Chapter 11 sociology

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Human beings are all members of

a single biological species

Sociologists define the concept of "race" as

a socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important.

Which of the following concepts refers to a shared cultural heritage?

ethnicity

Race refers to _____ considered important by a society; ethnicity refers to _____.

biological traits; cultural traits

Which of the following concepts refers to a category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural traits, who are socially disadvantaged?

minority

Which of the following is the largest minority category within the U.S. population?

people of Hispanic descent

You would be expressing a "stereotype" if you

described everyone in some category in the same way.

Based on research using the social distance scale, you can correctly say that U.S. college students today

1) express greater prejudice toward Arabs than African Americans. 2) see less difference between minority categories than students did fifty years ago. 3) ** All of these responses are correct. 4) are less prejudiced than students were fifty years ago.

Scapegoat theory states that prejudice is created by

frustration among disadvantaged people

Authoritarian personality theory states that extreme prejudice is

a trait of certain individuals with particular personalities.

According to Theodor Adorno’s authoritarian personality theory, prejudiced people

view society as naturally hierarchical.

A good example of the culture theory of prejudice is

Bogardus’s research on social distance.

While prejudice is a matter of _____, discrimination is a matter of _____.

attitude; action

Institutional prejudice and discrimination refers to the fact that

bias is built into the operation of social institutions

The claim that defining members of some minority as inferior will make them inferior is one application of

the Thomas theorem.

Which of the following concepts refers to a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct, but have more or less equal social standing?

pluralism

Assimilation refers to the process by which

minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture.

The Matsui family came to the United States from Japan thirty years ago. They now speak English at home and the Matsui children date non-Japanese students at college. This family’s story best illustrates which of the following concepts?

assimilation

Which of the following concepts refers to biological reproduction by people of different racial categories?

miscegenation

Which of the following concepts refers to the physical and social separation of categories of people?

segregation

The killing of people in the Darfur region of Africa is a recent example of

genocide.

The ancestors of which of the following first settled in the Western Hemisphere?

Native Americans

Native Americans gained the right to U.S. citizenship in

1924.

People who are called "WASPs" have ancestors from which country?

1) England 2) Wales 3) *** All of these are correct. 4) Scotland

What Gunnar Myrdal called the "American dilemma" was

the denial of basic rights to African Americans by a so-called "democratic society.

A national civil rights movement, which ended most instances of lawful discrimination, took place during

the 1950s and 1960s.

Significant immigration of Asian Americans to the United States was first sparked by

the California Gold Rush in 1849

Which of the following categories of the U.S. population is most likely to own and operate a small business?

Korean Americans

The Hispanic population of the United States is

concentrated in the West, Southwest, and southern Florida.

The concept "white ethnics" refers to

non-WASPs of European ancestry.

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