Chapter 11- Physical Development in Middle Childhood, Chapter 12- Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood, Chapter 13- Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood

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At age 6, the average North American child weighs about ______ pounds.


Between ages 6 and 8, girls are ______ boys.

slightly shorter than

On average, the dramatic adolescent growth spurt occurs _____ earlier in girls than in boys.

2 years

Seal is getting ready to start first grade. During the school years, his parents can expect him to add about ________ inches in height and ________ pounds in weight each year.

2 to 3; 5

By age ____, the sexual difference in the growth trend reverses.


The _______ grow(s) the fastest in middle childhood.

lower body

Joey and Rachel are approaching adolescence. At this time, they are likely to grow out of their _____ more quickly than their ______.

jeans; jackets

After age 8, girls begin _________ at a faster rate than boys.

accumulating fat

Worldwide, a ___-inch gap exists between the smallest and the largest 8-year-olds.


In terms of growth norms, which of the following children is most likely to be the shortest?

Sayuri from Asia

In terms of growth norms, which of the following children is most likely to be the tallest?

Rainer from Switzerland

Growth norms

must be applied cautiously.

Body size

sometimes reflects evolutionary adaptations to a particular climate.

Tanji is long and lean. She is probably from a

hot, tropical region.

Physically small children tend to live in

less developed regions.

Which of the following changes could you anticipate for the child of Ethiopian immigrants who relocated to the United States?

She will be taller and longer-legged than her agemates in Ethiopia.

Secular trends in physical growth involve changes in body size from

one generation to the next.

Kristin and Katie are taller and heavier than their mother was at their age. This is an example of

a secular trend.

The larger size of today’s children is mostly due to

a faster rate of physical development.

In regions with widespread poverty, famine, and disease, a secular _________ has occurred.

decrease in body size

During middle childhood, the bones of the body

lengthen and broaden.

Emma, age 8, can turn cartwheels, do the splits, and do handsprings. This is probably due to which two factors of growth in middle childhood?

ligaments not firmly attached to bones; increasing muscle strength

Kyra’s muscles are adapting to her enlarging skeleton. As a result, she will probably

experience nighttime "growing pains."

Between the ages of 6 and 12, ___ primary teeth are lost and replaced by permanent teeth.


Grace, a third grader, is beginning to get many of her permanent teeth. Her mom is concerned because Grace’s permanent teeth seem much too large. What can you tell Grace’s mom?

Grace’s jaw and chin bones will grow to accommodate the newly erupting teeth.

Most children need help with flossing until about ____ years of age.


Dental health affects a child’s


Wendi, a dental hygiene student, is visiting a second grade classroom to teach 26 children proper brushing techniques. Based on U.S. averages, how many students can she expect to see with some tooth decay?


Janice, age 7, is an eager thumb sucker. As a result, Janice is at risk for

a malocclusion.

A common way to treat a malocclusion is by

putting braces on the teeth.

Which of the following is a cause of malocclusion?

crowding of permanent teeth

The weight of the brain increases by ____ percent during middle childhood and adolescence.


White matter

increases steadily throughout childhood and adolescence.

Gray matter

declines as synaptic pruning and death of surrounding neurons proceed.

Secretions of __________ are related to cognitive performance.

particular neurotransmitters

When neurotransmitters are not present in appropriate balances,

children may suffer serious developmental problems.

Milo’s neurotransmitters are not present in appropriate balances. He has begun to experience seizures and loss of motor control. Milo may suffer from


Researchers believe that brain functioning may change in middle childhood because of

the influence of hormones.

Around age 7 or 8, an increase in _______ occurs in children of both sexes.



affect brain organization and behavior in many animal species.

Eating an evening meal with parents leads to a diet

lower in fried foods.

School-age children report which of the following after eating junk foods?

They feel sluggish.

Willemina’s mom is concerned that she is not eating a well-balanced diet. One solution is to

keep cheese, fruit, raw vegetables, and peanut butter readily available for snacks.

Pax suffers from malnutrition. Which of the following statements is probably correct?

Pax will respond with greater fear to stressful situations.

Studies conducted in Kenya, Egypt, and Mexico revealed that the

quality of food strongly predicted favorable cognitive development in middle childhood.

An obese child is more than ____ percent over healthy weight, based on body mass index.


In developing countries, rates of obesity are

increasing rapidly.

Childhood obesity in China

has reached 10 percent in cities.

Obese children

are likely to have at least one obese parent.

Which of the following children is at risk for excessive weight gain?

Stewart, who lives in a stressful family environment

Jonathan, age 10, was born underweight because his mother smoked during pregnancy. Jonathan is at risk for


Jorda’s parents are immigrants. As children, they suffered from long periods of food deprivation. As a result, they pressure Jorda to eat. This practice could contribute to

Jorda becoming overweight.

Obese children ________ than average-weight children.

chew their food less thoroughly

_________ is related to obesity.

Reduced sleep

As an overweight girl, Maggi is _______ than her average-weight peers.

more likely to be socially isolated

_________ constitutes one-sixth of the caloric intake of the average American age 2 and older.


Research reveals that when presented with supersized food portions, individuals increase their food intake on average by ________ percent.

25 to 30

Between the 1970s and the 1990s, due to increasingly busy lives and the growing assortment of high-calorie snack foods, average daily food intake rose by almost ______ calories.


The most effective interventions for childhood obesity are

family-based and focus on changing behaviors.

Rewarding children for ________ seems to increase their sense of personal control of exercising.

giving up inactivity

Schools can help reduce obesity by

providing additional recess time.

________is the most common vision problem in middle childhood.


By the end of the school years, nearly ____ percent of all children have myopia.


School-age children with low birth weights show an especially high rate of


Which of the following children is most likely to have myopia?

Travis, who lives in a high-SES household

Parents who tell their children not to read in dim light for fear of ruining their eyes are

voicing well-founded concerns.

Myopia is one of the few health conditions that

increases with family income.

