Chapter 12 and 13 psychology

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Psychodynamic theorists stress the role of early childhood _____________ In shaping adult personality.

Experience

Which of the following are core principles of psychodynamic theories?

-We mentally transform our experiences, which allows them to shape our personalities -Personality is determined by current and early experiences

_________ Theories state that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions that tend to lead to characteristic responses

Trait

What psychologist is most associated with the life story approach?

Dan McAdams

_________-_________ Is related to the initiation of healthy habits, ability to cope with stress, and persistence in the face of obstacles

Self-efficacy

Which of the following are true of defense mechanisms?

-They work by unconsciously distorting reality -They are tactics used to reduce anxiety

_______________ Is a cluster of characteristics such as being excessively competitive, hard driven, impatient, and hostile. It is related to the incident of heart disease.

Type A behavior pattern

According to Freud’s theory, Children between the ages of 3 to 6 are in the __________ stage

Phallic

Rogers approach to understanding personality is based on the idea that

All people are born with potential for a fulfilling life And only need the right conditions to achieve this

The ___________ Inkblot test requires the interpretation of ambiguous of inkblots

Rorschach

The big five factors of personality include

Openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism

__________ Coined the term "Unconditional positive regard" To express the condition of excepting, valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of a person’s Behavior

Rogers

Which of the following are examples of how MMPI-2 is used?

-As a personality measure -To assess mental health -To determine who will make the best job candidates

The ________ Is entirely unconscious and seeks immediate gratification

Id

The reticular Activation system was posited by which psychologist?

Hans Eysenck

With recent advances in methods and theory, the _____________ Perspective aims to address the relationship between personality and Physiological processes, Such a brain activity

Biological

Which of the following statements about individuals who exhibit high extroversion are true?

-They are more likely to experience gratitude -They are more likely to engage in social activities

A critique of the humanistic approach is that humanism’s assertion that people are good

Cannot be verified

Sigmund ___________ Is the founding father of psychoanalytic theory of personality Development

Freud

A pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterizes the way in individual damage to the world is called

Personality

The social cognitive approach to ______________ Explores a persons ability to reason

Personality

According to Freud’s theory of personality Development, during the first 18 months, infants are in which stage?

Oral

Who is the founder of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality development?

Jeffrey Gray

Which of the following statements about one’s self concept are true?

-The idea of self concept is quite different than Freud’s ego -People develop their self-concept during childhood

True or false: Social cognitive psychologist believe that observational learning plays a major role in human development

True

True or false: People who are characterized as having type B behavioral pattern Are more likely to develop health related problems

False

Karen Horney argued that

-Men envy the reproductive ability of women -There are strong social cultural influences on personality

Karen Horney Believed that the need for ___________, not sex, Is the prime motive in human existence

Security

Which of the following definitions describes extroversion?

The level of sociability you have

The theory proposed by Bandera and Mischel uses behavior, environment, and _____________ factors To understand individuals

Cognitive

Around what stage does the phallic stage begin?

3 years old

Which of the following statements describes behavioral genetics?

The study of genetic characteristics on behavioral expressions

Which of the following definitions the describes neuroticism?

The level of negativity you experience in daily life

True or false: Jeffrey Gray developed the RAS theory that explains the biological functions related to introversion and extroversion

False

Coronary risk is related to type _______ Behavior pattern

A

________ Is a cluster of characteristics such as being relaxed and easy-going. It is related to good health.

Type B behavior pattern

True or false: Individuals who enjoy being alone and appear to be reserved are considered extroverted.

False

The Neurotransmitter ________________ Has been linked to positive learning experiences and with behaviors associated with messages such as "do it again!"

Dopamine

Observational learning is also called

Modeling

Self-________________ It’s a state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential

Actualization

True or false: Individuals who score high on the trait of neuroticism experience high levels of anxiety and self pity

True

In which of Freud’s stage Is pleasure focused on the mouth?

