Chapter 11 Nutrition

Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues?

Retinol binding protein

As fas as is know, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes?

Blood clotting

Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?

Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue

What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?

Chylomicrons

Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?

Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet

If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which of the following tissues can use it to form vitamin A?

Intestinal cells

Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?

beta-carotene

How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?

3

All of the following are forms of vitamin A except

retinoquinone

What are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A?

blindness develops

Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision?

Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration

Which of the following is the name of the vitamin A compound that is active in the visual response?

Retinal

Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process?

Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal

Approximately what percent of the body's vitamin A stores are found in the liver?

90

what tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A?

liver

Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin A in bone health?

It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur

If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A- poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?

1-2 years

Approximately how many children worldwide have vitamin A deficiency?

250 million

Why does vitamin A status depend on the person's protein status?

Transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein

Studies in developing countries have demonstrated that the mortality rate of children with measles can be significantly reduced by providing supplements of

vitamin A

Which of the following functions is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E?

inhibition of oxidation

The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually

night blindness

Which of the following is associated with the condition known as xerosis?

deficiency of vitamin A

Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions?

night blindness

The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population?

Newborns

Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A?

xerophthalmis

Keratinization is the result of

deficiency of vitamin A

What part of the body is affected most by keratomalacia?

cornea

Keratinization of lung cells may result from

deficiency of vitamin A

Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?

They have chemical structures similar to vitamin A

What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?

children

which of the following is a feature of taking high-dose supplements of vitamin A?

They increase teratogenic risk

The preferred unit of expression of vitamin A is

the retinol activity equivalent

Which of the following is a feature of Accutane?

it is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women

All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except

smoking cigarettes aggravates the detrimental effects of supplements

How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity

12

On average, one retinol activity equivalent is equal to about how many international units?

3

Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice?

Skin yellowing

Why shouldn't a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribed Accuatne?

It is a teratogen and can be harmful to the baby

In which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur?

Those taking vitamin A supplements

To decreases risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than

4 times the RDA

The adult RDA for vitamin A is approximately

800 retinol activity equivalents

Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?

consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements

Which of the following is a characteristic of carotenoids in foods?

Carotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods?

Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene

which of the following is a feature of carotenoids in foods?

Absorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat-free dressing

A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except

bananas

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin A in foods?

a regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children

Which of the following provides the least amount of precursor vitamin A?

corn

The plant version of vitamin d is known as

ergocalciferol

The animal version of vitamin D is known as

cholecalciferol

All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except the

intestines

Which of the following shows the highest vitamin D activity?

1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D

Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D?

Cholesterol

Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?

Exposure to sunlight

In what tissues must a molecule of vitamin D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?

liver and kidney

All of the following are other names for vitamin D except

calcitonin

Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?

Vitamin D

The major target organs for the action of activated vitamin D include all of the following except the

liver

What are the main functions of vitamin D

Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone

A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin

D

What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?

Osteomalacia

What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia?

Adult women

In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?

Skeletal

Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?

Osteomalacia and rickets

Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D deficiency?

It causes excess iron absorption

All of the following are characteristics of vitamin d nutrition except

the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun

Which of the following is now known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly?

excessive use of hypertension medications

The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced

absorption of dietary vitamin D

Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults?

Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?

The average consumption in the United States does not meet the recommended intake

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin D nutrition?

prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity

Which of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?

Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight

Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?

Excessive intake of vitamin D

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?

Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source

Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet?

Fortified milk

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?

Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D

Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D?

Egg yolks

Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D nutrition?

excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity

What is the adequate intake level for vitamin D in individuals around 20 years of age?

5ug

Recently, there has been alot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?

E

The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as an

antioxidant

What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?

Eliminator

Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?

Both function as antioxidants

How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?

It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins

The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of

polyunsaturated fatty acids

The process of bone remodeling is known to be dependent on all of the fat-soluble vitamins except?

vitamin E

What from of tocopherol shows vitamin E activity in the human body?

Alpha

Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?

Erythrocyte hemolysis

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E?

Deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids

Why are vitamin E deficiencies rarely observed in human beings?

The vitamin is widespread in foods

There is some evidence for benefits from vitamin E supplements in all of the following groups except

people with problems of sexual impotence

Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy?

