Chapter 12 - Systems Analysis and Design

"A collection of activities and elements organized to accomplish a goal.
A) Information
B) Data
C) Program
D) System"

System

"In this phase of the systems life cycle, the new information system is installed, and people are trained to use it.
A) Systems Implementation
B) Systems Analysis
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Development"

Systems Implementation

"In this phase of the systems life cycle, new or alternative information systems are designed.
A) Systems Maintenance
B) Systems Analysis
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Development"

Systems Design

"This individual studies an organization's systems to determine what actions to take and how to use computer technology to assist them.
A) Network Administrator
B) Cryptographer
C) Systems Analyst
D) Computer Engineer"

Systems Analyst

"In the preliminary investigation phase of the systems life cycle, which one of the following tasks would not be included?
A) Briefly defining the problem
B) Suggesting alternative solutions
C) Gathering the data
D) Preparing a short report"

Gathering the data

"In order to obtain financing to continue to Phase 2: Systems Analysis, the systems analyst does this.
A) Prepares a preliminary investigation report
B) Gathers data
C) Analyzes data
D) Trains users on the new system"

Prepares a preliminary investigation report

"Gathering and analyzing data is part of this phase.
A) Preliminary Investigation
B) Systems Analysis
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Implementation"

Systems Analysis

"This shows the relationship between input and output documents.
A) Grid Chart
B) Checklist
C) Investigation Report
D) Top-Down Analysis Method"

Grid Chart

"Which of the following is used to identify the components of a complex system and makes each component easier to analyze and deal with?
A) System Flowchart
B) Top-Down Analysis Method
C) Grid Chart
D) Checklist"

Top-Down Analysis Method

"Which of the following tools presents data or information flow within an information system?
A) Grid Chart
B) Top-Down Analysis Method
C) Automated Design Tool
D) Data Flow Diagram"

Data Flow Diagram

"These tools, also called computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, are used in system analysis to evaluate alternative hardware and software solutions.
A) Project Management Tools
B) Automated Design Tools
C) Spreadsheets
D) Report Generators"

Automated Design Tools

"Which among the following would not be described in the systems analysis report?
A) The current information system
B) The requirements for a new system
C) The possible development schedule
D) The training requirements for users"

The training requirements for users

"This is the final task in Phase 3: Systems Design.
A) Select the best design
B) Design alternative systems
C) Write a systems design report
D) Examine hardware requirements"

Write a systems design report

"This is the first step in the systems design phase.
A) Examine hardware requirements
B) Design alternative systems
C) Select the best system
D) Analyze the data"

Design alternative systems

"In this activity, it is determined whether the system can be made secure against unauthorized use.
A) Analyzing the data
B) Writing the systems design report
C) Selecting the best system
D) Testing the system"

Selecting the best system

"This document presents the costs versus the benefits and outlines the effect of alternative designs on the organization.
A) Systems Analysis Report
B) Preliminary Investigation Report
C) Initialization Report
D) Systems Design Report"

Systems Design Report

"During which phase of the systems life cycle are users trained to use the new system?
A) Preliminary Investigation
B) Systems Implementation
C) Systems Development
D) Systems Maintenance"

Systems Implementation

"Selecting the ________ is the first step in implementing a new system.
A) Hardware Requirements
B) Software Requirements
C) Conversion Type
D) Best Alternative"

Conversion Type

"This conversion type is not recommended because problems arising in this approach could be catastrophic.
A) Direct Approach
B) Parallel Approach
C) Phased Approach
D) Pilot Approach"

Direct Approach

"This conversion approach is preferred when there are many people in an organization performing similar operations.
A) Direct Approach
B) Parallel Approach
C) Phased Approach
D) Pilot Approach"

Pilot Approach

"This is the final step of the systems implementation phase of the systems life cycle.
A) Develop documentation
B) Train users
C) Select the conversion type
D) Write the implementation report"

Train users

"Identify the sixth phase of the systems life cycle.
A) Systems Maintenance
B) Systems Development
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Analysis"

Systems Maintenance

"Which of the following phases of the systems life cycle is considered to be an ongoing activity?
A) Systems Development
B) Systems Analysis
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Maintenance"

Systems Maintenance

"This is performed to determine whether the new procedures are actually furthering productivity.
A) Testing
B) Systems Inventory
C) Designing Alternatives
D) Systems Audit"

Systems Audit

"This is the process of building a model that can be modified before the actual system is installed.
A) Rapid Applications Development
B) Prototyping
C) Systems Analysis
D) Systems Maintenance"

Prototyping

"A(n) ________ is a collection of hardware, software, people, procedures, and data.
A) Database
B) Record
C) Information System
D) Entity"