The Eustachian tube becomes longer, narrow, and more slanted during middle childhood, resulting in

reduced incidence of otitis media.

As many as _____ percent of low-SES children develop some hearing loss as a result of repeated middle ear infections.


________ percent of U.S. school-age children suffer from nocturnal enuresis, which refers to ________.

Ten; bedwetting during the night

One of the most common causes of enuresis is

a hormonal imbalance that permits too much urine to accumulate during the night.

The most effective treatment for enuresis is/are

a urine alarm.

Seven-year-old Derek is having problems with bedwetting at night. Which of the following is probably true?

Derek has not seen a health professional about his problem.

Mikkah is 8 years old and experiences nocturnal enuresis. His parents have decided against any type of treatment, feeling that he will "outgrow it." His parents should know that

treatment in middle childhood has immediate positive psychological consequences.

Children experience a somewhat higher rate of illness during

the first two years of elementary school.

On average, illness causes children to miss about ____ days of school per year.


When Anne engages in intense exercise, particularly in cold weather or during allergy season, her bronchial tubes fill with mucus and contract. This causes her to cough and have serious breathing difficulties. Anne has


The most frequent cause of school absence is


__________ is related to asthma in middle childhood.


Which of the following is true about childhood injuries?

Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of injury fatalities in middle childhood.


must be educated about children’s age-related safety capabilities.

Which of the following children is the most likely to be a risk-taker?

Donald, whose parents use punitive discipline

During the preschool and early school years, children

do not have much biological knowledge to bring to bear on their understanding of health and illness.

If you asked 6-year-old Martin how to keep himself "healthy," he would probably say

it is a matter of eating vegetables and wearing a jacket when the weather is cold.

Most efforts to impart health concepts to school-age children have

little impact on behavior.

Which of the following is true about health education for school-age children?

Children cannot see the connection between engaging in preventive behaviors now and experiencing later health consequences.

Imparting health concepts to school-age children is difficult because they

are far more concerned about schoolwork, friends, and play.

At what age are children most likely to begin understanding that illness can be caused by contagion?

9 or 10

Which of the following children is the most likely to make the following statement: "You get a cold when your sinuses fill up with mucus. Colds come from viruses."

Olivia, a 13-year-old

School-age children sometimes believe that sharing a Coke causes AIDS because they

generalize their knowledge of familiar diseases to unfamiliar ones.

Compared with preschoolers, school-age children are

physically more elastic.

At age 6, a ball thrown by a girl travels an average speed of ____ feet per second.


Which of the following is true about changes in running, jumping, and gait variations during middle childhood?

Running speed increases from 12 feet per second at age 6 to over 18 feet per second at age 12.

As Bree gets older, how will her batting abilities change?

Batting motions will involve her entire body.

Between 6 and 12 years of age, Hyrum demonstrates quicker, more accurate movements. This means that Hyrum has improved


Danica, age 9, executes difficult tumbling routines. Since she started gymnastics at age 4, Danica has become more pliable and elastic. This means that Danica has improved


Luke, age 11, can throw a ball harder than he could at age 7. When he is jumping, he can propel himself further off the ground. This increasing ability is known as


An 11-year-old’s reaction time is ________ a 5-year-old’s.

twice as fast as

Six-year-old Kirsten’s parents are eager to have her play tennis. Because her gross-motor skills are not fully developed, a more appropriate sport or game would be


Seven-year-old Alex is seldom successful at batting a thrown ball. Which of the following activities should Alex be encouraged to play at his age?


At age 6, Shelby probably

can print her first and last names legibly.

Legibility of writing gradually increases as children

produce letters with uniform height and spacing.

Around age _____ years, the third dimension is clearly evident in children’s drawings.

9 or 10

_______ children excel at many motor tasks.


Which of the following is true about individual differences in motor skills?

Family income affects children’s access to lessons needed to develop certain abilities.

Girls have an edge over boys in


Boys have an edge over girls in


Which of the following is true about the social environment and motor skills?

Parents tend to hold higher expectations for boys’ athletic performance than for girls.

In order to increase girls’ participation, self-confidence, and sense of fair treatment in athletics, the text recommends

educating parents about the minimal differences in school-age boys’ and girls’ physical capacities.

Gains in ______ permit the transition to rule-oriented games.

perspective taking

Child-invented games usually rely on

a sizable element of luck.

Children will spend ________ of time working out the rules of a game as they will spend playing the game.

equal amounts

Compared with past generations, school-age children today spend more time

in adult-organized sports.

About ____ percent of U.S. boys and ____ percent of U.S. girls participate in organized sports outside of school hours at some time between ages 5 and 18.

60; 37

Which of the following is true about joining community athletic teams?

Among shy children, sports participation seems to foster a decline in social anxiety.

Critics argue that youth sports

overemphasize competition.

Who is most likely to affect children’s athletic attitudes and capabilities?


Justine, whose mother is a fitness buff, joined a gymnastics club at the age of 2. Which of the following is a likely outcome for Justine?

She will soon lose interest in gymnastics.

Henrich’s parents value sports so highly that they punish him when he makes errors during games. Once, they insisted he keep playing after he sprained his ankle. Henrich is most likely to

suffer from emotional difficulties.

When parents and coaches emphasize _______, young athletes enjoy sports more and perceive themselves as more competent at their chosen sport.


Maurice and Samson occasionally wrestle, roll, hit, and run after one another, alternating roles while smiling and laughing. Maurice and Samson are engaged in _____ play.


Which of the following statements is true about rough-and-tumble play?

Researchers believe that it is quite distinct from aggressive fighting.

Rough-and-tumble play helps children form

a dominance hierarchy.

Once school-age children establish a dominance hierarchy,

hostility is rare.

Dominance hierarchies

may serve to limit aggression among group members.

Unlike children, teenage rough-and-tumble players

do not act aggressively.

Which of the following is true about physical activity in U.S. schools?

Only about 3 percent of high schools provide students with physical education at least three days a week.

Which of the following is true about school recess?