Intermittent claudication

To convert the number of tocopherol equivalents to alpha-tocopherol, multiply by the factor

0.8

which of the following is a property of the tocopherols?

Easily destroyed by air and oxygen

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E in foods?

Most convenience foods are poor sources of vitamin E

Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?

Vegetable oils

Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?

Corn oil

In comparison with the RDA for vitamin E, about how many fold higher is the tolerable upper intake level?

65

Increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for vitamin

E

Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols?

They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats

Which of the following properties do vitamins D and K share?

Both are synthesized in the body

What is prothrombin?

A protein needed for blood clot formation

Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?

Prothrombin

In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?

Blood clotting

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?

It participates in synthesis of bone proteins

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?

Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bio-available vitamin K

Which of the following is a feature of osteocalcin?

It requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals

Of the following, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency?

Antibiotic therapy

All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except

gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

K

Which vitamin is routinely given as a single does to newborns?

Vitamin K

Knowing the role of vitamin K in the body, in what organ would you expect to find it in large quantities?

Liver

What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?

Newborns

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?

No adverse effects have been reported with high intakes

What types of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines?

Green leafy vegetables

The major from of vitamin K in foods is known as

phylloquinone

Approximately what percentage of the body's store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis?

50

What is the adult AI for vitamin K?

90-120 ug

Which of the following is not a fat soluble vitamin?

Cyanocobalamin

What is a free radical?

A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons

Which of the following is a characteristic of free radicals?

They arise from normal metabolic reactions

Substances that promote oxidation are usually termed

prooxidants

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin C and vitamin E?

both protect against LDL oxidation

Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?

The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams

What is a precursor?

A substance that is used to synthesize another compound

What is meant by the bio-availability of a vitamin in food?

The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except

they must be consumed daily

All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins except

excesses are eliminated from the kidneys

Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of

vitamin A

Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk?

Vitamin A

What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins?

Kidney

When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?

Excreted primarily in the urine

What is a chief function of the B vitamins?

Coenzyme participation

Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?

Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?

Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place

Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin?

Energy release from energy-yielding nutrients

What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme?

Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism

Which of the following is the coenzyme from of thiamin?

Thiamin pyrophosphate

Beriberi results from a deficiency of

thiamin

Which of the following diets is most likely to lead to beriberi?

High intakes of white rice

The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of

thiamin

Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition?

It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane

Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?

80

All of the following are characteristics of thiamin nutrition except

recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents"

Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size?

Ham

Which of the following is a property of thiamin nutrition?

Poor sources include seafood and cheeses

How does the method of cooking affect thiamin stability?

Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin

Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue?

Pig

Of the following, which is the richest food source of thiamin?

soy milk

Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of

hydrogen atoms

Which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation
reactions?

riboflavin

Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin?

inflamed mouth membranes

Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin
when expressed per kcalorie?

Vegetables

What is ariboflavonosis?

The vitamin B2 deficiency disease

The signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as

ariboflavinosis

Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in

dairy foods

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to

ultraviolet light

What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?

cardboard

The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin?

riboflavin

Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to
riboflavin intake?

Milk

Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of the following vitamins?

Riboflavin

A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the
corners of the mouth?

riboflavin

Which of the following is a property of riboflavin in nutrition?

stability to heat is good

Which of the following is a property of niacin in nutrition?

It can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan

Which of the following properties is shared by niacin and riboflavin coenzymes?

acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms

When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by
the body to synthesize niacin?

Tryptophan

Which of the following nutrients functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral,
symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on areas exposed to the sun?

niacin

The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means

rough skin

A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency
of what vitamin?

niacin

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in
corn and low in protein?

pellagra

Which of the following is not among the common signs of pellagra?

desiccation

A general niacin deficiency is known to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the
following organs/systems except

skeletal system

Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize

niacin

While researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a
sister who died fairly young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea,
dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you
suspect this relative died of

pellagra

Which of the following substances is found in corn and contributes to the development of
pellagra?

leucine

What term identifies the characteristic tingling sensations and reddening of the skin after
ingesting a pharmacologic dose of nicotinic acid?

niacin flush

Which of the following overt side effect(s) is likely to appear after a person ingests a
high quantity of nicotinic acid?

painful, tingling, itching sensation

When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury
and peptic ulcers?

niacin

Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following except

disappearance of learning disorders in children

Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition?

high doses may lower blood cholesterol

Your friend Jane just returned from the doctor who diagnosed her with a specific vitamin
B toxicity. However, she doesn't recall the name of the vitamin. Which of the following
is the only possible culprit associated with toxicity symptoms?

niacin

What is the approximate niacin RDA for adults?

