chapter 10- social class

what are the three variable max weber identified as defining social class?

wealth, power, prestige

based on the marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many district social classes exist?

two

when used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to

both property owned and income made by the person less debts

how much is the average per capita annual income in the united states that includes every american?

35,000/year

how much is the typical annual family income in the united states?

54,000

the belief by many americans that they actually contribute to major governmental decisions through the poor of their vote is referred to by hellinger and judd as

the democratic facade

which sociologist coined the term "the power elite"?

C. Wright Mills

which of the following statements is most accurate in respect to determining social prestige in modern society?

one's occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige

which statement regarding the nation's income is most accurate?

the top 20% of americans earn nearly half the income

what was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in american society?

the power elite

what is the profile of most united states presidents?

millionaire white men from old money families

who was the sociologist who expanded upon the concept of the power elite to note that no major decision of the unites states government was made without its approval?

william domhoff

based on the average of 60 nations, what three occupations enjoy the highest prestige ratings?

college president, supreme court judge, astronaut

phil, a janitor for an expansive apartment-house complex in chicago, is a union janitor who makes quite a bit more money than many tenants in the building he maintains. lens would note that pails' high income but low occupational prestige demonstrates a condition of

status inconsistency

what does status inconsistency refer to in relation to social stratification?

individuals are ranked high on one dimension of social class and low on other dimensions

the occupation with the highest prestige in the united states is

physician

as a full professor of sociology, jackie ranks high in prestige but relatively low in income. what can one expect of her political views?

she will be more politically radical

when individuals experience status inconsistency, what is their likely choice of behavior?

they will claim the higher status

janelle is a professor in the department of business at the state university. she is a full professor in her department and earns 135,000/year. according to lens's status inconsistency hypothesis, what is janelle's most likely political philosophy?

conservative

eric wright revised marx's concept of social classes by regarding some people as simultaneously occupying more than one class. he termed their positions in the class structure

contradictory class locations

what is durkheim's term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that dude their behavior?

anomie

ruth owns the head 2 toe boutique where she employs 15 workers. according to erik wright's model of social class, ruth would be classified as a

petty bourgeoisie

what are the four variables gilbert and kahl used to develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the united states and other capitalist countries?

education, power, property, prestige

jim and jan are working class americans making a combined income of 47000. today they won a 125 million lottery. how will this immediately impact their lives?

they will experience anomie

the class recognized by kohl and gilbert as being the upper middle class in american comprises approximately __________ percent of the us population

15

which of the following individuals would have the narrowest field of "eligible" marriage partners based on background expectations?

christian, the son of a CEO of a major corporation

what group of americans does the author characterize as being "the fallout of the postindustrial economy"?

the homeless

what did the research by kohn suggest as being the primary influence upon parents that they emphasized how they reared their children?

the parents' occupations

which of the following family names is a member of the "nouveau riche"?

the gates family who founded microsoft

Ken belongs to a church in which the worship services are highly expressive with spontaneous "amens" and "praise jesus" outbursts accompanied by loud, inspirational organ music. ken is most likely a member of the _______ class

lower

politically, the class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the

working class

what political party are members of the upper class more likely to belong?

republican

what is the relationship between one's social class and their chances of being a victim of crime?

inverse

of the following classes, in which one are the members most adversely affected by the export of american manufacturing jobs to mexico and the pacific rim nations?

lower middle class

what is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?

intergenerational mobility

changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder which causes one class to increase while others decrease is called _______ mobility

structural

if 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle class people experience downward mobility, sociologists would consider this to be an example of _______ mobility

exchange

what did higgenbothan and weber discover about women from working-class backgrounds who now occupied professional, managerial, and administrative position in memphis?

they were encouraged by their parents to get an education

what is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?

race/ethnicity

numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the united states?

white

the trend in the united states where most poor families are headed by women is called

feminization of poverty

the most likely segment of the population in the united states to experience poverty today are

children

to determine the poverty line, the office of administration calculates a low cost food budget for a family of specific size, then subjects that number to which modification?

it multiplies the food budget by three

what region of the united states has the highest clustering of people in poverty?

the south

jeanann and her two children are on welfare. research indicates that it is likely that jeanann and her children will be in poverty for

a year or less

which general explanation of poverty focuses on the discrimination and changes in the job market?

social structure explanations

what is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?

the greater the level of education the fewer births to single women

john worked at a steel mill for 25 years. a recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. at the age of 45, john is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty and must go on welfare. what is the most likely cause of john's poverty

changes in the social structure are the most likely cause

which industrialized nation has the highest rate of child poverty?

the united states

in 1996 the us welfare system was reconstructed. supporters of their reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. what is the primary evidence they point out to support their?

the number of people on welfare has significantly decreased

what is the relationship between social class and the likelihood of embracing deferred gratification?

the higher one's social class, the more likely they will embrace deferred gratification

theorists who suggest that the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain anatomy of reserve workers are most aligned with the _______ perspective

conflict

jacob is single, 40 years old and loving in government subsidized housing. he does not want to pursue regular employment because he feels there are other members of society who need the work more than he does. jacob's situation is an example of which of the following explanations of why people are poor?

the characteristic of the individual

there was a much publicized myth of the late 1800s that centered around the rags-to-rights exploits of fictional boy heroes. these myths were perpetuated by their author,

horatio alger

intentionally keeping groups of people unemployed during periods of economic recession until they are needed for the next economic boom is a strategy by the government to establish what is called a

reserve labor force

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what are the three variable max weber identified as defining social class?

wealth, power, prestige

based on the marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many district social classes exist?

two

when used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to

both property owned and income made by the person less debts

how much is the average per capita annual income in the united states that includes every american?