Distributing cognitively demanding tasks over a longer time by introducing recess breaks enhances attention.

School recess

is one of the few remaining contexts devoted to child-organized games.

Mr. Carter’s physical education class should emphasize

individual exercise.

Piaget’s concrete operational stage extends through the ages of

7 to 11.

In Piaget’s concrete operational stage,

thought is more logical, flexible, and organized than it was during early childhood.

Eight-year-old Daniel focuses on several aspects of a problem and relates them, rather than centering on just one. Daniel is capable of


Nine-year-old Ryan thinks through a series of steps, and then mentally changes direction, returning to the starting point. Ryan is capable of


___________ is part of every logical operation.


At age 10, Paige spent hours sorting and resorting her collection of bracelets, grouping them first by color, then by size, and finally by shape. Paige has become aware of

classification hierarchies.

Heather is lining up crayons in order from shortest to longest. This skill is known as


Jessica, a concrete operational child, can seriate mentally. This means that Jessica is capable of

transitive inference.

Mrs. Hartley asked her second graders to draw a map of the school using their memory. The students’ cognitive maps will probably

include landmarks.

Around age 8 to 10, children’s cognitive maps

show landmarks along an organized route of travel.

Dewey has no trouble when asked to place stickers on a map to indicate the location of colored flags within a large-scale outdoor environment. Dewey is probably


When Kelli, a researcher, asks school-age children in a small city in India to draw maps of their neighborhood, Kelli will probably see maps that depict

people and vehicles.

A child in the concrete operational stage will have the most trouble with which of the following?

abstract ideas

Brandon solves the hypothetical problem: "Marie is taller than Gina, and Gina is taller than Anna. Who is the tallest?" Brandon is probably ____ years old.


Eleven-year-old Nathan first grasped conservation of number, followed by length, liquid, mass, and then weight. This limitation of concrete operational thinking is known as

continuum of acquisition.

Cross-cultural research suggests that

taking part in everyday activities helps children master conservation and other Piagetian problems.

The experience of going to school seems to

promote mastery of Piagetian tasks.

When children of the same age are tested, the greatest impact on transitive inference skills comes from


On the basis of cross-cultural research, some investigators have concluded that the forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks

are heavily influenced by training, context, and cultural conditions.

Some Neo-Piagetian theorists like Robbie Case argue that the development of operational thinking can best be understood in terms of

gains in information-processing speed.

Accordingly to Case, once the schemes of a Piagetian stage are sufficiently automatic and integrated into an improved representation, children acquire _____________ that permit them to think more efficiently in a wide range of situations.

central conceptual structures

Daniella listens to and tells stories but rarely draws pictures. Daniella displays ______ advanced central conceptual structures in ______________.

more; storytelling

Camilla, age 5, often uses an empirical approach instead of a logical approach to solve problems. After failing at a class-inclusion task at school, her teacher provided a logical explanation for solving the problem correctly. Based on recent studies, Camilla’s future performance on this task should

improve rapidly.

Which of the following statements best characterizes Piaget’s view of cognitive development in middle childhood?

discontinuous restructuring of children’s thinking

Time needed to process information on a wide variety of cognitive tasks _______ between ages 6 and 12.

declines rapidly

Digit span, which assesses the basic capacity of working memory, increases from about ____ digits at age 7 to _____ digits at age 12.

5; 7

As the prefrontal cortex develops in middle childhood, children make gains in


Ten-year-old Annabelle has improved her ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli. Annabelle has made gains in


During middle childhood, attention becomes

more selective.

Ten-year-old Gemma is presented with a stream of numbers on a computer screen. She is asked to press a button whenever the two-digit sequence of a "5" followed by a "7" appears. Gemma’s _______ attention is being tested.


Four-year-old Rolf rarely engages in attentional strategies. This is an example of a _____________ deficiency.


Six-year-old Bella sometimes produces strategies, but not consistently. Bella has a(n) _______ deficiency.


Seven-year-old Roshonda executes attentional strategies consistently, but her task performance does not improve. Roshonda is exhibiting a __________ deficiency.


Mrs. Rosinski gives each of her children, ages 5, 8, and 12 a shopping list of 10 items. What result can she expect to see?

Her 12-year-old will probably scan the store before getting items.

Guy, age 10, is impulsive. During school, he drops his pencil, rearranges the papers inside his desk, and yells at people across the room. Guy is also physically awkward and fails to follow the rules when he plays games. He suffers from both academic and social problems. Guy most likely has

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Which of the following is true about ADHD?

Boys are diagnosed about four times as often as girls.

Children with ADHD

find it hard to ignore irrelevant stimuli.

Which of the following is true about the origins of ADHD?

ADHD runs in families and is highly heritable.

Which of the following is true about the relationship between environment factors and ADHD?

Prenatal teratogens can combine with certain genotypes to greatly increase the risk for ADHD.

The most common treatment for ADHD is

prescription stimulant medication.

In Hong Kong,

children are diagnosed with ADHD at more than twice the rate in the United States.

When her 10-year-old son comes home from school, Mrs. Calder sits down with him and organizes his homework. She makes a list for him of what to tackle first and what to put off until later. She does not ask her son to help with this task. Mrs. Calder

might be robbing her son of opportunities to plan.

When studying for her spelling test, Matilda repeats the proper spelling to herself multiple times. What memory strategy is she using?


When studying for his geography test, Brett groups states together by region. What memory strategy is he using?


Five-year-old Charlotte is asked to memorize a list of words. Charlotte will probably

organize inconsistently, with little or no memory benefits.

When studying for a test, Peter remembers the unrelated words cellular and canine by generating the following mental image, "The canine is talking on a cellular phone." Which memory strategy is Peter using?


Elaboration is a later-emerging memory strategy because it requires

a great deal of mental effort and working-memory capacity.

Elaboration is most likely to be used by

adolescents and young adults.

Children who are expert in an area

are highly motivated.