15 niacin equivalents

Among the following, which would be the best source of niacin equivalents?

chicken

Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4
egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin
deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the

be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease

Features of biotin in nutrition include all of the following except

a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large amounts of thiamin and folic acid, which interfere with its absorption

Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is
considered a vitamin for human beings?

biotin

Which of the following foods contains a protein that decreases bioavailability of biotin?

raw egg whites

A protein that binds with biotin (thus inhibiting absorption) is found in which food?

raw egg whites

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

biotin

Biotin can be synthesized by

intestinal bacteria

What is the adult Adequate Intake for biotin?

30 ug

What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?

pantothenic acid

What is the AI for pantothenic acid for adults?

5mg

Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing
of food?

pantothenic acid

Forms of vitamin B6 include all of the following except

pyrimidine

Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue?

vitamin B6

The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include

confusion and depression

What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism?

vitamin B6

Which of the following is not a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?

it is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure

All of the following are features of vitamin B6 metabolism except

it enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of 1 mg/g of dietary protein

What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin B6?

100 mg

A common drug for the treatment of tuberculosis is known to markedly interfere in the
metabolism of vitamin

B6

Irreversible nerve damage has been reported in people taking large doses of

vitamin B6

Which of the following statements reflects our knowledge of water-soluble vitamin
toxicity?

toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be sever and irreversible

In what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin B6 metabolism?

it dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme

What is the adult RDA for vitamin B6?

1.3 mg

On a per-kcalorie basis, which of the following foods is richest in vitamin B6?

vegetables

Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings?

folate

Pteroylglutamic acid is known as

folate

All of the following are properties of folate in nutrition except

it functions primarily in the transfer of amino groups

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate?

both are required for nucleic acid synthesis

Which of the following vitamins undergoes significant enterohepatic circulation?

folate

Which of the following vitamins is usually found in a form that is bound to one or more
glutamic acid molecules in food?

folate

A person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of

folate

What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting
from folate deficiency?

since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning

Which of the following is not a feature of folate nutrition?

folate must be methylated by homocysteine prior to crossing the brush border membrane

Approximately what percentage of dietary folate is bioavailable?

50

The percent bioavailability of a folate supplement taken on an empty stomach is

100

How many dietary folate equivalents are provided by 100 µg of a folate supplement?

170

What fraction of women capable of becoming pregnant ingest the RDA for folate?

1/2

Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking
supplements of

folate

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect?

spina bifida

Which of the following is a feature of folate nutrition?

synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring food folate

By law, what amount of folate (µg) must be added to 100 g of food products such as
breads, flour, and rice?

140

Nicole is pregnant and is trying to monitor her folate intake. She is eating foods high in
folate as well as taking folate supplements, and she is having a hard time determining
how many dietary folate equivalents she is consuming. Below is a list of her daily intake
with respect to folate:

580

Because of adverse interactions with other vitamins, a safe daily folate intake is up to

1,000 ug

A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine
in the blood?

folate

The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake
of supplements of

folate

What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive
tract cells?

folate

Which of the following substances is known to adversely affect folate utilization?

regular use of antacids

Which of the following is representative of folate availability in foods?

much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation

Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status?

some anticancer drugs

Physiological stresses such as blood loss, burns, measles, and cancer are known
particularly to increase the risk of deficiency for

folate

Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate?

macrocytic anemia

Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed

goat's milk

Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with
drugs?

folate

What is the RDA for folate for a woman weighing 132 pounds?

400 ug

What is the adult RDA for folate (µg)?

