Chapter 11 Homework Physics 1310

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Who advanced the idea of atoms in the early 1800s?

John Dalton

What causes dust particles and tiny grains of soot to move with Brownian motion?

Collisions with invisible particles

Who first explained Brownian motion and made a convincing case for the existence of atoms?

Albert Einstein

How does the approximate number of atoms in the air in your lungs compare with the number of breaths of air in Earth’s atmosphere?

The numbers are the about the same, 10^23

Are most of the atoms around us younger or older than the Sun?

older

Why can atoms be seen with an electron beam?

The wavelength of the electrons is smaller than an atom.

Why can’t atoms be seen with a powerful optical microscope?

Atoms are much smaller than a wavelength of light.

Where in the atom is most of its mass concentrated? What is this mass composed of?

In the nucleus as protons and neutrons

What is meant by the term nucleon?

a proton or a neutron

How does the electric charge of a proton compare with the electric charge of an electron?

its equal and opposite

Since atoms are mostly empty space, why don’t we fall through a floor we stand on?

Electrons in one atom repel the electrons in another.

What element has the lightest atoms?

hydrogen

What is the most abundant element in the known universe?

hydrogen

How are most of the elements with nuclei heavier than those of hydrogen and helium formed?

nuclear fusion in stars

What are the five most common elements in the universe?

C,H,O,N,Ca

Which of the following are negatively charged?

electrons

What does the atomic number of an element tell you about the element?

The # of protons in its nucleus

How many shells are represented in the presently known periodic table?

7

Why aren’t heavier elements much larger than lighter elements?

The larger positive charge in the nucleus pulls the electrons into closer orbits.

Which of the following is an element?

Hydrogen

How does one isotope differ from another?

Different number of neutrons

The periodic table of the elements is a list of

atoms

What is a compound? Cite two examples.

Atoms of different elements with bonds between them: NaCl and H2O

What is a mixture? Cite two examples.

Atoms pressed together without bonding: air and salt and sand

How does a molecule differ from an atom? Give an example.

A molecule is composed of two or more atoms bonded together: H2O.

Which of these atoms has the largest number of neutrons in the nucleus?

Gold (highest atomic number)

What occurs when a proton and an antiproton meet?

They annihilate each other

What is the evidence that dark matter exists?

Gravitational forces within galaxies are too great to be accounted for with ordinary matter.

The number of atoms in a common water molecule is

three

The charge in the nucleus of an antimatter hydrogen atoms is

negative

Dark matter is considered to be

plentiful in the universe

If no molecules in a body could escape, would the body have any odor?

no

To become a negative ion, does an atom lose or gain an electron?

gain

To become a positive ion, does an atom lose or gain an electron?

lose

Brownian Motion is caused by

particles larger than atoms bumping into them

Compared to the atoms that make up the body of an elderly person, the atoms that make up the body of a newborn baby are

the same age

Nuclei of atoms that make up a newborn baby were manufactured in

ancient stars

A granite block is mostly empty space because the atoms in the granite are

mostly empty space between themselves

Assuming all the atoms exhaled by Julius Caesar in his last dying breath are still in the atmosphere, we breathe in at least one of them each

single breath

If we doubled the magnifying power of the most powerful optical microscope in the world, we would

still not be able to see or photograph an atom

Atoms can be photographed by

scanning electron microscopes AND electron beams

Which of these statements is true?

there are only about 100 different kinds of atoms that combine to form all substances

The difficulty of taking a photograph of an atom with light is

unwanted diffraction AND atoms are smaller than the wavelengths of light

The element gold contains

gold atoms

Atoms heavier than helium were at one time manufactured by

thermonuclear fusion

Which is the lightest particle?

electron

An element is distinct because of its number of

protons

Which is the smallest particle?

quark

Although solid matter is mostly empty space, we don’t fall through the floor because

of electrical forces

A force that determines the chemical properties of an atom is

an electrical force

Atomic number refers to the number of

protons

The number of protons in a neutral atom is balanced by an equal number of

orbital electrons

Which of the following elements has the most mass?

uranium

The volume of matter is due mostly to its

electrons

Which of these has the greatest number of protons in its nucleus?

lead

Which of these atoms has the greatest amount of electrical charge in its nucleus?

uranium

Which of these atoms has the greatest number of electrons?

uranium

Two protons removed from an oxygen nucleus result in

carbon

A pair of hydrogen nuclei fused together produces

helium

A pair of helium nuclei fused together produces

berylium

One neutron added to a helium nucleus results in

helium

If a nitrogen atom and a slightly heavier oxygen atom have equal kinetic energies, which has the greater average speed?

nitrogen

Heavier atoms are not proportionally larger than lighter atoms due to the greater number of protons

pulling surrounding electrons into tighter shells.

The chemical properties of matter are due mostly to their

electrons

How many protons should be added to the nuclei of oxygen atoms so the resulting gas will glow red when an electric current is in it?

2

Heavy atoms are not appreciably larger in size than light atoms because the nuclei of heavy atoms have more

electrical charge

Which contains more atoms?

1 kg of hydrogen

An isotope is simply an atom that

has different numbers of neutrons for the same element

mass number depends of the number of

nucleons in the nucleus

A nucleon has the mass of

1 amu

What is the molecular mass of a water molecule?

18 amu

Which is NOT a compound?

air

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