_________ is a person’s set of beliefs about mental activities.

Theory of mind

Appreciation of ________________ greatly assists children in understanding others’ perspectives.

second-order false belief

Because school-age children have difficulty putting what they know about thinking into action, they are not yet good at

cognitive self-regulation.

Aili is aware that she should attend closely to her teacher’s directions, group items when memorizing, and reread a complicated paragraph to make sure she understands it, but she does not always engage in these activities. Aili is not yet good at


Throughout elementary and secondary school,

self-regulation predicts academic success.

Children who acquire effective self-regulatory skills develop a sense of

academic self-efficacy.

As children make the transition from emergent literacy to conventional reading, _________ continues to facilitate the process.

phonological awareness

Mrs. Markie, a first-grade teacher, believes that, from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language. Mrs. Markie takes a ___________ approach to teaching reading.


The phonics approach to reading

stresses the relationship between letters and sounds, thus enabling children to decode words.

When teachers ___________, first graders show greater literacy progress.

combine real reading and writing with teaching of phonics

Yolanda entered school low in phonological awareness. Without ________, Yolanda will probably be behind her agemates in text comprehension skills.

early phonics training

Rodney’s first-grade teacher exclusively uses a phonics approach to teaching reading. She emphasizes decoding new words and learning the relationship between letters and sounds. With so much emphasis on basic skills, Rodney could

become deficient in understanding the overall meaning of a passage.

In teaching mathematics, teachers should focus on

a blend of the drill in computing and number sense methods.

Encouraging students to _______ and making sure they ______ are essential for solid mastery of basic math skills.

apply strategies; know why certain strategies work

Around age ____, IQ becomes more stable than it was at earlier ages, and it correlates well with academic achievement.


Test designers use __________ to identify the various abilities that intelligence tests measure.

factor analysis

Factor analysis identifies

which items on an IQ test are strongly correlated with each other.

Unlike group tests, individually administered intelligence tests

must be given by trained individuals.

The __________ items on an intelligence test are assumed to assess more biologically based skills.

spatial reasoning

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales

assess general intelligence and five intellectual factors.

_____________ was designed to downplay culture-dependent information, which is emphasized on only one factor (verbal reasoning).

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV

Many psychologists and educators came to prefer the Wechsler intelligence tests because they offered ____________ long before the Stanford-Binet.

both a measure of general intelligence and a variety of factor scores

Professor Diaz is conducting a study to determine whether a child’s information-processing speed is related to her IQ. He is conducting a

componential analysis.

___________ is/are a good predictor of IQ.

Inhibition skill

A major shortcoming of the componential approach is that it

regards intelligence as entirely due to causes within the child.

Sternberg’s triarchic theory of successful intelligence is comprised of which of the following broad interacting intelligences?

analytical, creative, and practical

Nianzu quickly applies learning and memory strategies to new situations and engages in self-regulation and metacognitive monitoring of her own learning. According to Sternberg, Nianzu excels in ________ intelligence.


Andrei skillfully adapts his thinking to fit with both his desires and the demands of his everyday world. When he cannot adapt to a new situation, Andrei tries to shape it to meet his needs. According to Sternberg, Andrei excels in ________ intelligence.


Noah thinks more skillfully than others when faced with novelty. Given a new task, Noah applies his information-processing skills in exceptionally effective ways, rapidly making these skills automatic so that working memory is freed for more complex aspects of the situation. According to Sternberg’s theory, Noah’s strengths lie in ________ intelligence.


_________intelligence reminds us that intelligent behavior is never culture-free.


Which of the following parents is most likely to mention cognitive traits when asked for their idea of an intelligent first grader?

Cindy, a Caucasian-American

Howard Gardner proposes at least ________ independent intelligences.


Nyse has the ability to discriminate complex inner feelings and to use them to guide her own behavior. According to Gardner, Nyse has a strong __________ intelligence.


Rosanna scores highly in Gardner’s spatial intelligence. Based on these test results, which of the following occupations might Rosanna be best suited for?


Thad is sensitive to the sounds, rhythms, and meaning of words. According to Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Thad should consider which of the following careers?


Kyle recognizes and classifies all varieties of animals and plants. According to Gardner, Kyle excels in _____________ intelligence.


Gardner’s _________ and __________ intelligences include a set of capacities for dealing with people and understanding oneself that has become known as emotional intelligence.

interpersonal; intrapersonal

In school-age children, adolescents, and adults, ________ intelligence is positively associated with self-esteem, leadership skills, and life satisfaction, and negatively related to depression and aggressive behavior.


Mr. Klakkit provides his fourth-graders with lessons that emphasize respect and caring for others and resistance to unfavorable peer pressure. Mr. Klakkit is trying to improve his students’ _________ intelligence.


Which of the following is true about the IQ scores of American children?

Although the difference in IQ scores has been shrinking over the past several decades, a substantial gap remains.

The IQ gap between middle-SES and low-SES American children is about _____ points.


Arthur Jensen’s "How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement?" claims that ________ is largely responsible for individual, ethnic, and SES variations in intelligence.


The most powerful evidence on the role of heredity in IQ involves

twin comparisons.

Adoption studies consistently reveal that

when young children are adopted into stimulating homes, their IQs rise substantially.

Research on African-American children adopted into middle-SES white homes during the first year of life shows that

poverty depresses the intelligence of ethnic minority children.

African-American parents’ communication style with their children emphasizes ________ over _________.

emotional and social concerns; facts about the world

Javier’s father works together with him in a coordinated, fluid way. Each focuses on the same aspect of a problem. Javier’s father prefers a(n) ______________ style of communication.


Mrs. Noneman directs her children to each carry out an aspect of a task. Each child is expected to work independently. Mrs. Noneman prefers a(n) _______________ style of communication.


Children’s exposure to ___________has a profound impact on IQ test performance.

classroom learning

Hershel, an African American, has heard that his test administrator believes negative stereotypes about African-American learners. He becomes anxious and distracted, which results in a lower test score. Hershel’s fear is an example of

stereotype threat.