400

Which of the following foods is highest in folate?

green, leafy vegetables

Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?

intrinsic factor

What is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption?

it attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines

All of the following are required for efficient dietary absorption of vitamin B12 except

mucosal cobalaminase

What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?

inadequate absorption

Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of

vitamin B12

The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of

vitamin B12

The absorption of which of the following vitamins is most affected by the disorder
atrophic gastritis?

vitamin B12

Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?

it is efficiently recycled by the body

A similar type of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either

vitamin B12 or folate

Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by
inadequate absorption?

injection of cobalamin

If a person refrained from ingesting any of the water-soluble vitamins, deficiency
symptoms would appear last for

vitamin B12

Normally, the body's storage and re-utilization of vitamin B12 prevents a primary or
secondary deficiency from occurring until after about

3 years

In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of
time could elapse before deficiency signs develop?

three years

Pernicious anemia results from a combination of lack of intrinsic factor and

lack of hydrochloric acids

Which of the following is not known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic
gastritis?

avoidance of leafy vegetables

Which of the following is not known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic
gastritis?

synthetic B12 in supplement form is highly utilizable

Among the following water-soluble vitamins, a secondary deficiency would most likely
be seen for

vitamin B12

Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency?

vegetarian diets probide insufficient amounts of the vitamin

Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12?

hot dog

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin B12?

it is inactivated when the food is heated in a mircrowave

The adult RDA for vitamin B12 (µg) is

2.4

Which of the following vitamins has an RDA?

cobalamin

Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body?

carnitine

Which of the following is not known to be required in the diet of human beings?

lipoic acid

Which of the following is classified as a conditionally essential nutrient?

choline

Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings?

choline

Which of the following is not known to be a vitamin for human beings?

ubiquinone

Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?

tongue

Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency?

smooth tongue

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C and folate?

consumption prevents anemia

What is a free radical?

molecule with at least one unpaired electron

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?

antioxidant agent

In what capacity does vitamin C function?

cofactor in collagen formation

The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is

collagen

Which of the following represents the results of well-controlled studies of vitamin C

there was a significant reduction in the duration of colds in people who consumed at least one gram a day

Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold?

they deactivate histamine

Which of the following vitamins is known to deactivate histamine, a substance that
causes nasal congestion?

vitamin C

What is the minimum daily amount of ascorbic acid that will prevent the appearance of
scorbutic symptoms in human beings?

10 mg

How much vitamin C is needed daily to raise blood ascorbic acid concentrations to a
maximum?

200 mg

Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency?

bleeding gums

In the United States, what is the adult RDA for vitamin C?

75-90 mg

People who smoke require additional vitamin C in the amount of

35 mg

Which of the following symptoms is indicative of a deficiency of vitamin C?

subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhages

People with the condition known as iron overload may be adversely affected from taking
supplements of

ascorbic acid

Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C?

fruit group

What term is used to describe the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently shows that
you have mononucleosis when in reality you do not?

false positive

What term describes the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently indicates that you
do not have an infection when in reality you do?

false negative

John is looking to increase his dietary sources of vitamin C. However, he expresses a
strong dislike for all citrus fruits. Which of the following shopping lists would you
recommend?

brussel sprouts, broccoli, strawberries

Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?

broccoli

Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C?

roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea

Which of the following would be a very good source of vitamin C for the lacto-ovo-
vegetarian?

broccoli

All of the following are consequences of ingesting excess vitamin C supplements except

they enhance the action of anticlotting medications

Moderate intakes of which of the following would provide sufficient amounts of vitamin
C?

potatoes

What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population
despite the modest vitamin C concentration?

potatoes

Which of the following would be the poorest dietary source of vitamin C?

whole grains

172. A vitamin supplement labeled as "high potency" contains an amount that

100% or more of the daily value

Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population takes multinutrient supplements
regularly?

33

The known dangers of taking vitamin supplements include all of the following except

pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection

Which of the following statements is representative of vitamin supplementation practices?

people who have low energy intakes or are pregnant are at risk for developing deficiencies and may benefit from supplementation

A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from
a supplement of

vitamin D

Those groups of people who are at risk for developing marginal nutrient deficiencies and
may benefit from taking vitamin supplements include all of the following except

athletes who are engaged in intense competitive events

All of the following are known to occur from a mild iron overdose except

black tongue

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Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues?

Retinol binding protein

As fas as is know, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes?