Information System

"New hardware and software are acquired, developed, and tested in the systems ________ stage of the systems life cycle.
A) Analysis
B) Design
C) Implementation
D) Development"

Development

"Systems analysis and design is a problem-solving procedure for examining and improving a(n) ________ system.
A) Information
B) Network
C) Implementation
D) Database"

Information

"An important aspect of the preliminary investigation phase is to ________.
A) Prepare a preliminary investigation report
B) Suggest alternative solutions
C) Analyze the Data
D) Gather the Data"

Suggest alternative solutions

"The ________ identifies the top-level components of a complex system.
A) Investigation Report
B) Grid Chart
C) Top-Down Analysis Method
D) Checklist"

Top-Down Analysis Method

"A(n) ________ shows the relationship between input and output documents.
A) Investigation Report
B) Checklist
C) Top-Down Analysis
D) Grid Chart"

Grid Chart

"System ________ show the flow of input data to processing and finally to output.
A) Flowcharts
B) Top-Down Analysis
C) Checklists
D) Grids"

Flowcharts

"________ show the data or information flow within an information system; the data is traced from its origin through processing, storage, and output.
A) Top-Down Analysis Methods
B) Data Flow Diagrams
C) System Flow Charts
D) Grid Charts"

Data Flow Diagrams

"The ________ report describes the current information system, the requirements for a new system, and a possible development schedule.
A) Top-Down Analysis
B) Data Flow
C) Systems Analysis
D) Components"

Systems Analysis

"The third phase in the systems life cycle is the systems ________ phase.
A) Implementation
B) Analysis
C) Maintenance
D) Design"

Design

"________ feasibility is evaluated to determine if the proposed system can actually be made to operate in the organization.
A) Operational
B) Technical
C) Top-down
D) Economic"

Operational

"Systems designers evaluate each alternative in the systems design phase for ________ by looking at economic, technical, and operational factors.
A) Accuracy
B) Feasibility
C) Currency
D) Organization"

Feasibility

"
38) When evaluating alternative systems, systems designers must consider economic feasibility, ________ feasibility, and operational feasibility.
A) Top-Down
B) Currency
C) Technical
D) Digital"

Technical

"The systems design report presents the ________.
A) Possible development schedule
B) Requirements for a new system
C) Description of the current system
D) Costs versus the benefits"

Costs versus the benefits

"________ of the system happens after the installation of software and hardware.
A) Testing
B) Design Analysis
C) Implementation
D) Management Studies"

Testing

"Another name for Phase 5: Systems Implementation is ________.
A) Feasibility
B) Conversion
C) Analysis
D) Development"

Conversion

"The ________ approach to systems implementation is considered the riskiest.
A) Phased
B) Parallel
C) Direct
D) Pilot"

Direct

"The ________ approach to systems implementation is used only in cases in which the cost of failure or of interrupted operation is great.
A) Phased
B) Direct
C) Pilot
D) Parallel"

Parallel

"In general, the pilot and ________ approaches are the most favored conversion approaches.
A) Phased
B) Analysis
C) Parallel
D) Direct"

Phased

"Most organizations spend more time and money on the systems ________ phase than on any of the other phases.
A) Design
B) Maintenance
C) Development
D) Analysis"

Maintenance

TRUE or FALSE:
A systems analyst uses the six-phase systems life cycle to improve and maintain information systems.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
A survey of user needs is part of the preliminary investigation phase.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
Data about how the present system works is collected during the preliminary investigation phase in order to determine the requirements of the new system.

"FALSE: Data about how the present system works is collected during the preliminary SYSTEMS ANALYSIS PHASE in order to determine the requirements of the new system."

TRUE or FALSE:
Gathering data and information in the systems analysis phase can be achieved through conducting interviews and studying documents.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
In the data analysis step, the idea is to learn how information currently flows and to pinpoint why it is not flowing properly.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
The top-down analysis method breaks components into smaller components to make each component easier to analyze and deal with.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
CASE stands for "computer-aided software engineering."

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
In the systems design phase of the systems life cycle, the systems design report usually concludes by recommending one of the analyzed alternatives.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
Hardware and software are normally acquired during the implementation phase of the systems life cycle.

"FALSE: Hardware and software are normally acquired during the DEVELOPMENT phase of the systems life cycle."

TRUE or FALSE:
In the testing step of the systems development phase, processed information is evaluated to see whether the results are correct.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
The organization can switch to the old system if the new system fails in the parallel conversion approach.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
Periodic evaluation is part of the systems maintenance phase of the systems life cycle.

TRUE

Name and briefly explain the six phases of system analysis and design.