Oral

True or false: Behavioral genetics aims to study the influence of a genetics on animal behaviors through the use of twin studies

True

The social cognitive approach to ______________ Explores a persons ability to reason

Personality

Which of the following are not criticisms of the trait approach?

-There should not be a study of traits -There should be fewer traits

_______________ Is a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterizes the way an individual adapts to the world.

Personality

Freud would say that fixation at the ___________ Stage leads to an adult smoking, eating, kissing, and chewing gum.

Oral

Self actualization is at the ___________ Of Maslow’s hierarchy

Top

Personological and life story perspectives stress that a persons life history or life story helps us to understand the ______________ Of that person.

Uniqueness

In denial, the ego

Refuses to acknowledge anxiety producing realities

A self-report test ____________ Asks people whether specific items described their personality traits

Directly

According to Rogers, meeting are conditions of worth will lead to

Unconditional positive regard

True or false: Humanistic perspective is stress a person’s capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities

True

The Rorschach ink blot test And TAT are examples of a _____________ test, a personality assessment tool that presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe or Tell a story about it

Projective

True or false: Freud’s Critics do not consider his notions of early childhood experiences to be misguided

False

_______________ Determinism is the notion that behavior, environment, and cognitive factors interact with each other to create personality.

Reciprocal

The ego shifts feelings towards an unacceptable object to another, more acceptable object in what Defense mechanism?

Displacement

In reaction formation, the ego transforms and unacceptable motive into its

Opposite

Which of the following is a source that would be studied by someone using the personological approach?

A diary entry

The trait approach has been criticized for

Failing to consider situational factors

Archetypes are

Ideas and images that have shared symbolic meaning

In keeping with the social cognitive emphasis on the person’s cognitive abilities and mental state, Mischel conceptualize personality as a set of interconnected Cognitive affective processing systems, also known as the _______________ Model

CAPS

In sublimation, the ego replaces an ______________ impulse with a _____________ one.

Unacceptable, socially acceptable

______________ Experience below optimal levels of arousal whereas _____________ Experience above optimal levels of arousal according to the RAS theory

Extroverts, introverts

True or false: Even if individuals did not experience unconditional positive regard and childhood, they can benefit from experiencing it later in life

True

__________ ___________ Is a statistical procedure that allows researchers to identify which traits go together in terms of how they are rated.

Factor analysis

Murray embraced the psychodynamic notion of __________________ motivation In his approach to understanding personality

Unconscious

Psychodynamic perspective is on personality emphasize that personality is primarily

Unconscious

Social cognitive theory emphasizes that we can regulate and control our own behavior, despite our changing environment. This Represents the concept of

Personal control

The elements of their personality that people are not aware of are referred to as

Unconscious

True or false: A research study correlated neuroticism with the decreased risk of dying

False

A ___________ ____________ Test is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual’s personality

Thematic apperception

Around what age does the anal stage begin?

18 months

Reports of religious faith and satisfying romantic relationships have been correlated to the trait of

Agreeableness

A person who is unable to see, even with perfectly healthy eyes, or unable to walk, despite no apparent physical injury, maybe suffering from

Hysteria

In the defense mechanism known as repression

The ego pushes unacceptable impulses out of awareness

Jung called the impersonal, Deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared by all human beings because of their ancestral past, the _____________ Unconscious

Collective

Extroverted people who have positive life experiences and encouraging relationships with others are more likely to have higher Levels of which neurotransmitter?

Dopamine

Research shows that optimists generally function ____________ Than pessimists

More effectively

True or false: Hans Eysenck Is the psychologist who proposed a personality theory called reinforcement sensitivity theory

False

Walter ___________ Propose the CAPS model of personality

Mischel

True or false: The trait approach to personality is practical, Allows us to know a person better, and is correlated to Practical life and health factors

True

Alport and Odbert Used the method called the ___________ Approach to identify traits

Lexical

Dopamine is to extraversion as serotonin is to

Neuroticism

And the defense mechanism known as projection, the ego attributes personal shortcomings, problems, and faults to