Blood clotting

Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?

Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue

What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?

Chylomicrons

Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?

Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet

If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which of the following tissues can use it to form vitamin A?

Intestinal cells

Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?

beta-carotene

How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?

3

All of the following are forms of vitamin A except

retinoquinone

What are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A?

blindness develops

Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision?

Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration

Which of the following is the name of the vitamin A compound that is active in the visual response?

Retinal

Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process?

Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal

Approximately what percent of the body’s vitamin A stores are found in the liver?

90

what tissue contains the majority of the body’s store of vitamin A?

liver

Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin A in bone health?

It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur

If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A- poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?

1-2 years

Approximately how many children worldwide have vitamin A deficiency?

250 million

Why does vitamin A status depend on the person’s protein status?

Transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein

Studies in developing countries have demonstrated that the mortality rate of children with measles can be significantly reduced by providing supplements of

vitamin A

Which of the following functions is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E?

inhibition of oxidation

The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually

night blindness

Which of the following is associated with the condition known as xerosis?

deficiency of vitamin A

Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions?

night blindness

The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population?

Newborns

Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A?

xerophthalmis

Keratinization is the result of

deficiency of vitamin A

What part of the body is affected most by keratomalacia?

cornea

Keratinization of lung cells may result from

deficiency of vitamin A

Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?

They have chemical structures similar to vitamin A

What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?

children

which of the following is a feature of taking high-dose supplements of vitamin A?

They increase teratogenic risk

The preferred unit of expression of vitamin A is

the retinol activity equivalent

Which of the following is a feature of Accutane?

it is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women

All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except

smoking cigarettes aggravates the detrimental effects of supplements

How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity

12

On average, one retinol activity equivalent is equal to about how many international units?

3

Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice?

Skin yellowing

Why shouldn’t a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribed Accuatne?

It is a teratogen and can be harmful to the baby

In which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur?

Those taking vitamin A supplements

To decreases risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than

4 times the RDA

The adult RDA for vitamin A is approximately

800 retinol activity equivalents

Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?

consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements

Which of the following is a characteristic of carotenoids in foods?

Carotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods?

Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene

which of the following is a feature of carotenoids in foods?

Absorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat-free dressing

A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except

bananas

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin A in foods?

a regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children

Which of the following provides the least amount of precursor vitamin A?

corn

The plant version of vitamin d is known as

ergocalciferol

The animal version of vitamin D is known as

cholecalciferol

All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except the

intestines

Which of the following shows the highest vitamin D activity?

1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D

Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body’s synthesis of vitamin D?

Cholesterol

Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?

Exposure to sunlight

In what tissues must a molecule of vitamin D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?

liver and kidney

All of the following are other names for vitamin D except

calcitonin

Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?

Vitamin D

The major target organs for the action of activated vitamin D include all of the following except the

liver

What are the main functions of vitamin D

Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone

A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin

D

What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?

Osteomalacia

What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia?

Adult women

In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?

Skeletal

Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?

Osteomalacia and rickets

Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D deficiency?

It causes excess iron absorption

All of the following are characteristics of vitamin d nutrition except

the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun

Which of the following is now known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly?

excessive use of hypertension medications

The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced

absorption of dietary vitamin D

Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults?

Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?

The average consumption in the United States does not meet the recommended intake

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin D nutrition?

prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity

Which of the following enables much of the world’s population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?

Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight

Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?

Excessive intake of vitamin D

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?

Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source

Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet?

Fortified milk

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?

Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D

Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D?

Egg yolks

Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D nutrition?

excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity

What is the adequate intake level for vitamin D in individuals around 20 years of age?

5ug

Recently, there has been alot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?

E

The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as an

antioxidant

What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?

Eliminator

Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?

Both function as antioxidants

How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?

It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins

The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of

polyunsaturated fatty acids

The process of bone remodeling is known to be dependent on all of the fat-soluble vitamins except?

vitamin E

What from of tocopherol shows vitamin E activity in the human body?

Alpha

Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?

Erythrocyte hemolysis

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E?

Deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids

Why are vitamin E deficiencies rarely observed in human beings?

The vitamin is widespread in foods

There is some evidence for benefits from vitamin E supplements in all of the following groups except

people with problems of sexual impotence

Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy?