"1) Preliminary Investigation: The organization's problems or needs are identified and summarized in a short report. 2) Systems Analysis: The present system is studied in depth. New requirements are specified and documented. 3) Systems Design: A new or alternative information system is designed and a design report created. 4) Systems Development: New hardware and software are acquired, developed, and tested. 5) Systems Implementation: Process of converting from old to new system and training people. The new information system is installed. 6) Systems Maintenance: In this ongoing phase, the system is periodically evaluated and updated as needed. "

How does a systems analyst gather the required data when he/she is defining a problem during the preliminary investigation phase?

Defining the problem means examining whatever current information system is in use. Determining what information is needed, by whom, when, and why is accomplished by interviewing and making observations.

What is the purpose of the systems analysis report during the systems analysis phase?

The systems analysis stage is documented in a report for higher management. The report describes the current information system, the requirements for a new system, and a possible development schedule. Management studies the report and decides whether to continue with the project.

What are the four questions that must be considered when choosing the best system during the systems design phase?

"Economic Feasibility: • Will the costs of the new system be justified by the benefits it promises? • How long will it take for the new system to pay for itself? Technical Feasibility: • Are reliable hardware, software, and training available to make the system work? Operational Feasibility: • Can the system actually be made to operate in the organization, or will people (employees, managers, clients) resist it?"

Explain the process of evaluating the feasibility of each alternative system.

"1) Designing Alternative Systems: In almost all instances, more than one design can be developed to meet the information needs. Systems designers evaluate each alternative system for feasibility (Economic, Technical, and Operational). 2) Selecting the Best System: When choosing the best design, managers consider four questions: (1) Will the system work with the organization's overall information system? (2) Will the system be flexible enough so it can be modified in the future? (3) Can it be made secure against unauthorized use? (4) Are the benefits worth the costs? 3) Writing the Systems Design Report: The report is prepared for higher management describing the alternative designs. It presents costs versus benefits and outlines effect of other designs on organization."

Describe how software can be acquired, if needed, during the systems development phase

"Application software for the new information system can be obtained in two ways: ~ 1) Purchased as ""off-the-shelf"" packaged software and possibly modified ~ 2) Custom-designed "

Discuss the systems audit and periodic evaluation activities.

This phase is a very important, ongoing activity. Maintenance has two parts: systems audit and periodic evaluation. A systems audit compares the system's performance to the original design specifications. This determines if the new procedures are furthering productivity. After the systems audit, the new information system is modified when necessary. All systems should be evaluated periodically to determine if they are meeting the goals and providing the service intended.

Define prototyping and explain how it could be used by a systems analyst.

Prototyping means to build a model or prototype that can be modified before the actual system is installed. A systems analyst develops a prototype for a system as a solution to a problem. Users try it out and provide feedback. The systems analyst revises prototype until correct/satisfied.

System

A collection of activities and elements organized to accomplish a goal

What five reasons may an organization need to change it's information system?

"1) Organizational Growth 2) Mergers and Acquisitions 3) New Marketing Opportunities 4) Revisions in Governmental Regulations 5) Availability of New Technology"

Systems Analysis and Design

A six-phase problem-solving procedure for examining and improving an information system.

Systems Life Cycle

Made up of the six phases of systems analysis and design

The six-phase Systems Life Cycle is used by computer professionals known as __________ . What do they do?

"~ Systems Analysts ~ These people study an organization's systems to determine what actions to take and how to use computer technology to assist them."

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #1:
Preliminary Investigation"

The organization's problems or needs are identified and summarized in a short report.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #2:
Systems Analysis"

The present system is studied in depth. New requirements are specified and documented.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #3:
Systems Design"

A new or alternative information system is designed and a design report created.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #4:
Systems Development"

New hardware and software are acquired, developed, and tested.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #5:
Systems Implementation"

It is the process of converting from the old system to the new one and training people to use the new system. The new information system is installed.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #6:
Systems Maintenance: "

In this ongoing phase, the system is periodically evaluated and updated as needed.

What does "Defining the Problem" mean?

Examining whatever current information system is in use.

What three tasks is a systems analyst concerned with in Phase #1 of a Systems Life Cycle?

"1) Briefly defining the problem 2) Suggesting alternative solutions 3) Preparing a short report"

Who determines whether to finance the second phase of a Systems Life Cycle?

Management

What task(s) is a systems analyst concerned with in Phase #2 of a Systems Life Cycle?

Gathering and analyzing the data

What does an organization chart show?

Levels of management as well as formal lines of authority

What are some of the tools available to assist systems analysts in the Analysis Phase of a Systems Life Cycle?

"~ Top-down analysis method ~ Grid charts ~ System flowcharts ~ Data flow diagrams ~ Automated design tools "

Top-Down Analysis Method

Used to identify the top-level components of a complex system. Each component is then broken down into smaller and smaller components.