Over middle childhood, Reyandre, an African American, became increasingly conscious of ethnic stereotypes. By early adolescence, she stopped caring about her grades and said that school was not important to her. Reyandre’s attitude is an example of


When assessing students, Mrs. Carter introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support. Mrs. Carter is using

dynamic assessment.

Dynamic assessment is consistent with ___________ theory.


Dynamic assessment

helps identify forms of instruction best suited to the child.

In middle childhood, children’s attitude toward language undergoes a fundamental shift as they develop

metalinguistic awareness.

On average, children in middle childhood learn about ____ new words each day.


When asked to define "bicycle," Emi said, "It’s got wheels, a chain, and handlebars." Emi is probably

a first grader.

Which of the following classes would probably most appreciate the humor of riddles and puns?

a third grade class

During the school years, English-speaking children

extend the passive voice to inanimate subjects.

Mrs. Hopfensperger provides her second-graders with opportunities to communicate in many situations. Her students show gains in the communicative side of language. Mrs. Hopfensperger emphasizes


African-American children’s narratives are usually ________ than those of Caucasian-American children.

longer and more complex

Eight-year-old Goran immigrates to the United States with his family. About how long will it take Croatian-speaking Goran to attain speaking and writing skills in English on a par with his English-speaking agemates?

5 to 7 years

Miguel is bilingual. He sometimes speaks sentences in English that contain one or more Spanish words without violating the grammar of either language. Miguel engages in

code switching.

Children who become fluent in two languages

outperform others on tests of cognitive flexibility.

Elena moved to the United States from Guatemala when she was 6 years old. Research shows that if her school curriculum integrates both Spanish and English, she will

acquire English more easily.

Hilda is moving into a new neighborhood before her son starts kindergarten. When she visits schools, Hilda should look for a class with approximately how many students to give her son the best opportunity for success?

13 to 17

In a study of the impact of class size on elementary school children, placing teacher’s aides in regular-size classes

had no impact.

Mrs. Finkbiner’s classroom includes richly equipped learning centers, small groups and individuals solving self-chosen problems, and a teacher who guides and supports in response to children’s needs. Mrs. Finkbiner has a(n) ______________ educational philosophy.


Mr. Selkie’s classroom includes students whose desks face the front of the classroom, arranged in rows. The students are relatively passive—listening to Mr. Selkie, who is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision making. Mr. Selkie does most of the talking, though students are expected to respond when called on. Mr. Selkie has a(n) _____________ educational philosophy.


The _________ classroom has become increasingly pronounced as a result of the U.S. No Child Left Behind Act.


Holly’s birthday is two days before the cutoff date for kindergarten enrollment. Her parents are considering delaying her school entry by one year. They should know that research reveals that

younger first graders outperform same-age children a year behind them.

In Ms. Adkins classroom, children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings. As children appropriate the knowledge and strategies generated through working together, they become competent, contributing members of their classroom. Ms. Adkins has a ________ classroom.


Mr. Ryan and two to four of his pupils form a cooperative learning group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage. Mr. Ryan is using

reciprocal teaching.

Reciprocal teaching focuses on which four cognitive strategies?

questioning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting

Elementary and middle school students exposed to reciprocal teaching show

gains in reading comprehension.

Mrs. Nixon guides the overall process of learning in her classroom, but no other distinction is made between adult and child contributors: All participate in joint endeavors and have the authority to define and resolve problems. Mrs. Nixon is using a ____________ approach to instruction.

communities of learners

Many U.S. teachers emphasize

rote memorization and repetitive drills.

Which of the following is true about teacher-student relationships?

Caring teacher-student relationships have an especially strong impact on the achievement of children at risk for learning disabilities.

Nora’s teacher thinks she has a behavior problem. As a result, Nora starts to believe that she is a troublemaker and begins to act out in the classroom. This is an example of a(n)

educational self-fulfilling prophecy.

Which type of child-teacher relationship is most likely to lead to a negative self-fulfilling prophecy?

a low-achieving student with a teacher who publicly compares children

Which of the following statements about multigrade classrooms is true?

Self-esteem and attitudes toward school are usually more positive.

Which of the following is true about integration in American schools?

Hispanic children are less segregated than African-American children.

Which of the following is true about magnet schools?

The less-segregated education provided in a magnet school enhances minority student achievement.

Computer programming projects in the classroom promote

problem solving and metacognition.

Which of the following is true about computers and academic learning?

Using the computer for word processing enables children to write freely, experimenting with letters and words without having to struggle with handwriting.

Which of the following statements is true about the digital divide?

Boys are more likely than girls to engage in writing computer programs and to rate their computer skills as "excellent."

In Mrs. Hayes’s fourth grade classroom, students with learning difficulties work alongside typical students for part or all of the school day. Mrs. Hayes’s classroom is


Five to 10 percent of school-age children have

learning disabilities.

Jaylynn has an above-average IQ, but low reading achievement scores. Jaylynn has

a learning disability.

Adam has an IQ of 68. He spends his full school day in a classroom with typical learners. Adam is experiencing

full inclusion.

Which of the following is true about inclusion?

Achievement gains depend on the severity of the disability and the support services available.

Children with special needs go to Mrs. Holman for specialized instruction for part of the day, and remain with their regular teacher for the remainder of the day. Mrs. Holman teaches in a(n)

resource room.

Jeri’s IQ was assessed, and she has been labeled "gifted." In other words, her IQ is over


If a child is creative, he or she is able to

come up with original, appropriate work.

________ is emphasized on intelligence tests.

Convergent thinking

At a parent-teacher conference, Mr. Hopewell informed Juan’s parents that he had been tested and was found to be a highly creative child. The test probably focused on

divergent thinking.

Marisol was selected for her school’s gifted program because she had outstanding performance in mathematics. Marisol scored 119 on the IQ test. At Marisol’s school, the definition of giftedness has been extended to include


Carter is highly talented in art and music. His parents are likely to

be warm, sensitive, and reasonably demanding.