Intermittent claudication

To convert the number of tocopherol equivalents to alpha-tocopherol, multiply by the factor

0.8

which of the following is a property of the tocopherols?

Easily destroyed by air and oxygen

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E in foods?

Most convenience foods are poor sources of vitamin E

Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?

Vegetable oils

Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?

Corn oil

In comparison with the RDA for vitamin E, about how many fold higher is the tolerable upper intake level?

65

Increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for vitamin

E

Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols?

They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats

Which of the following properties do vitamins D and K share?

Both are synthesized in the body

What is prothrombin?

A protein needed for blood clot formation

Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?

Prothrombin

In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?

Blood clotting

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?

It participates in synthesis of bone proteins

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?

Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bio-available vitamin K

Which of the following is a feature of osteocalcin?

It requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals

Of the following, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency?

Antibiotic therapy

All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except

gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

K

Which vitamin is routinely given as a single does to newborns?

Vitamin K

Knowing the role of vitamin K in the body, in what organ would you expect to find it in large quantities?

Liver

What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?

Newborns

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?

No adverse effects have been reported with high intakes

What types of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines?

Green leafy vegetables

The major from of vitamin K in foods is known as

phylloquinone

Approximately what percentage of the body’s store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis?

50

What is the adult AI for vitamin K?

90-120 ug

Which of the following is not a fat soluble vitamin?

Cyanocobalamin

What is a free radical?

A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons

Which of the following is a characteristic of free radicals?

They arise from normal metabolic reactions

Substances that promote oxidation are usually termed

prooxidants

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin C and vitamin E?

both protect against LDL oxidation

Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?

The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams

What is a precursor?

A substance that is used to synthesize another compound

What is meant by the bio-availability of a vitamin in food?

The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except

they must be consumed daily

All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins except

excesses are eliminated from the kidneys

Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of

vitamin A

Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk?

Vitamin A

What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins?

Kidney

When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?

Excreted primarily in the urine

What is a chief function of the B vitamins?

Coenzyme participation

Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?

Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?

Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place

Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin?

Energy release from energy-yielding nutrients

What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme?

Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism

Which of the following is the coenzyme from of thiamin?

Thiamin pyrophosphate

Beriberi results from a deficiency of

thiamin

Which of the following diets is most likely to lead to beriberi?

High intakes of white rice

The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of

thiamin

Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition?

It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane

Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?

80

All of the following are characteristics of thiamin nutrition except

recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents"

Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size?

Ham

Which of the following is a property of thiamin nutrition?

Poor sources include seafood and cheeses

How does the method of cooking affect thiamin stability?

Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin

Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue?

Pig

Of the following, which is the richest food source of thiamin?

soy milk

Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of

hydrogen atoms

Which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation
reactions?

riboflavin

Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin?

inflamed mouth membranes

Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin
when expressed per kcalorie?

Vegetables

What is ariboflavonosis?

The vitamin B2 deficiency disease

The signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as

ariboflavinosis

Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in

dairy foods

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to

ultraviolet light

What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?

cardboard

The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin?

riboflavin

Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to
riboflavin intake?

Milk

Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of the following vitamins?

Riboflavin

A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the
corners of the mouth?

riboflavin

Which of the following is a property of riboflavin in nutrition?

stability to heat is good

Which of the following is a property of niacin in nutrition?

It can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan

Which of the following properties is shared by niacin and riboflavin coenzymes?

acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms

When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by
the body to synthesize niacin?

Tryptophan

Which of the following nutrients functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral,
symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on areas exposed to the sun?

niacin

The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means

rough skin

A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency
of what vitamin?

niacin

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in
corn and low in protein?

pellagra

Which of the following is not among the common signs of pellagra?

desiccation

A general niacin deficiency is known to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the
following organs/systems except

skeletal system

Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize

niacin

While researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a
sister who died fairly young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea,
dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you
suspect this relative died of

pellagra

Which of the following substances is found in corn and contributes to the development of
pellagra?

leucine

What term identifies the characteristic tingling sensations and reddening of the skin after
ingesting a pharmacologic dose of nicotinic acid?

niacin flush

Which of the following overt side effect(s) is likely to appear after a person ingests a
high quantity of nicotinic acid?

painful, tingling, itching sensation

When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury
and peptic ulcers?

niacin

Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following except

disappearance of learning disorders in children

Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition?

high doses may lower blood cholesterol

Your friend Jane just returned from the doctor who diagnosed her with a specific vitamin
B toxicity. However, she doesn’t recall the name of the vitamin. Which of the following
is the only possible culprit associated with toxicity symptoms?

niacin

What is the approximate niacin RDA for adults?