Grid Charts

Shows the relationship between input and output documents.

System Flow Charts

Shows the flow of input data to processing and finally to output, or distribution of information.

Data Flow Diagrams

Shows the data or information flow within an information system. The data is traced from its origin through processing, storage, and output.

Automated Design Tools

Software packages that evaluate hardware and software alternatives according to requirements given by the systems analyst.

What are Automated Design Tools also called?

Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

Systems Analysis Report

Describes the current information system, the requirements for a new system, and a possible development schedule

Phase #3 of a Systems Life Cycle consists of what three tasks?

"1) Designing alternative systems 2) Selecting the best system 3) Writing a systems design report"

What are the three types of feasibility?

"1) Economic 2) Technical 3) Operational"

Economic Feasibility

Comparing the costs of a new system to the benefits it promises.

Technical Feasibility

Making sure hardware, software, and training will be available to facilitate the design of a new system.

Operational Feasibility

Making sure the design of a new system will be able to function within the existing framework of an organization.

In Phase #3 of a Systems Life Cycle, when choosing the best design, managers must consider what four questions?

"1) Will the system work with the organization's overall information system? 2) Will the system be flexible enough so it can be modified in the future? 3) Can it be made secure against unauthorized use? 4) Are the benefits worth the costs?"

Systems Design Report

"~ Prepared for higher management ~ Describes the alternative designs ~ Presents the costs versus the benefits ~ Outlines the effect of alternative designs on the organization"

Phase #4 of a Systems Life Cycle consists of what three steps?

"1) Acquiring software 2) Acquiring hardware 3) Testing the new system"

Phase #4 of a Systems Life Cycle consists of what four approaches to conversion?

"1) Direct 2) Parallel 3) Pilot 4) Phased"

"Types of Conversion:
Direct Approach"

"~ Done by abandoning the old and starting up the new. ~ High risk b/c if there is problem w/ new system, there is old system to fall back on."

"Types of Conversion:
Parallel Approach"

"~ Old and new systems are operated side by side until the new one proves to be reliable. ~ Low risk"

"Types of Conversion:
Pilot Approach"

"~ The new system is tried out in only one part of the organization. ~ Once the system is working smoothly in that part, it is implemented throughout the organization ~ Less expensive than parallel approach bur riskier ~ Risks can be controlled b/c problems are confined to certain area of organization"

"Types of Conversion:
Phased Approach"

"~ The new system is implemented gradually over a period of time. ~ Implementation process is broken down into parts or phases. ~ Expensive b/c the implementation is done slowly. ~ Lowest risk"

"Types of Conversion:
Which approaches are most favored and why?"

"Pilot Approach: ~ Preferred when many people in organization are performing similar operations. Phased Approach: ~ Preferred for organizations in which people are performing different operations."

Which phase of a Systems Life Cycle is an ongoing activity?

Phase #6: Systems Maintenance

Which phase of a Systems Life Cycle do organizations typically spend the most time and money?

Phase #6: Systems Maintenance

Phase #6 of a Systems Life Cycle consists of what two parts?

"1) Systems Audit 2) Periodic Evaluation "

"Phase #6 of a Systems Life Cycle:
Systems Audit "

The system's performance is compared to the original design specifications to determine whether the new procedures are actually furthering productivity.

"Phase #6 of a Systems Life Cycle:
Periodic Evaluation "

All systems should be evaluated from time to time to determine whether they are meeting the goals and providing the service desired

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Defines problem, suggests alternatives, prepares short report"

Phase #1: Preliminary Investigation

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Gather data, analyze data, document"

Phase #2: Systems Analysis

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Design alternatives, select best alternative, write report "

Phase #3: Systems Design

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Develop software, acquire hardware, test system "

Phase #4: Systems Development

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Convert, train "

Phase #5: Systems Implementation

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Perform systems audit, evaluate periodically"

Phase #6: Systems Maintenance

What are two alternatives to the Systems Life Cycle?

"1) Prototyping 2) Rapid Applications Development (RAD) "

Prototyping

"~ To build a model or prototype that can be modified before the actual system is installed. ~ Systems Analyst can develop prototype possibility for users to try out and provide feedback, allowing systems analyst to revise prototype until correct ~ Development time is shorter ~ Can be difficult to manage project and control costs"

Rapid Applications Development (RAD)

"~ Involves the use of powerful development software, small specialized teams, and highly trained personnel. ~ Systems Analyst would use specialized development software, form small teams consisting of select users and managers, and obtain assistance from other highly qualified analysts. « ~ Resulting time-and-billing system costs more ~ Development time is shorter ~ Better quality of completed system "

Chapter 12 - Systems Analysis and Design - Subjecto.com

Chapter 12 – Systems Analysis and Design

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"A collection of activities and elements organized to accomplish a goal.
A) Information
B) Data
C) Program
D) System"