Others

True or false: Animal studies indicate that none of the big five factors of personality are present in nonhumans

False

If the need for a positive regard from others is not met _______________, It can cause people to lead lives That do not reflect their own values

Unconditionally

Repression, and other defense mechanisms, reduces ___________ By distorting reality

Anxiety

_______________ Is correlated to increased health complaints, regardless of the individuals level of health

Neuroticism

In rationalization

The ego replaces a less acceptable motive with a more acceptable one

Someone who dresses distinctively, pursues entrepreneurial Goals, and experiences success is likely to rate them selves as

Open to experience

True or false: Among the big five, neuroticism and openness to experience are somewhat less likely to emerge as factors of personality across cultures and languages

True

In reinforcements sensitivity theory, the acronym BIS stands for

Behavioral inhibition system

According to Frued, A person who has puritanical attitudes towards sex is exhibiting a reaction formation related to the ____________ Stage of development

Phallic

Which Traits are most impacted by the RAS, according to Eysenck?

Extraversion and introversion

True or false: Individuals below and conscientiousness are more likely to die earlier than those high in conscientiousness

True

Critics contend that social cognitive theory makes _____________ Impossible

Generalizations

High school and college students with high grade point averages is are likely to rate themselves as

Conscientious

When motivated by ____________, Individual say what they think the researcher want to hear or what they think will make them look better.

Social desirability

According to Adler, people are motivated by purposes, not pleasure. What is this belief known as?

Individual psychology

In regression, the ego

Seeks the security of an earlier developmental period In the face of stress

Allport rejected the central role of ___________, Rejecting a key component of freudian theory

The unconscious

Freud Believe that we are ____________ Of most workings of our personality

Aware

According to Freud, During the phallic stage, boys experience castration anxiety where as girls experience

Penis envy

The system that plays a role in levels of wakefulness and arousal is known as

The reticular activation system

Unlike Freud, Allport focused on peoples _____________ thought

Conscious

_____________ Is correlated to higher IQ scores, liberal values, tolerance, and creativity

Openness

If psychologist asked you to write a narrative describing what life events lead you to where you are today, the psychologist is using the _________ __________ Approach to identify, As founded by Dan McAdams

Life story

An individual who thinks, "Sex is pleasurable, I want it," But also thinks "I feel guilty about having sex at all," Is struggling with conflict between the ________ And the superego

Id

Freud would say that fixation at the ___________ stage Would lead to an adult flirting and masturbating frequently, loving love, or being excessively modest

Phallic

Which of the following is an example Of denial?

Amanda refuses to acknowledge that he caused a car accident, even when he receives a ticket At the scene

Freud Considered anything that delivered Organ pleasure as

Sex

Allport Rejected the central role of _______________, Instead focusing on conscious thoughts

Unconscious

Which of the following is an example of reggression?

A man communicate in "baby talk" Whenever he gets sick

Sam was told by his friend that he "so a type A". What does his friend mean by that?

Sam is highly competitive and aggressive

Seven-year-old Mika is very talkative, playful, and out going with his family and his friends, but quiet and serious in class. This reflects

Situationalism

True or false: There is a strong link between the neurotransmitter serotonin and emotional stability

True

Joni, a happy 83-year-old woman, has realized her full Self potential. Maslow would say she has reached

Self actualization

In a review of previous research, Mischel Found ____________ Evidence for cross situational consistency in behavior

No

If you learn by avoiding negative consequences or stimuli and hate hearing your parents yell at you when you make a mistake, the reinforcement sensitive theory would say your _______________ Is primarily responsible for your enduring behavioral characteristics

Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)

Lizzie was told by her friend that she is "so a type B." What does your friend mean by that?

Lizzy is very easy-going and relaxed

An example of an empirically key test is

A self-report measure that is given to individuals and has also been administered to groups of people who differ in a specific way

Terrence is out going. He likes to hang out with his friends and loves to have a great time. He is the leader of his friends and makes it clear that he is the one in charge. What would the RAS theory say about Terrance?

