Chapter 12 – The Congress

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For every dollar an American citizen earns, the US government takes _____ and decides how to spend it

28 cents

One way for citizens to kkeep a watch on what Congress is doing is by reading _____ , the official source of information on everything that has happened in Congress

The Congressional Record

The people that a legislator spends considerable time and effort serving are called


The founders of the American republic believed that most of the power that would be exercised by a national government should be in the hands of

the legislature

The logic of separate constituencies and separate interests underlying the bicameral Congress was reinforced by

differences in length of tenure

The principal and most obvious function of any legislature is


The concept of logrolling refers to

an arrangement by which two or more members of Congress agree in advance to support each other’s bills

A representative who is performing the role of a trustee is

Acting on conscience or representing the broad interests of the entire society

A representative who acts on conscience or to represent the broad interests of teh entire society is acting as a


A representative who is performing the role of an instructed delegate is

primarily representing the wishes of his or her constituents

A representative who primarily represents the wishes of his or her constituents is acting as a

instructed delegate

One major problem with the role of the instructed delegate is that

the constituents may not actually have well-formed views on many issues

Casework is

constituent service

When gasoline prices increased to more than $3 a gallon in 2006

in private, members of congress acknowledged that their actions would have little effect on gasoline prices but wanted to show their constituents that they were doing something about a problem

Incumbents develop a hillstyle in order to

promote policies and their career aspirations

Oversight is the process by which Congress

follows up on the laws it has enacted

When Congress follows up on the laws it has enacted, it is exercising


The House of Representatives is checked by all except

the states

The enumerated powers of Congress are powers

expressly given to the body in the Constitution

After the Supreme Court underwent extraordinary change in 2005, George W. Bush nominated, and teh Senate confirmed, the nominaitons of _____ to become the newest members of the Court

John Robers and Samuel Alito

The necessary and propwer clause

has expanded the role of the national government relative to the states

One major difference between the House and Senate is the total number of members, a difference that has meant

a greater number of formal rules are needed to govern activity in the House

An attempt in teh Senate to prevent the passage of a bill through the use of unlimited debate is known as

a filibuster

A filibuster is

an attempt to prevent the passage of a bill through the use of unlimted debate

The concept of cloture refers to

a process that attempts to limit debate on a bill in the Senate

When Senate Democrats made use of the filibuster to block some of President Bush’s nominees to the federal bench in 2005, Senate Republicans responded by threatening "the nuclear option, in which

the Senate rules would be revised to disallow dilibusters against judicial nominees

The largest occupational group among members of Congress is


The median age of members of Congress is

higher than the median age of the US population

Most major-party condiddates for Congress are placed on the general-election ballot as the result of

a direct primary

Incombents develop a homestyle in order to

produce a favorable image with constituents

In mid-term congressional elections, those held between presidential contests

voter turnout falls sharply

Common tactics of winning reelection include all except

changing one’s political party

The allocation of seats in the House to each state after each census is known as


Reapportionment is

the allocation seats in teh House to each state after each census

Redistricing is

the redrawing district boudaries within each state to ensure equal district populations

Gerrymandering is

the drawing of legislative district boundariws for the purpose of gaining partisan advantage

Although the Supreme Court has been willing to review the constitutionality of redistricting plans, its most recent decisions have upheld redistricting plans in

Pennsylvania and Texas

Members of Congress are granted generout franking privileges that

permit them to mail letters to their constituents without charge

the average Senate office on Capitol Hill employes about

30 people

The "speech or debate" clause in Article I, Section6, of the Constitution means that a member of Congress

is normally immune from libel or slander charges when conducting official duties

the most important committees in Congress are _____ committees, permanent bodies that possess an expertise resulting from their jurisdiction over certain policy areas


Most of the actual work of ligistating is

performed by the committees and subcommittees within Congress

In the House of Representatives, the dischage petition is used to

force a bill out of committee so that the entire House can vote on it

the seniority system provedes that

the committee member of the majority party with the longest continuous service normally becomes the committee chairperson

The foremost pwer holder in the House of Representatives is the

Speaker of the House

The Speaker of the House

Is the leader of the majority party

The House majority leader

fosters cohesion among party members

An important function of the House majority leader is to

act as spokesperson for the majority party in the House

The whips assist the party leaders by

passing information to members of Congress from the leadership of the party

The president of the Senate is

the vice-president of the United States

Generally, leaders in the House of Representatives

have more control over the agenda of the body than leaders in the Senate

The real leadership power in the Senate rests in the hands of the

Senate majority leader

Democratic members of Congress from moderate districts who sometimes vote with Republicans and who are frequently pursued by Republican leaders are known as

Blue Dog Democrats

When a member "trades" his or her vote on a particular bill with another member in exchange for their votes on other legislation, it is known as


Logrolling is when a

member "trades" his or her vote on a particular bill with another member in exchange for their votes on other legislation

A member’s request for a special appropriation for projects back home that are attached to a bill to gain votes is known as


An earmark is

a member’s request for a special appropriation that is attached to a bill to gain votes

When a senator says, " One man’s pork is another man’s job" that senator is probably referring to a


Most people who study the decision-making process in Congress agree that the single best predictor for how a member will vote is his or her

party affiliation

The conservative coalition

is weakened because most southern conservative congresspersons are now republican

According to the cue-taking model

members of congress make decisions by checking how key colleagues intend to vote on a bill

"Money bills"

must originate in the House

After a bill has been introduced and referred to a committee

the committee may hold hearings to explore the merits of the bill

After being reported by a committee byt before being sent to the House floor, bills are given to the _____ committee, which defines the conditions under which the bills are to be considered by teh House


The job of a conference committee is to

reconcile House and Senate versions of a bill

The Budget and impoundment Control Act of 1974 requires

the president to spend the funds that congress has appropriated

One of the most powerful agencies in Washington, the _____ assists in the preparation of the federal budget and monitors federal agencies throughtout the year

Office of management and budget

The actual passage of a bill setting the funds that an agency can spend is called a


A temporary law that Congress passes when an appropriations bill has not been decided by the beginning of the fiscal year is

a continuing resolution

The US Congress differs from most other world legislatures except in the following way

it is hopelessly deadlocked

When a political party wins a majority of seats in a parliamentary system, that party

selects the prime minister, who is also the party leader

Incumbents running for reelection are successful approximately _____ percent of the time


If nonpartisan panels drew congressional destricts, it is likely that

there would be an increase in the spending on television and internet ads

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