System

"In this phase of the systems life cycle, the new information system is installed, and people are trained to use it.
A) Systems Implementation
B) Systems Analysis
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Development"

Systems Implementation

"In this phase of the systems life cycle, new or alternative information systems are designed.
A) Systems Maintenance
B) Systems Analysis
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Development"

Systems Design

"This individual studies an organization’s systems to determine what actions to take and how to use computer technology to assist them.
A) Network Administrator
B) Cryptographer
C) Systems Analyst
D) Computer Engineer"

Systems Analyst

"In the preliminary investigation phase of the systems life cycle, which one of the following tasks would not be included?
A) Briefly defining the problem
B) Suggesting alternative solutions
C) Gathering the data
D) Preparing a short report"

Gathering the data

"In order to obtain financing to continue to Phase 2: Systems Analysis, the systems analyst does this.
A) Prepares a preliminary investigation report
B) Gathers data
C) Analyzes data
D) Trains users on the new system"

Prepares a preliminary investigation report

"Gathering and analyzing data is part of this phase.
A) Preliminary Investigation
B) Systems Analysis
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Implementation"

Systems Analysis

"This shows the relationship between input and output documents.
A) Grid Chart
B) Checklist
C) Investigation Report
D) Top-Down Analysis Method"

Grid Chart

"Which of the following is used to identify the components of a complex system and makes each component easier to analyze and deal with?
A) System Flowchart
B) Top-Down Analysis Method
C) Grid Chart
D) Checklist"

Top-Down Analysis Method

"Which of the following tools presents data or information flow within an information system?
A) Grid Chart
B) Top-Down Analysis Method
C) Automated Design Tool
D) Data Flow Diagram"

Data Flow Diagram

"These tools, also called computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, are used in system analysis to evaluate alternative hardware and software solutions.
A) Project Management Tools
B) Automated Design Tools
C) Spreadsheets
D) Report Generators"

Automated Design Tools

"Which among the following would not be described in the systems analysis report?
A) The current information system
B) The requirements for a new system
C) The possible development schedule
D) The training requirements for users"

The training requirements for users

"This is the final task in Phase 3: Systems Design.
A) Select the best design
B) Design alternative systems
C) Write a systems design report
D) Examine hardware requirements"

Write a systems design report

"This is the first step in the systems design phase.
A) Examine hardware requirements
B) Design alternative systems
C) Select the best system
D) Analyze the data"

Design alternative systems

"In this activity, it is determined whether the system can be made secure against unauthorized use.
A) Analyzing the data
B) Writing the systems design report
C) Selecting the best system
D) Testing the system"

Selecting the best system

"This document presents the costs versus the benefits and outlines the effect of alternative designs on the organization.
A) Systems Analysis Report
B) Preliminary Investigation Report
C) Initialization Report
D) Systems Design Report"

Systems Design Report

"During which phase of the systems life cycle are users trained to use the new system?
A) Preliminary Investigation
B) Systems Implementation
C) Systems Development
D) Systems Maintenance"

Systems Implementation

"Selecting the ________ is the first step in implementing a new system.
A) Hardware Requirements
B) Software Requirements
C) Conversion Type
D) Best Alternative"

Conversion Type

"This conversion type is not recommended because problems arising in this approach could be catastrophic.
A) Direct Approach
B) Parallel Approach
C) Phased Approach
D) Pilot Approach"

Direct Approach

"This conversion approach is preferred when there are many people in an organization performing similar operations.
A) Direct Approach
B) Parallel Approach
C) Phased Approach
D) Pilot Approach"

Pilot Approach

"This is the final step of the systems implementation phase of the systems life cycle.
A) Develop documentation
B) Train users
C) Select the conversion type
D) Write the implementation report"

Train users

"Identify the sixth phase of the systems life cycle.
A) Systems Maintenance
B) Systems Development
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Analysis"

Systems Maintenance

"Which of the following phases of the systems life cycle is considered to be an ongoing activity?
A) Systems Development
B) Systems Analysis
C) Systems Design
D) Systems Maintenance"

Systems Maintenance

"This is performed to determine whether the new procedures are actually furthering productivity.
A) Testing
B) Systems Inventory
C) Designing Alternatives
D) Systems Audit"

Systems Audit

"This is the process of building a model that can be modified before the actual system is installed.
A) Rapid Applications Development
B) Prototyping
C) Systems Analysis
D) Systems Maintenance"

Prototyping

"A(n) ________ is a collection of hardware, software, people, procedures, and data.
A) Database
B) Record
C) Information System
D) Entity"

