Chapter 11 pretest

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Eli seeks attention, acts first while thinking later, and prefers verbal communication. Carl Jung would describe him as a(an) ________.


Which statement summarizes the main idea of reciprocal determinism?

Our behavior, cognitive processes, and situational context all influence each other.

According to Carl Jung, which of the following best served the goal of self-realization?

balance between extroversion and introversion

Which of the following clearly influenced Sigmund Freud’s theory of development?

climate of sexual repression

Which of the following is not part of Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory?

reaction formation

What is the developmental task of Erik Erikson’s second stage of psychosexual development, in which a sense of independence in many tasks develops?

autonomy vs. shame/doubt

Why was Sigmund Freud trained as a medical doctor and not a psychologist?

There was no such thing as a degree in psychology when he received his education.

What is the advantage of applying learning approaches to the study of personality?

They can be scientifically tested.

The ________ is composed of a series of true and false questions in order to establish an individual’s clinical profile.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

Carl Jung’s view of extroverted and introverted types serves as a basis of the ________.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Who designed the first comprehensive system of constitutional psychology?

William H. Sheldon

When Fay feels anxious, she retreats to her closet with a flashlight, using the closet as a private hideaway. What coping strategy is Fay using?

moving away from people

Who developed the first comprehensive theory of personality?

Sigmund Freud

In Carl Jung’s view, the task of integrating unconscious archetypal aspects of the self is part of ________ in the second half of life.

the self-realization process

Which of the following is not something the theories of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow have in common?

Both theories focus on the personality formed in infancy.

________ theorists attempt to explain our personality by identifying our stable characteristics and ways of behaving.


The concept of ________ suggests that people choose to move to places that are compatible with their personalities and needs.

selective migration

The ________ uses images and storytelling that relate to Hispanic culture.

TEMAS Multicultural Thematic Apperception Test

A(an) ________ complex refers to the feeling that one lacks worth and doesn’t measure up to the standards of others or of society.


After Mike does not get the job he interviewed for, he moves back in with his parents and spends his days playing video games. Which defense mechanism does this exemplify?


Dan avoids applying to college because he doubts he can succeed. He is working a retail job, but he tends to focus on the things he does wrong. In fact, he has almost no confidence in his abilities, and when he experiences a setback at work he is ready to quit. Albert Bandura would say Dan has ________.

low self-efficacy

Which of the following theorists is not neo-Freudian?

Albert Bandura

What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Research suggests that there are two dimensions of our temperament that are important parts of our adult personality: interactivity and self-regulation.

The word "interactivity" should be changed to the word "reactivity."

How are the principles of reciprocal determinism present in observational learning?

Personal factors determine which behaviors in the environment a person chooses to imitate.

Hans and Sybil Eysenck viewed people as having two specific personality dimensions: ________.

extroversion/introversion; neuroticism/stability

________ describes a proportion of difference among people that is attributed to genetics.


When Imogene feels anxiety, she clings to her mother and father for affection and reassurance. What coping strategy is Imogene using?

moving toward people

Which question was central to the marshmallow test?

Would you be able to resist getting a small reward now in order to get a larger reward later?

Self-efficacy is ________.

our level of confidence in our own abilities

When Marcos is unhappy, he is mean to other children; he calls them names and behaves aggressively toward them. He often manipulates his peers into doing what he wants. What coping strategy is Marcos using?

moving against people

Ina can no longer read the street signs, but she refuses to admit she needs glasses to drive. Which defense mechanism does this exemplify?


Cognitive processes refer to all characteristics previously learned: ________.

beliefs and expectations

Ingrid is energized by being alone, speaks slowly and softly, and avoids attention. Carl Jung would call her a(an) ________.


According to Galen, the ________ person is passionate, ambitious, and bold.


In Albert Bandura’s social-cognitive theory, behavior refers to ________.

anything an individual does that can be punished or rewarded

Which of the following is not a way we tend to think of personality? Our personalities ________.

are mutable

What was the primary finding of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart?

Identical twins, whether raised together or apart, have very similar personalities.

The ________ personality is anxious, self-conscious, artistic, thoughtful, quiet, and private.


Jessica believes that she succeeds in high school because she works hard, earned a place on the basketball team because she practices constantly, and cooks well because she takes cooking classes. Julian Rotter would say that Jessica has ________.

an internal locus of control

What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Hippocrates theorized phlegmatic, the personality trait, was associated with black bile from the kidneys.

The phrase "black bile from the kidneys" should be changed to the phrase "white phlegm from the lungs."

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