Chapter 12, Section 12-3-RNA and Protein Synthesis

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Name 3 main differences between RNA and DNA?

1. The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose. 2. Generally Single-stranded (RNA) compared to DNA. 3. Contains uracil in place of thymine.

What is the importance of the cell’s ability to copy a single DNA sequence in RNA?

The importance of the cell’s ability to copy a single DNA sequence in RNA is that, it can produce hundreds of thousands of RNA molecules from a single gene.

What is the one job in which most RNA molecules are involved in?

The one and only job in which most RNA molecules are involved in, is protein synthesis.

Name 3 types of RNA

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): Carries copies of the instructions for assembling amino acids from DNA to the rest of the cell. 2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): Ribosomes that are made of several dozen protein as well as a form of RNA. 3. Transfer RNA (tRNA): Transfers each amino acid to the ribosome to help assemble proteins.


1. During this process, DNA polymerase binds to RNA and separates the DNA strands. 2. RNA polymerase uses one strand of DNA as a template to assemble nucleotides into a strand of RNA.


A noncoding segment in a length of DNA that interrupts a gene-coding sequence or nontranslated sequence, the corresponding segment being removed from the RNA copy before transcription.

True or False__RNA editing occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.


What are 2 ways RNA molecules are cut and spliced.

1. Some RNA molecules may be cut and spliced in different ways and in different tissues, making it possible for a single gene to produce several different forms of RNA. 2. Introns and exons play different roles in evolution.

Amino acids

Proteins are made by joining long chains called polypeptides.

4 bases and RNA carrying 20 different amino acid instructions have what?

Each polypeptide contains a combination of any or all of the 20 different amino acids.


A group of 3 nucleotides on messenger RNA that specify a particular amino acid.


This number represents the possible amount of three-base codons.

True or False__All amino acids are specified by only one codon.



The genetic code that represents that start codon for protein synthesis.


During this process, the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.

Where translation takes place?

Translation takes place on ribosomes.

Name 2 ways To describe translation

1. Before translation occurs, messenger RNA is transcribed from DNA in the nucleus. 2. When the ribosome reaches a stop codon, it releases the newly formed polypeptide and the mRNA molecule.


Made up of 3 unpaired bases and are complementary to one mRNA codon.


Runs the master plan and belongs in the nucleus.


Makes the blueprint and goes to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.


Many proteins that are catalyzed and regulate chemical reactions.

True or False__Genes are keys to almost everything that living cells do.



Any portion of an interrupted gene that is represented in the RNA product and is translated into protein.

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