Information System

"New hardware and software are acquired, developed, and tested in the systems ________ stage of the systems life cycle.
A) Analysis
B) Design
C) Implementation
D) Development"

Development

"Systems analysis and design is a problem-solving procedure for examining and improving a(n) ________ system.
A) Information
B) Network
C) Implementation
D) Database"

Information

"An important aspect of the preliminary investigation phase is to ________.
A) Prepare a preliminary investigation report
B) Suggest alternative solutions
C) Analyze the Data
D) Gather the Data"

Suggest alternative solutions

"The ________ identifies the top-level components of a complex system.
A) Investigation Report
B) Grid Chart
C) Top-Down Analysis Method
D) Checklist"

Top-Down Analysis Method

"A(n) ________ shows the relationship between input and output documents.
A) Investigation Report
B) Checklist
C) Top-Down Analysis
D) Grid Chart"

Grid Chart

"System ________ show the flow of input data to processing and finally to output.
A) Flowcharts
B) Top-Down Analysis
C) Checklists
D) Grids"

Flowcharts

"________ show the data or information flow within an information system; the data is traced from its origin through processing, storage, and output.
A) Top-Down Analysis Methods
B) Data Flow Diagrams
C) System Flow Charts
D) Grid Charts"

Data Flow Diagrams

"The ________ report describes the current information system, the requirements for a new system, and a possible development schedule.
A) Top-Down Analysis
B) Data Flow
C) Systems Analysis
D) Components"

Systems Analysis

"The third phase in the systems life cycle is the systems ________ phase.
A) Implementation
B) Analysis
C) Maintenance
D) Design"

Design

"________ feasibility is evaluated to determine if the proposed system can actually be made to operate in the organization.
A) Operational
B) Technical
C) Top-down
D) Economic"

Operational

"Systems designers evaluate each alternative in the systems design phase for ________ by looking at economic, technical, and operational factors.
A) Accuracy
B) Feasibility
C) Currency
D) Organization"

Feasibility

"
38) When evaluating alternative systems, systems designers must consider economic feasibility, ________ feasibility, and operational feasibility.
A) Top-Down
B) Currency
C) Technical
D) Digital"

Technical

"The systems design report presents the ________.
A) Possible development schedule
B) Requirements for a new system
C) Description of the current system
D) Costs versus the benefits"

Costs versus the benefits

"________ of the system happens after the installation of software and hardware.
A) Testing
B) Design Analysis
C) Implementation
D) Management Studies"

Testing

"Another name for Phase 5: Systems Implementation is ________.
A) Feasibility
B) Conversion
C) Analysis
D) Development"

Conversion

"The ________ approach to systems implementation is considered the riskiest.
A) Phased
B) Parallel
C) Direct
D) Pilot"

Direct

"The ________ approach to systems implementation is used only in cases in which the cost of failure or of interrupted operation is great.
A) Phased
B) Direct
C) Pilot
D) Parallel"

Parallel

"In general, the pilot and ________ approaches are the most favored conversion approaches.
A) Phased
B) Analysis
C) Parallel
D) Direct"

Phased

"Most organizations spend more time and money on the systems ________ phase than on any of the other phases.
A) Design
B) Maintenance
C) Development
D) Analysis"

Maintenance

TRUE or FALSE:
A systems analyst uses the six-phase systems life cycle to improve and maintain information systems.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
A survey of user needs is part of the preliminary investigation phase.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
Data about how the present system works is collected during the preliminary investigation phase in order to determine the requirements of the new system.

"FALSE: Data about how the present system works is collected during the preliminary SYSTEMS ANALYSIS PHASE in order to determine the requirements of the new system."

TRUE or FALSE:
Gathering data and information in the systems analysis phase can be achieved through conducting interviews and studying documents.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
In the data analysis step, the idea is to learn how information currently flows and to pinpoint why it is not flowing properly.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
The top-down analysis method breaks components into smaller components to make each component easier to analyze and deal with.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
CASE stands for "computer-aided software engineering."

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
In the systems design phase of the systems life cycle, the systems design report usually concludes by recommending one of the analyzed alternatives.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
Hardware and software are normally acquired during the implementation phase of the systems life cycle.

"FALSE: Hardware and software are normally acquired during the DEVELOPMENT phase of the systems life cycle."

TRUE or FALSE:
In the testing step of the systems development phase, processed information is evaluated to see whether the results are correct.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
The organization can switch to the old system if the new system fails in the parallel conversion approach.

TRUE

TRUE or FALSE:
Periodic evaluation is part of the systems maintenance phase of the systems life cycle.

TRUE

Name and briefly explain the six phases of system analysis and design.