15 niacin equivalents

Among the following, which would be the best source of niacin equivalents?

chicken

Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4
egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin
deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the

be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease

Features of biotin in nutrition include all of the following except

a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large amounts of thiamin and folic acid, which interfere with its absorption

Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is
considered a vitamin for human beings?

biotin

Which of the following foods contains a protein that decreases bioavailability of biotin?

raw egg whites

A protein that binds with biotin (thus inhibiting absorption) is found in which food?

raw egg whites

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

biotin

Biotin can be synthesized by

intestinal bacteria

What is the adult Adequate Intake for biotin?

30 ug

What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?

pantothenic acid

What is the AI for pantothenic acid for adults?

5mg

Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing
of food?

pantothenic acid

Forms of vitamin B6 include all of the following except

pyrimidine

Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue?

vitamin B6

The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include

confusion and depression

What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism?

vitamin B6

Which of the following is not a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?

it is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure

All of the following are features of vitamin B6 metabolism except

it enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of 1 mg/g of dietary protein

What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin B6?

100 mg

A common drug for the treatment of tuberculosis is known to markedly interfere in the
metabolism of vitamin

B6

Irreversible nerve damage has been reported in people taking large doses of

vitamin B6

Which of the following statements reflects our knowledge of water-soluble vitamin
toxicity?

toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be sever and irreversible

In what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin B6 metabolism?

it dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme

What is the adult RDA for vitamin B6?

1.3 mg

On a per-kcalorie basis, which of the following foods is richest in vitamin B6?

vegetables

Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings?

folate

Pteroylglutamic acid is known as

folate

All of the following are properties of folate in nutrition except

it functions primarily in the transfer of amino groups

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate?

both are required for nucleic acid synthesis

Which of the following vitamins undergoes significant enterohepatic circulation?

folate

Which of the following vitamins is usually found in a form that is bound to one or more
glutamic acid molecules in food?

folate

A person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of

folate

What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting
from folate deficiency?

since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning

Which of the following is not a feature of folate nutrition?

folate must be methylated by homocysteine prior to crossing the brush border membrane

Approximately what percentage of dietary folate is bioavailable?

50

The percent bioavailability of a folate supplement taken on an empty stomach is

100

How many dietary folate equivalents are provided by 100 µg of a folate supplement?

170

What fraction of women capable of becoming pregnant ingest the RDA for folate?

1/2

Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking
supplements of

folate

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect?

spina bifida

Which of the following is a feature of folate nutrition?

synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring food folate

By law, what amount of folate (µg) must be added to 100 g of food products such as
breads, flour, and rice?

140

Nicole is pregnant and is trying to monitor her folate intake. She is eating foods high in
folate as well as taking folate supplements, and she is having a hard time determining
how many dietary folate equivalents she is consuming. Below is a list of her daily intake
with respect to folate:

580

Because of adverse interactions with other vitamins, a safe daily folate intake is up to

1,000 ug

A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine
in the blood?

folate

The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake
of supplements of

folate

What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive
tract cells?

folate

Which of the following substances is known to adversely affect folate utilization?

regular use of antacids

Which of the following is representative of folate availability in foods?

much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation

Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body’s folate status?

some anticancer drugs

Physiological stresses such as blood loss, burns, measles, and cancer are known
particularly to increase the risk of deficiency for

folate

Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate?

macrocytic anemia

Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed

goat’s milk

Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with
drugs?

folate

What is the RDA for folate for a woman weighing 132 pounds?

400 ug

What is the adult RDA for folate (µg)?