Terrence is baseline is below optimal levels of arousal, And does act this way to stimulate the reticular formation

The __________ Approach reflects the idea that if a trait is important to people in real life, it ought to be represented in the natural language people used to talk to one another

Lexical

Measures of the big five generally contain straightforward items that seem to test a characteristic in question. For example, the trait "talkative" is a component of the extroversion scale. Psychologists call this

Face Validity

Mischel Looked at the research compiled on trait prediction of behavior and found it to be

Lacking

Which of the following are factors that make it more likely you will be attracted to somebody?

-Close proximity -You have seen that person around a lot -Similarities -Physical attractiveness

_____________ Is the behavior that complies with the explicit demand of the individual in authority

Obedience

Self objectification is the tendency to view oneself as an _____________ In the eyes of others

Object

True or false: Many experts insist that TV violence can prompt aggressive Or antisocial behavior in children

True

______________ Is the reduction of personal identity when an individual is a part of a group

Deindividuation

Identify the five types of social identity

-Vocations and avocations -Stigmatized groups -Political affiliation -Ethnicity and religion -Personal relationships

_____________ Is an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individuals membership in a group

Prejudice

The Peripheral Route of the elaboration likelihood model involves non-message factors such as

-Attractiveness of source -credibility of sources -Emotional appeals

If you ask a person to agree to a small request and later ask that person to comply with the more important one, you have used which compliance techniques?

Foot in the door technique

The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to explain the behavior of others in terms of their personalities rather than the aspects of the

Situation

John got a B on his psychology exam. He isn’t sure if this is good, so he asked Kate how well she did. John is using ______________ To evaluate his performance

Social comparison

___________ Is a feeling of oneness with the emotional state of another person

Empathy

Aggressive behavior has been linked to which of the following?

-Limbic system -Frontal lobes

In social facilitation, the arousal produced by the presence of others tends to give people energy and can lead to _____________ Performance on well learned tasks

Improved

_____________ Are cognitive shortcuts, such as stereotypes, which enable us to make decisions rapidly

Heuristics

True or false: People are altruistic out of selfish interest in helping someone else

False

__________in-the__________ Strategy involves the communicator making the largest demand in the beginning of a negotiation

Door in the face

The two main types of love are

Companionate and passionate

Cognitive dissonance is the conflict that occurs when a person

Holds two contradictory attitude or thoughts

The central question and making an attribution is whether the cause of the behavior is due to ___________ or ___________ factors

Situational, dispositional

Shelley Taylor and her colleagues demonstrated that having positive illusions about the self is often related to which of the following?

-Being liked by others -Heightened well-being

We all adhere to the rules and norms of society to some degree. The fact we attend work or school clothes (rather than nude) Is an example of

Conformity

___________ _____________ Is the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people

Social psychology

Groupthink is a type of thinking which group members share such a strong motivation to ____________ That they lose the ability to critically evaluate alternate points of views

Achieve consensus

What to sociocultural factors influence prosocial behavior?

-Socioeconomic status -Media

A ____________ Is a generalization about a group characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another

Stereotype

According to social exchange theory, what is the most important predictor of a relationships success?

Equity

The bystander effect makes it __________ Likely an individual will help someone in need when other people are around

Less

A negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because they are a member of that group is called

Discrimination

The tendency to take credit for successes And to deny responsibility for failures is

Self-serving bias

Which of the following is a model of relationships that emphasizes the way commitment, and the availability of attractive alternative Partners predict satisfaction In a relationship?

Investment model

Which of the following are psychological determinants of Aggression?

-Observing others engaging in aggression -The presence of a weapon -The perception that another’s actions are in fair

___________ Is an area of social psychology that studies how individuals think within social situations.

Social cognition

____________ Our opinions and believes about people, objects, and ideas

Attitudes

____________ Is a social behavior that has a goal of harming someone

Aggression

Social loafing occurs when an individual exert less effort in a group because of the _____________ Accountability for individual effort

Decreased

Gina prefers her own ethnic customs and traditions, and she is critical of others customs and traditions. This is called

Ethnocentrism

Social cognition is an area of social psychology that studies

How people think in social situations

Prejudice is

A negative or positive evaluation of an individual based on his or her group

Which of the following statements are true regarding prosocial behavior?