"1) Preliminary Investigation: The organization’s problems or needs are identified and summarized in a short report. 2) Systems Analysis: The present system is studied in depth. New requirements are specified and documented. 3) Systems Design: A new or alternative information system is designed and a design report created. 4) Systems Development: New hardware and software are acquired, developed, and tested. 5) Systems Implementation: Process of converting from old to new system and training people. The new information system is installed. 6) Systems Maintenance: In this ongoing phase, the system is periodically evaluated and updated as needed. "

How does a systems analyst gather the required data when he/she is defining a problem during the preliminary investigation phase?

Defining the problem means examining whatever current information system is in use. Determining what information is needed, by whom, when, and why is accomplished by interviewing and making observations.

What is the purpose of the systems analysis report during the systems analysis phase?

The systems analysis stage is documented in a report for higher management. The report describes the current information system, the requirements for a new system, and a possible development schedule. Management studies the report and decides whether to continue with the project.

What are the four questions that must be considered when choosing the best system during the systems design phase?

"Economic Feasibility: • Will the costs of the new system be justified by the benefits it promises? • How long will it take for the new system to pay for itself? Technical Feasibility: • Are reliable hardware, software, and training available to make the system work? Operational Feasibility: • Can the system actually be made to operate in the organization, or will people (employees, managers, clients) resist it?"

Explain the process of evaluating the feasibility of each alternative system.

"1) Designing Alternative Systems: In almost all instances, more than one design can be developed to meet the information needs. Systems designers evaluate each alternative system for feasibility (Economic, Technical, and Operational). 2) Selecting the Best System: When choosing the best design, managers consider four questions: (1) Will the system work with the organization’s overall information system? (2) Will the system be flexible enough so it can be modified in the future? (3) Can it be made secure against unauthorized use? (4) Are the benefits worth the costs? 3) Writing the Systems Design Report: The report is prepared for higher management describing the alternative designs. It presents costs versus benefits and outlines effect of other designs on organization."

Describe how software can be acquired, if needed, during the systems development phase

"Application software for the new information system can be obtained in two ways: ~ 1) Purchased as ""off-the-shelf"" packaged software and possibly modified ~ 2) Custom-designed "

Discuss the systems audit and periodic evaluation activities.

This phase is a very important, ongoing activity. Maintenance has two parts: systems audit and periodic evaluation. A systems audit compares the system’s performance to the original design specifications. This determines if the new procedures are furthering productivity. After the systems audit, the new information system is modified when necessary. All systems should be evaluated periodically to determine if they are meeting the goals and providing the service intended.

Define prototyping and explain how it could be used by a systems analyst.

Prototyping means to build a model or prototype that can be modified before the actual system is installed. A systems analyst develops a prototype for a system as a solution to a problem. Users try it out and provide feedback. The systems analyst revises prototype until correct/satisfied.

System

A collection of activities and elements organized to accomplish a goal

What five reasons may an organization need to change it’s information system?

"1) Organizational Growth 2) Mergers and Acquisitions 3) New Marketing Opportunities 4) Revisions in Governmental Regulations 5) Availability of New Technology"

Systems Analysis and Design

A six-phase problem-solving procedure for examining and improving an information system.

Systems Life Cycle

Made up of the six phases of systems analysis and design

The six-phase Systems Life Cycle is used by computer professionals known as __________ . What do they do?

"~ Systems Analysts ~ These people study an organization’s systems to determine what actions to take and how to use computer technology to assist them."

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #1:
Preliminary Investigation"

The organization’s problems or needs are identified and summarized in a short report.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #2:
Systems Analysis"

The present system is studied in depth. New requirements are specified and documented.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #3:
Systems Design"

A new or alternative information system is designed and a design report created.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #4:
Systems Development"

New hardware and software are acquired, developed, and tested.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #5:
Systems Implementation"

It is the process of converting from the old system to the new one and training people to use the new system. The new information system is installed.

"Systems Life Cycle Phase #6:
Systems Maintenance: "

In this ongoing phase, the system is periodically evaluated and updated as needed.

What does "Defining the Problem" mean?

Examining whatever current information system is in use.

What three tasks is a systems analyst concerned with in Phase #1 of a Systems Life Cycle?

"1) Briefly defining the problem 2) Suggesting alternative solutions 3) Preparing a short report"

Who determines whether to finance the second phase of a Systems Life Cycle?

Management

What task(s) is a systems analyst concerned with in Phase #2 of a Systems Life Cycle?

Gathering and analyzing the data

What does an organization chart show?

Levels of management as well as formal lines of authority

What are some of the tools available to assist systems analysts in the Analysis Phase of a Systems Life Cycle?

"~ Top-down analysis method ~ Grid charts ~ System flowcharts ~ Data flow diagrams ~ Automated design tools "

Top-Down Analysis Method

Used to identify the top-level components of a complex system. Each component is then broken down into smaller and smaller components.

