

nuclear family

Academic and social competence are aided by realistic self-perception. Unrealistically high self-esteem _____ effortful control, which leads to _____ academic achievement

reduces; lower

Dimitri has been married before and has two biological children. He has just married Natasha, who has also been married before and has a biological son. Their family is an example of a

stepparent family

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