-Happy people are more likely than unhappy people to help others -Many adults often engage in healthy behavior in order to improve their mood

Social thinking involves not only perceptions and attributions but also _____________ Which are opinions and believes, about people, objects, and ideas, or, simply put, how we feel about things

Attitudes

___________ Racism refers to prejudicial attitudes that exist on a deeper, unconscious level.

Implicit

An individual is more likely to be persuaded if

-The individual has weak attitude about the topic -The individual feels a similarity with the person delivering the message -The message is delivered through television or video rather than print

Individual think of the group to which they belong as an _____________ , A group that has special value in comparison with others, called _____________.

In group, out groups

Risky shift occurs when a ____________ Is riskier one made by a group than an individual

Decision

True or false: ZimBardo had to halt the study early due to concern for participant safety

True

True or false: Individuals who participate in more diverse social networks live longer than those with a smaller group of social relationships

True

The theory that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their own behaviors is called

Self perception

Social __________ Is an imitative Behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas

Contagion

The __________ ___________ __________ Is a type of heuristic where in we over estimate the degree to which others think or act the way we do

False consensus effect

Which of the following social cultural factors have been linked to incidents of aggression?

-Masculine reputation -Family pride

The ___________ ____________ Affect is a phenomenon that the more we encounter someone or something, the more probable it is we will start liking the person or thing even if we did not realize we have seen it before

Mere exposure

Psychologist have use the concept of ___________ ____________ To explain an individual strong feelings of loyalty toward a group after and during difficult or unpleasant initiation rites

Effort justification

Stereotype threat is the fear of being ___________ On the basis of a negative stereotype about one group

Judged

What type of love is the strong affection we have for those whom our lives are deeply involved?

Companionate

The genetic basis for aggression states that ____________ Are important in understanding the biological basis of aggression

Genes

True or false: One of the strongest predictor of aggression is witnessing aggression in one’s own family

True

True or false: Burger’s 2006 re-creation of the classic Miligram experiment reveals that contemporary "teachers" are significantly less likely to obey the expert and, thus, refuse to administer harmful shocks to "learners"

False

____________ Love is another name for romantic love

Passionate

When are attitudes most likely to predict behavior?

-When the attitudes are relevant to the behavior -When the person’s attitudes are strong -When the person has a vested interest

True or false: Research on rats and other animals has shown testosterone relates to aggression. Results with humans indicate a definitive Relationship between levels of testosterone and aggressive behavior

False

Solomon _________ Carried out the classic experiment on conformity

Asch

Asch Which of the following statements describes the false consensus effect?

An over estimation of the degree to which everyone else thinks or acts the way we do

Group ______________ Effect is the solidification And further strengthening of an individual’s position as a consequence of a group discussion

Polarization

The self for filling prophecy is when expectations about a future event or behavior act to

Increase the likelihood that the event or behavior will occur

And his classic experiment on ____________, Solomon Asch Found that more than 1/3 of participants went along with the rest of the group in terms of assessing the length of the lines, even though the groups response was obviously wrong

Conformity

Person perception is

The process by which impressions of others is formed by social stimuli

The elaboration likelihood model states that ____________ Occurs through either a central route or a peripheral route

Persuasion

In Milgram’s Classic obedient study, what percent of participants eventually used the highest setting on the shock generator to shock The learner?

65%

_____________ Social influences is the influence that other people have on us because we want them to like an approve of us

Normative

_____________ Is the male hormone related to aggression

Testosterone

Which of the following statements describes the outcome of the robbers Cave experiment?

When groups were required to work cooperatively to solve problems, positive relationships developed

Which of the following statements is false?