Grid Charts

Shows the relationship between input and output documents.

System Flow Charts

Shows the flow of input data to processing and finally to output, or distribution of information.

Data Flow Diagrams

Shows the data or information flow within an information system. The data is traced from its origin through processing, storage, and output.

Automated Design Tools

Software packages that evaluate hardware and software alternatives according to requirements given by the systems analyst.

What are Automated Design Tools also called?

Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

Systems Analysis Report

Describes the current information system, the requirements for a new system, and a possible development schedule

Phase #3 of a Systems Life Cycle consists of what three tasks?

"1) Designing alternative systems 2) Selecting the best system 3) Writing a systems design report"

What are the three types of feasibility?

"1) Economic 2) Technical 3) Operational"

Economic Feasibility

Comparing the costs of a new system to the benefits it promises.

Technical Feasibility

Making sure hardware, software, and training will be available to facilitate the design of a new system.

Operational Feasibility

Making sure the design of a new system will be able to function within the existing framework of an organization.

In Phase #3 of a Systems Life Cycle, when choosing the best design, managers must consider what four questions?

"1) Will the system work with the organization’s overall information system? 2) Will the system be flexible enough so it can be modified in the future? 3) Can it be made secure against unauthorized use? 4) Are the benefits worth the costs?"

Systems Design Report

"~ Prepared for higher management ~ Describes the alternative designs ~ Presents the costs versus the benefits ~ Outlines the effect of alternative designs on the organization"

Phase #4 of a Systems Life Cycle consists of what three steps?

"1) Acquiring software 2) Acquiring hardware 3) Testing the new system"

Phase #4 of a Systems Life Cycle consists of what four approaches to conversion?

"1) Direct 2) Parallel 3) Pilot 4) Phased"

"Types of Conversion:
Direct Approach"

"~ Done by abandoning the old and starting up the new. ~ High risk b/c if there is problem w/ new system, there is old system to fall back on."

"Types of Conversion:
Parallel Approach"

"~ Old and new systems are operated side by side until the new one proves to be reliable. ~ Low risk"

"Types of Conversion:
Pilot Approach"

"~ The new system is tried out in only one part of the organization. ~ Once the system is working smoothly in that part, it is implemented throughout the organization ~ Less expensive than parallel approach bur riskier ~ Risks can be controlled b/c problems are confined to certain area of organization"

"Types of Conversion:
Phased Approach"

"~ The new system is implemented gradually over a period of time. ~ Implementation process is broken down into parts or phases. ~ Expensive b/c the implementation is done slowly. ~ Lowest risk"

"Types of Conversion:
Which approaches are most favored and why?"

"Pilot Approach: ~ Preferred when many people in organization are performing similar operations. Phased Approach: ~ Preferred for organizations in which people are performing different operations."

Which phase of a Systems Life Cycle is an ongoing activity?

Phase #6: Systems Maintenance

Which phase of a Systems Life Cycle do organizations typically spend the most time and money?

Phase #6: Systems Maintenance

Phase #6 of a Systems Life Cycle consists of what two parts?

"1) Systems Audit 2) Periodic Evaluation "

"Phase #6 of a Systems Life Cycle:
Systems Audit "

The system’s performance is compared to the original design specifications to determine whether the new procedures are actually furthering productivity.

"Phase #6 of a Systems Life Cycle:
Periodic Evaluation "

All systems should be evaluated from time to time to determine whether they are meeting the goals and providing the service desired

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Defines problem, suggests alternatives, prepares short report"

Phase #1: Preliminary Investigation

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Gather data, analyze data, document"

Phase #2: Systems Analysis

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Design alternatives, select best alternative, write report "

Phase #3: Systems Design

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Develop software, acquire hardware, test system "

Phase #4: Systems Development

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Convert, train "

Phase #5: Systems Implementation

"Which Systems Life Cycle phase performs the following activity:
~ Perform systems audit, evaluate periodically"

Phase #6: Systems Maintenance

What are two alternatives to the Systems Life Cycle?

"1) Prototyping 2) Rapid Applications Development (RAD) "

Prototyping

"~ To build a model or prototype that can be modified before the actual system is installed. ~ Systems Analyst can develop prototype possibility for users to try out and provide feedback, allowing systems analyst to revise prototype until correct ~ Development time is shorter ~ Can be difficult to manage project and control costs"

Rapid Applications Development (RAD)

"~ Involves the use of powerful development software, small specialized teams, and highly trained personnel. ~ Systems Analyst would use specialized development software, form small teams consisting of select users and managers, and obtain assistance from other highly qualified analysts. « ~ Resulting time-and-billing system costs more ~ Development time is shorter ~ Better quality of completed system "

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