400

Which of the following foods is highest in folate?

green, leafy vegetables

Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?

intrinsic factor

What is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption?

it attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines

All of the following are required for efficient dietary absorption of vitamin B12 except

mucosal cobalaminase

What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?

inadequate absorption

Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of

vitamin B12

The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of

vitamin B12

The absorption of which of the following vitamins is most affected by the disorder
atrophic gastritis?

vitamin B12

Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?

it is efficiently recycled by the body

A similar type of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either

vitamin B12 or folate

Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by
inadequate absorption?

injection of cobalamin

If a person refrained from ingesting any of the water-soluble vitamins, deficiency
symptoms would appear last for

vitamin B12

Normally, the body’s storage and re-utilization of vitamin B12 prevents a primary or
secondary deficiency from occurring until after about

3 years

In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of
time could elapse before deficiency signs develop?

three years

Pernicious anemia results from a combination of lack of intrinsic factor and

lack of hydrochloric acids

Which of the following is not known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic
gastritis?

avoidance of leafy vegetables

Which of the following is not known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic
gastritis?

synthetic B12 in supplement form is highly utilizable

Among the following water-soluble vitamins, a secondary deficiency would most likely
be seen for

vitamin B12

Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency?

vegetarian diets probide insufficient amounts of the vitamin

Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12?

hot dog

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin B12?

it is inactivated when the food is heated in a mircrowave

The adult RDA for vitamin B12 (µg) is

2.4

Which of the following vitamins has an RDA?

cobalamin

Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body?

carnitine

Which of the following is not known to be required in the diet of human beings?

lipoic acid

Which of the following is classified as a conditionally essential nutrient?

choline

Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings?

choline

Which of the following is not known to be a vitamin for human beings?

ubiquinone

Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?

tongue

Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency?

smooth tongue

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C and folate?

consumption prevents anemia

What is a free radical?

molecule with at least one unpaired electron

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?

antioxidant agent

In what capacity does vitamin C function?

cofactor in collagen formation

The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is

collagen

Which of the following represents the results of well-controlled studies of vitamin C

there was a significant reduction in the duration of colds in people who consumed at least one gram a day

Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold?

they deactivate histamine

Which of the following vitamins is known to deactivate histamine, a substance that
causes nasal congestion?

vitamin C

What is the minimum daily amount of ascorbic acid that will prevent the appearance of
scorbutic symptoms in human beings?

10 mg

How much vitamin C is needed daily to raise blood ascorbic acid concentrations to a
maximum?

200 mg

Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency?

bleeding gums

In the United States, what is the adult RDA for vitamin C?

75-90 mg

People who smoke require additional vitamin C in the amount of

35 mg

Which of the following symptoms is indicative of a deficiency of vitamin C?

subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhages

People with the condition known as iron overload may be adversely affected from taking
supplements of

ascorbic acid

Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C?

fruit group

What term is used to describe the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently shows that
you have mononucleosis when in reality you do not?

false positive

What term describes the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently indicates that you
do not have an infection when in reality you do?

false negative

John is looking to increase his dietary sources of vitamin C. However, he expresses a
strong dislike for all citrus fruits. Which of the following shopping lists would you
recommend?

brussel sprouts, broccoli, strawberries

Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?

broccoli

Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C?

roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea

Which of the following would be a very good source of vitamin C for the lacto-ovo-
vegetarian?

broccoli

All of the following are consequences of ingesting excess vitamin C supplements except

they enhance the action of anticlotting medications

Moderate intakes of which of the following would provide sufficient amounts of vitamin
C?

potatoes

What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population
despite the modest vitamin C concentration?

potatoes

Which of the following would be the poorest dietary source of vitamin C?

whole grains

172. A vitamin supplement labeled as "high potency" contains an amount that

100% or more of the daily value

Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population takes multinutrient supplements
regularly?

33

The known dangers of taking vitamin supplements include all of the following except

pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection

Which of the following statements is representative of vitamin supplementation practices?

people who have low energy intakes or are pregnant are at risk for developing deficiencies and may benefit from supplementation

A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from
a supplement of

vitamin D

Those groups of people who are at risk for developing marginal nutrient deficiencies and
may benefit from taking vitamin supplements include all of the following except

athletes who are engaged in intense competitive events

All of the following are known to occur from a mild iron overdose except

black tongue

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