Gifted children

often have low self-esteem.

Gifted children fare well

in programs that emphasize problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity.

Gardner’s theory has sparked the development of programs to provide enrichment to all students. Which of the following is true regarding these programs?

They highlight the strengths of students who were previously considered ordinary or even at-risk.

In international studies of reading, mathematics, and science achievement, students in the United States typically perform

at or below the international average.

According to international comparisons, instruction in the United States is ____________ than in other industrialized countries.

less focused on high-level reasoning

Which of the following factors is a reason for the superior academic performance of Finnish as compared to American children?

In Finland, all students receive the same nationally mandated, high-quality instruction.

According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is

industry versus inferiority.

The psychological conflict of middle childhood is resolved positively when

experiences lead children to develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks.

The Ngoni of Malawi believe that when children ______________, they are mature enough for intensive skill training.

shed their first teeth

Six-year-old Hector is about to start formal schooling. Hector’s family life has not prepared him for school life. According to Erikson, Hector is in danger of developing a sense of


Which of the following children is the most likely to have a sense of industry?

Boulous, who has a positive but realistic self-concept

When describing themselves, older school-age children are _____ likely than younger children to _________________.

far less; describe themselves in all-or-nothing ways

Which of the following statements accurately reflects the change in self-description that typically occurs between ages 8 and 11?

Children organize their observations of behaviors and internal states into general descriptions.

Jenna observes that she is better at acting than her peers but not so good at basketball. Jenna is engaging in

social comparisons.

Which of the following children is most likely to compare herself to just one other person and use that information as a basis for self-evaluation?

Jessica, age 5

According to George Herbert Mead, ________ skills are crucial for developing a self-concept based on personality traits.


According to George Herbert Mead, as children become better at reading and internalizing others’ messages, they form a(n) ______ self.


Which of the following people is Juanita, a middle-school student, most likely to look to for feedback about herself?

Kaitlynn, Juanita’s best friend

School-age children with a history of _________ have more complex, favorable, and coherent self-concepts.

elaborative parent-child conversations about past experiences

Which child is likely to develop a self-concept based upon independence and self-assertion?

Michael, from the United States

As children enter school and receive more feedback about how well they perform compared with their peers, self-esteem usually

adjusts to a more realistic level.

During childhood and adolescence, ______________ correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than does any other self-esteem factor.

physical appearance

Marcus, a self-confident preschooler, is about to enter elementary school. Based on research, Marcus’s parents can expect his self-esteem to ________ over the next few years.


For most children, self-esteem rises from ______ on.

fourth grade

From middle childhood on, individual differences in self-esteem become

increasingly stable.

Carrie, age 8, has high social self-esteem. Of the following statements, which most likely applies to Carrie?

She tends to be well-liked by her classmates.

Thad, age 8, has a profile of low self-esteem in all areas. Of the following statements, which most likely applies to Thad?

He suffers from anxiety or depression.

Compared with U.S. children, Asian children

score lower in self-esteem.

Steven and Stephanie have equal skill levels in math, science, and language arts. Which of the following is probably true?

Steven has higher math and science self-esteem.

Which of the following statements is true about gender differences in self-esteem?

Only a slight difference exists between boys and girls in overall self-esteem.

Which statement about self-esteem is true?

Compared with their Caucasian agemates, African-American children tend to have slightly higher self-esteem.

Children whose parents use a(n) ___________ child-rearing style feel especially good about themselves.


__________ parenting is correlated with unrealistically high self-esteem, which undermines development.


Margaret is high in academic self-esteem and motivation. She probably credits her successes to

ability and effort.

Mastery-oriented children focus on ________ goals, while learned-helpless children focus on ________ goals.

learning; performance

Learned-helpless children

hold a fixed view of ability.

When Amanda succeeds, her mother says, "You’re so smart!" This type of trait statement might lead Amanda to

question her competence in the face of a setback.

Teachers who emphasize learning over getting good grades tend to have

mastery-oriented students.

Girls more often than boys

attribute poor performance to lack of ability.

Asian parents and teachers are more likely than their American counterparts to

hold an incremental view of ability.

Braison is receiving an intervention that encourages him to believe that he can overcome failure by exerting more effort. Braison is receiving

attribution retraining.

Mrs. Cybrig would like to help her low-effort daughter gain a sense of academic competence. Which of the following would you recommend to her?

Select tasks that challenge, but do not overwhelm her daughter.

In which of the following scenarios is Henry, age 9, the most likely to experience guilt?

He peeks at the answers of his classmate during a spelling quiz.

When 8-year-old Marcie accidentally spills orange juice and has a stain on her t-shirt for the rest of the day, she is likely to feel


______ prompts children to make amends.


Profound feelings of shame

can trigger withdrawal and depression.

Between ages 6 and 12, children

become more aware of circumstances likely to spark mixed emotions.

Nine-year-old Simpson is emotionally understanding and empathetic. He probably

also has favorable social relationships and prosocial behavior.

Ten-year-old Stanley knows that his friend MaryAnn is angry because he played with Chester at recess. The next day, Stanley invites MaryAnn to play with Chester and him. Stanley is using

problem-centered coping.

Kelsi’s best friend tells her she does not want to be her friend anymore because she likes Jessica better. Although Kelsi is sad, she tells herself that she has many other friends to play with and she spends the evening listening to her favorite songs. Kelsi is using

emotion-centered coping.

Eleven-year-old Elin is in line at the drinking fountain. When a boy pushes her from behind, Elin is most likely to respond

using verbal strategies.

Ten-year-old Justine has a feeling of being in control of her emotional experience. Justine has acquired

emotional self-efficacy.

Emotional self-efficacy

fosters a favorable self-image.

In response to a story about unjust parental punishment, which of the following children is most likely to say that he or she would feel OK, rather than angry?

Ashoka, a Buddhist boy

A’isha has the capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling. A’isha has developed

perspective taking.

