Chapter 12- Water and Major Minerals

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What are the major minerals in the body? What is the most abundant mineral in the body?

Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorous, Calcium(the most abundant), magnesium, chloride

What factors influence bioavailability of minerals?

status of nutritional valus binders (oxalate, phytates) low food stores

Describe how mineral salts dissociate in water?

Salts dissolve in water and dissociate into ions, both positive and negative ions.

What are ions? What are cations and anions? If a mineral ion has a positive charge of 1, how many protons versus electrons does it have?

ions: atoms/ molecules that have gained or lost electrons and have electrical charges cations: positively charged ions anions : negatively charged ions Positive charge of 1 = cation, one more

What minerals are involved with growth and maintenance of bone.

phosphorous, calcium, and magnesium

List the functions of sodium in the body.

maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balancem assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction

How is sodium involved in fluid balance? Where is most of the sodium located in fluid compartments of the body?

when blood sodium rises, thirst signals the person to drink until the appropriate sodium to water concentration is restored

Describe the mechanisms used to correct dehydration in the body. In your description explain how the body detects dehydration and tries to conserve and increase fluid intake.

if sodium drops, both sodium and water must be replenished and can be replaced through ordinary foods

From what sources do we obtain water in our diets? How much water should we drink each day?

8-12 cups (2-3 liters), most fruits and veggies, not all fruits, many meats and cheeses, not all beverages, water is also produced as an end product of condensation reactions and during the oxidation of energy yielding nutrients

Under what conditions do individuals experience sodium deficiency? Describe symptoms of sodium deficiency.

vomiting, diarrhea, heavy sweating -symptoms: muscle cramps, mental apathy, loss of appetite

What kinds of foods supply most of the sodium in our diets?

PROCESSED FOODS, table salt, soy sauce, meats, milks, breads, veggies

Compare the average daily intake of sodium to the tolerable upper limit of sodium. Discuss ways to decrease the level of sodium in the diet?

Upper level: 2300 mg/day AI 19-50 yrs: 1500 mg/day AI 51-70 yrs: 1300 mg/day AI >70 yrs: 1200 mg/day

How does high intake of sodium affect blood pressure and bone health?

may contribute to high blood pressure, excess salt results in a loss of calcium therefore diminishing bone health

Under what conditions do individuals experience sodium toxicity? Describe symptoms of sodium toxicity.

Symptoms: edema, acute hypertension AS A RESULT OF PROLONGED EXCESSIVE SODIUM INTAKE

List the functions of potassium in the body.

maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance, facilitates many reactions, supports cell integrity, assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions

Where is most of the potassium located in the fluid compartments of the body?
How do potassium and sodium interact in muscle contraction and nerve transmission?
How does potassium affect blood pressure and bone health?
List food sources of potassium. Why do potassium levels decrease in foods that are processed with sodium?

inside the body cells; low amounts of potassium and high amounts of sodium raise blood pressure and increase the risk of death from heart disease; potassium alone appears to reduce risk of stroke -sources: all whole foods> meats, milks, fruits, veggies, grains, legumes -K+ and Na+ trade places across the cell membrane

Under what conditions do individuals experience potassium deficiency? Describe symptoms of potassium deficiency.

Symptoms: irregular heartbeats, muscle weakness, glucose intolerance -increase in blood pressure, salt sensitive, kidney stones, and bone turnover

Under what conditions do individuals experience potassium toxicity? Describe symptoms of potassium toxicity

Over consumption of supplements or potassium salts and from certain diseases or treatments Symptoms: muscular weakness, vomiting, if given into a vein, can stop the heart

Describe the functions of calcium in the body?

mineralization of bones and teeth, also involved in muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure

Where is most of the calcium in the body found?


Why is calcium in the blood strictly regulated within narrow limits? Describe how the body maintains calcium levels in the blood. (Include in your description the roles of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D)

-too much can have negative side effects such as kidney stones -calcium rigor: muscles contract and cannot relax -calcium tetany: below normal levels of calcium and causes uncontrolled muscle contraction -stomach acid keeps calcium soluble, and Vitamin D helps to make the calcium-binding protein (in intestinal cells) needed for absorption

List factors that increase calcium absorption. List factors that decrease calcium absorption.

increase absorption: soluble decrease absorption:

List food sources of calcium.

Milk and milk products like yogurt and cheese

Describe bone remodeling during growth, adulthood and old age. What are osteoblasts and osteoclasts?

Describe the effect of menopause on bone loss in women.

What effect does life long inadequate intake of calcium have on the body? Does dietary calcium influence blood calcium?

Describe osteoporosis and its cause. What risk factors are associated with developing osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis: a disease in which the bones become porous and fragile due to a loss of minerals; also called adult bone loss Cause: Aging Risk Factors: Aging Lifelong inadequate intake of Calcium Early menopause Vitamin D deficiency Genetics/race Low body weight Smoking; Alcohol abuse Lack of physical activity

How can an aging individual maintain his/her bone density with lifestyle?

Weight bearing exercise like jogging

What are the benefits and pitfalls of calcium supplementation?

Benefits: Supplies calcium to lactose intolerant, vegans, and people with milk allergies Pitfalls: Supplements may contain heavy metals Risk of high intake

How should one supplement with calcium to assure maximum absorption?

Low dosages of calcium and in between meals is best for maximum absorption

What are the functions of magnesium and phosphorus in the body?

P-mineralization of bones + teeth, energy metabolism, acid-base balance M-bone health, enzyme actions, nerve impulse transmission

List food sources for magnesium and phosphorus.

P- All animal tissue M- Nuts, legumes, whole grains, dark greens, cocoa

Under what conditions can one experience a deficiency of magnesium or phosphorus?

P-very unlikely M-During alcohol abuse

Under what conditions can one experience a toxicity of magnesium? What are toxicity symptoms of magnesium?

P-no toxicity, M- Rare but Fatal, cause by supplements not diet.

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