Ethnocentrism is synonymous with ethnic pride

_____________ Theory seeks to explain how we decide, on the basis of samples of an individual’s behavior, what are the specific causes of that person’s behavior

Attribution

Affectionate love is also called _____________ love.

Companionate

We _________ The positive aspects of our in group, and at the same time __________ Out groups

Inflate, devalue

___________ Involves giving to another person to ensure reciprocity, To gain self-esteem, or to present oneself as powerful or caring; whereas ___________ Describes an unselfish interest in helping someone else

Egoism, Atruism

Social psychologists examine how the nature of _____________ Influence our behavior

Situations

Peter thinks of himself as quite smart, and more capable and trustworthy than many of his coworkers. Peter’s boss likes and respects him, but in general, Peter is an average employee. Peter holds several ___________ ____________ About himself

Positive illusions

When asked about your attitude toward exercise, you think "Well, I work out three times a week at 5:30 AM, so I must like it." This illustrates the ________________ Theory

Self perception

Communicators who are physically and socially attractive produce _____________ Attitude change then those who are less attractive

Greater

Scott recently lost his job. He knows the job market is competitive, so he decides to take a fishing trip in an effort to relax and reevaluate his future job strategies. While on his trip, he stops at a local gas station and is approached by a man pleading for change. Scott drops 2 quarters into the man’s cup and thinks to himself, "well at least I’m not a beggar." This illustrates

Downward social comparison

According to the social exchange theory, the objective of a relationship is

To minimize costs and maximize benefits

A key resort from the jigsaw classroom was the emphasis of ____________ Rather than competition

Cooperation

According to research, which of the following Produces the greatest risk of death?

Social isolation

You can have an ____________ About the US president (a person), abortion (a behavior), affirmative action (a belief), or architecture (a concept).

Attitude

According to the psychological research of Langlois And her colleagues, which of the following faces is most likely to be rated as the most attractive?

A computer generated composite

___________ Racism is a persons conscious and openly shared prejudicial attitudes, whereas ___________ Racism her first two prejudicial attitudes that exist on a deeper, unconscious level

Explicit, implicit

A _____________ Is purposely placed in a study by the experimenter in order to manipulate the situation that participants must engage in

Confederate

While in class, students and the professor are discussing the effects of obedience on human behavior. You start out with a somewhat negative view of obedience. After hearing the full class discussion and adding your two cents, your attitude toward obedience is quite a bit more negative than at first. This illustrates the __________ ____________ effect.

Group polarization

To reduce dissonant by rationalizing The amount of effort we put into something is called effort

Justification

Mandy is driving rapidly, weaving through cars, and, while at a stop light, honked at a car that was slow to move when the light turned green. "What a rude person" Thanks the driver of the other car. However, Mandy is rushing to get to a hospital to see her ill father. The other driver of the car has committed the

Fundamental attribution error

The elaboration likelihood model theory identifies __________ Ways by which a message can be persuasive.

Two

The influence other people have on us because we want to be correct is referred to as

Informational social influence

Hannah practiced a song on the piano over and over again, But she kept making mistakes. During the recital, however, her performance was perfect. This is an example of

Social facilitation

The frustration aggression theory suggests that _____________ (The reaction to the thwarting or blocking of goals) Produces anger, leading to a readiness to display _____________

Frustration, aggression

Your college roommate is describing the hazing ritual he endured before becoming a part of his college fraternity. You grimace at the horrific details and ask why he would want to put himself through such an ordeal. He explains, "I figure if it’s that tough to get into, then it must be worth it." Your friend is exhibiting ___________ Justification

Effort

______________ Model emphasizes the Ways commitment, investment, and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satisfaction and stability in relationships.

Investment

You are leaving a ball game with your empty water bottles in tow. Upon passing the trashcan, you decide to bitch the plastic bottles in the large barrel outside the gate. After you toss the bottles, you feel guilty about not recycling. In an effort to relieve your guilt, you look at the overflowing trash barrel containing paper, plastic, and various other disposables and ask yourself, "Why should I feel guilty when nobody else is recycling?" This illustrates

Cognitive dissonance

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