Grayson understands that third-party perspective taking can be influenced by societal values. Grayson is at the stage of ________ perspective taking.


Helena understands that different perspectives may result because people have access to different information. Helena is at the stage of ________ perspective taking.


Axel can "step into his brother’s shoes" and view his own thoughts, feelings, and behavior from his brother’s point of view. Axel is at the stage of ________ perspective taking.


Eight-year-old Rachael, a Canadian child, is likely to

favor lying to support the individual at the expense of the group.

In one study, 8- to 10-year-olds judged the moral implications of flag burning. Which of the following was a judgment the children made?

They stated that burning a flag to start a cooking fire was worse than burning it accidentally.

In middle childhood, children realize that people’s ________ and ____________ affect the moral implications of violating a social convention.

intentions; the context of their actions

In middle childhood, children realize that people whose ______ differs may not be equally responsible for moral transgressions.


As early as age 6, children

view freedom of speech and religion as individual rights.

________ declines in middle childhood.


Children everywhere seem to realize that _________ must prevail when _________ is/are at stake.

higher principles; personal rights

The likelihood that a child will negatively evaluate an adult’s order to commit an immoral act

is unrelated to the child’s cultural background.

Which of the following is true about inequality?

By the early school years, children associate power and privilege with white people.

Previous research about children’s understanding of God led to a uniform conclusion that children

assigned anthropomorphic characteristics to God.

The most striking feature of children’s concepts of God is

their mix of tangible and intangible features.

Which of the following is true about in-group and out-group racial biases?

By age 5 to 7, white children generally evaluate other racial groups less favorably.

Children __________ are _____ likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudices.

with very high self-esteem; more

Which of the following is true about reducing prejudices?

Long-term contact and collaboration in neighborhoods, schools, and communities may be the best way to reduce prejudices.

By the end of middle childhood, children form ______ on the basis of proximity, gender, ethnicity, and popularity.

peer groups

When peer groups are tracked

for three to six weeks, membership changes very little.

Which of the following statements about peer groups is true?

They rebuff members who deviate from their codes of dress and behavior.

Within peer groups, children

acquire many social skills.

Adult involvement in formal groups, such as 4-H and scouting,

holds in check the negative behaviors associated with informal peer groups.

During middle childhood, ________ is the defining feature of friendship.


Which of the following is most likely true about 8-year-old Aja?

She has only a handful of good friends, who, like Aja, are popular and do well in school.

Delia and Tanner are both aggressive girls. Which of the following is probably true about their friendship?

It is full of relational hostility.

Holden, a prosocial child, is friends with Jack, an aggressive child. Which of the following is most likely to be true?

Their friendship will be riddled with hostile interaction.

Self-reports that measure social prominence assess

peer acceptance.

Children’s peer acceptance self-reports reveal that controversial children receive

a high number of positive and negative votes.

Children’s peer acceptance self-reports reveal that neglected children receive

few positive or negative votes.

Charles received few positive and many negative votes on peer acceptance self-reports from the children in his class. How would Charles be classified?


Charlene received many positive and no negative votes on peer acceptance self-reports from the children in her class. How would Charlene be classified?


Jade did not receive any extreme scores on peer acceptance self-reports from the children in her class, but was not neglected either. How would Jade be classified?


Which of the following children is most at risk for delinquency in adolescence and criminality in adulthood?

Marie, a rejected child

School-age children with peer-relationship problems are more likely to

have weak emotional self-regulation skills.

Yvonne is well-liked by her peers. She gets good grades, solves social problems constructively, and communicates in friendly and cooperative ways. Yvonne is a popular- __________ child.


Despite his aggressiveness, Tyler is admired by his peers for his sophisticated but devious social skills. Tyler is a _____________ child.


Kristen exhibits hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior. She is deficient in perspective taking, and shows high rates of physical and relational conflict. Kristen is a ______________ child.


Rejected-withdrawn children are

socially awkward and passive.

Sophia displays a blend of positive and negative social behaviors. She is disruptive, but also engages in prosocial acts. Sophia is a __________ child.


Neglected children

are usually well-adjusted.

Kurt is a target of verbal abuse, physical attacks, and other forms of abuse. Kurt is

experiencing peer victimization.

About _______ percent of children are repeatedly victimized by bullies.

15 to 30

Which of the following is true about bullying?

Chronic victims tend to be passive when active behavior is expected.

Anxious, withdrawn children who ________ show fewer adjustment problems than other victimized children.

are verbally skilled

Many __________ children are unaware of their poor social skills and do not take responsibility for their social failures.


Andy has developed a learned-helpless approach to peer acceptance—concluding, after repeated rebuffs, that he will never been liked. Andy is a _______child.


Interventions with rejected children aim to help them attribute their peer difficulties to ________ causes.

internal, changeable

During the school years, children’s gender-stereotyped beliefs

increase in less obvious areas of personality traits and achievement.


less often encourage girls to make their own decisions.

Which of the following personality traits is a child most likely to describe as feminine?


Which of the following subjects are children most likely to regard as more for girls?

language arts

From third to sixth grade,

boys’ identification with their "masculine" personality traits increases.

Jacob and Sarah are asked to rate the status of traditionally masculine and traditionally feminine occupations. Which of the following is most likely to be true?

Both Jacob and Sarah will rate traditionally masculine occupations as having a higher status than traditionally feminine occupations.

Dr. Schulz is conducting a study of the degree to which children feel comfortable with their gender assignment. Dr. Schulz is examining gender


Which of the following statements is true about families in industrialized nations today?

Families have become more diverse.

In middle childhood,

child rearing becomes easier for parents who established an authoritative style during the early years.

Jalesa’s parents exercise general oversight of her activities, while letting Jalesa take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. Jalesa and her parents are engaging in


Which of the following is true about the parent-child relationship in middle childhood?

Both parents tend to devote more time to children of their own sex.

Which of the following statements is true about sibling rivalry?

Parental comparisons are more frequent for same-sex siblings.

Differential treatment of siblings increases when

parents are dealing with financial or emotional stress.

Brothers Alan and James are very different in personality and temperament. What should their parents do to help facilitate their sibling relationship?

They should use mediation techniques to increase the boys’ awareness of each other’s perspectives and reduce animosity.

Which of the following is true about only children in the United States?

They do not differ from children with siblings in self-rated personality traits.

Only children ________ than children with siblings.

are somewhat closer to their parents

Bao, an only child, lives in China. Which of the following is probably true?

Bao does not differ from agemates with siblings in peer acceptance.

The most common way gay men and lesbians become parents is through

previous heterosexual marriages.

Gay and lesbian adoption is illegal in

some U.S. states.

Lilly’s parents are gay. Research shows that she is likely to

be as well-adjusted as other children.

Children of gay and lesbian parents can be distinguished from other children by

issues related to living in a nonsupportive society.

About ___ percent of U.S. children live with a single parent who has never married and does not have a partner.


African-American young women

make up the largest group of never-married parents.

The rate of divorce in the United States is

the highest in the world.

Seven-month-old Tristan’s parents are divorcing. If Tristan is like the average child of divorce, which of the following is likely to happen?

Tristan will spend about a third of his childhood in a single-parent family.

Approximately ________ of divorced parents remarry; and approximately _____ percent of those second marriages end in a divorce.

two-thirds; 50

Samantha has recently divorced. She and her 2-year-old are likely to experience which of the following in the initial period after the divorce?

a sharp drop in income

Trent’s parents are divorced and he resides with his mother. Trent’s father sees him only occasionally. His father’s parenting style is likely to be

permissive and indulgent.

Which child is the most likely to blame himself for his parents’ divorce?

Dewayne, age 4

Which of the following children has the highest risk for poor academic achievement and emotional adjustment?

Zane, a boy who lives with his divorced mother

Most children show improved adjustment to their parents’ divorce after

2 years.

The overriding factor in positive adjustment after divorce is

effective parenting.

Outcomes for sons are better when the

father is the custodial parent.

Cheryl and Saul are getting a divorce. They are meeting together with a trained professional in order to reduce family conflict, including legal battles over property division and child custody. Cheryl and Saul are participating in

divorce mediation.

Nikki and Alex are divorcing. The court grants both of them an equal say in important decisions about their children’s upbringing. This arrangement is known as

joint custody.

Which child is the most likely to be well-adjusted after a divorce?

Corez, whose parents have joint custody

Which of the following parents is the most likely to pay regular child support?

Fred, a noncustodial father who sees his daughter often

Seven-year-old Matthew and 14-year-old Molly have been living with their mother since their parents’ divorce two years ago. If their mother remarries, you would expect

Molly to show more adjustment problems than Matthew.


who marry rather than cohabit are usually more involved in parenting.

Which of the following is true about father-stepmother families?

When fathers have custody, children typically react negatively to remarriage.

In the United States today, about _______ of mothers with school-age children are employed.


Regardless of SES, daughters of employed mothers

are more achievement- and career-oriented.

When working mothers enjoy their jobs and remain committed to parenting, children show

less gender-stereotyped beliefs.

The Fishers are a dual-earner family. The Fisher children probably ___________ than their friends in single-earner households.

devote more daily hours to doing homework under parental guidance

Samantha is a stay-at-home mother who is considering going back to work. She is concerned about the impact on her children’s adjustment. To provide her children with the greatest benefits, Samantha could

work part-time with a flexible work schedule.

Alicia, a fourth-grader, regularly looks after herself for two to three hours after she gets home from school and before her mother gets home from work. Alicia is a

self-care child.

Which of the following 11-year-old children is the most likely to have adjustment difficulties when left alone at home?

Trenton, who is left to his own devices for five hours a day

In middle childhood, children’s anxieties are directed toward the realities of the wider world, such as a fear of

war and disaster.

Yolanda has developed an intense, unmanageable fear of the dark. Yolanda has a(n)


Jane feels severe apprehension about attending school. She often gets dizzy or nauseous and complains of stomachaches. Jane is likely to have

a school bully.

Hymie has developed a school phobia. Hymie’s parents should

insist that he return to school after providing training in how to cope.

Children who live in the midst of constant danger, chaos, and deprivation,

are at risk for long-term emotional distress and behavior problems.

When war and social crises are temporary, most children

do not show long-term emotional difficulties.

The best protection against lasting problems for children of war is

parental affection and reassurance.

Which child of war, who is separated from her parents, is likely to experience the most emotional stress?

Sentwali, who lives in a shelter

Which of the following is true about child sexual abuse?

Sexual abuse is committed against children of both sexes, but more often against girls.

A child sexual abuser is most likely to be

male, and either a parent or someone the parent knows well.

Which of the following is true about child sexual abusers?

Many offenders deny their own responsibility, blaming the abuse on the willing participation of a seductive youngster.

Children who _____________ are especially vulnerable to child sexual abuse.

live in homes with a constantly changing cast of characters

Younger children who are sexually abused frequently react

with generalized fearfulness.

Ellie was sexually abused as a child. This increases her chances of ________ in adulthood.

engaging in coercive parenting

The best way to reduce the suffering of victims of child sexual abuse is

to prevent sexual abuse from continuing.

Research indicates that ________ relationship exists between stressful life experiences and psychological disturbance in childhood.

only a modest

Marni, an easy-going third-grader with favorable self-esteem, has faced school difficulties, family transitions, and early maltreatment. Yet, Marni is well-adjusted. Marni is

a stress-resilient child.

Until recently, children were not assumed fully competent to testify in court cases involving child abuse until age


Compared with preschoolers, school-age children who give eyewitness testimony are

better at inferring other’s motives and intentions.

To maximize the accuracy of children’s testimony,

children should be prepared ahead of time, so they know what to expect.

Children in second through sixth grades who participated in the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program

less often behaved aggressively and engaged in more prosocial behavior.

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