35,000/year

how much is the typical annual family income in the united states?

54,000

the belief by many americans that they actually contribute to major governmental decisions through the poor of their vote is referred to by hellinger and judd as

the democratic facade

which sociologist coined the term "the power elite"?

C. Wright Mills

which of the following statements is most accurate in respect to determining social prestige in modern society?

one’s occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige

which statement regarding the nation’s income is most accurate?

the top 20% of americans earn nearly half the income

what was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in american society?

the power elite

what is the profile of most united states presidents?

millionaire white men from old money families

who was the sociologist who expanded upon the concept of the power elite to note that no major decision of the unites states government was made without its approval?

william domhoff

based on the average of 60 nations, what three occupations enjoy the highest prestige ratings?

college president, supreme court judge, astronaut

phil, a janitor for an expansive apartment-house complex in chicago, is a union janitor who makes quite a bit more money than many tenants in the building he maintains. lens would note that pails’ high income but low occupational prestige demonstrates a condition of

status inconsistency

what does status inconsistency refer to in relation to social stratification?

individuals are ranked high on one dimension of social class and low on other dimensions

the occupation with the highest prestige in the united states is

physician

as a full professor of sociology, jackie ranks high in prestige but relatively low in income. what can one expect of her political views?

she will be more politically radical

when individuals experience status inconsistency, what is their likely choice of behavior?

they will claim the higher status

janelle is a professor in the department of business at the state university. she is a full professor in her department and earns 135,000/year. according to lens’s status inconsistency hypothesis, what is janelle’s most likely political philosophy?

conservative

eric wright revised marx’s concept of social classes by regarding some people as simultaneously occupying more than one class. he termed their positions in the class structure

contradictory class locations

what is durkheim’s term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that dude their behavior?

anomie

ruth owns the head 2 toe boutique where she employs 15 workers. according to erik wright’s model of social class, ruth would be classified as a

petty bourgeoisie

what are the four variables gilbert and kahl used to develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the united states and other capitalist countries?

education, power, property, prestige

jim and jan are working class americans making a combined income of 47000. today they won a 125 million lottery. how will this immediately impact their lives?

they will experience anomie

the class recognized by kohl and gilbert as being the upper middle class in american comprises approximately __________ percent of the us population

15

which of the following individuals would have the narrowest field of "eligible" marriage partners based on background expectations?

christian, the son of a CEO of a major corporation

what group of americans does the author characterize as being "the fallout of the postindustrial economy"?

the homeless

what did the research by kohn suggest as being the primary influence upon parents that they emphasized how they reared their children?

the parents’ occupations

which of the following family names is a member of the "nouveau riche"?

the gates family who founded microsoft

Ken belongs to a church in which the worship services are highly expressive with spontaneous "amens" and "praise jesus" outbursts accompanied by loud, inspirational organ music. ken is most likely a member of the _______ class

lower

politically, the class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the

working class

what political party are members of the upper class more likely to belong?

republican

what is the relationship between one’s social class and their chances of being a victim of crime?

inverse

of the following classes, in which one are the members most adversely affected by the export of american manufacturing jobs to mexico and the pacific rim nations?

lower middle class

what is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?

intergenerational mobility

changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder which causes one class to increase while others decrease is called _______ mobility

structural

if 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle class people experience downward mobility, sociologists would consider this to be an example of _______ mobility

exchange

what did higgenbothan and weber discover about women from working-class backgrounds who now occupied professional, managerial, and administrative position in memphis?

they were encouraged by their parents to get an education

what is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?

race/ethnicity

numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the united states?

white

the trend in the united states where most poor families are headed by women is called

feminization of poverty

the most likely segment of the population in the united states to experience poverty today are

children

to determine the poverty line, the office of administration calculates a low cost food budget for a family of specific size, then subjects that number to which modification?

it multiplies the food budget by three

what region of the united states has the highest clustering of people in poverty?

the south

jeanann and her two children are on welfare. research indicates that it is likely that jeanann and her children will be in poverty for

a year or less

which general explanation of poverty focuses on the discrimination and changes in the job market?

social structure explanations

what is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?

the greater the level of education the fewer births to single women

john worked at a steel mill for 25 years. a recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. at the age of 45, john is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty and must go on welfare. what is the most likely cause of john’s poverty

changes in the social structure are the most likely cause

which industrialized nation has the highest rate of child poverty?

the united states

in 1996 the us welfare system was reconstructed. supporters of their reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. what is the primary evidence they point out to support their?

the number of people on welfare has significantly decreased

what is the relationship between social class and the likelihood of embracing deferred gratification?

the higher one’s social class, the more likely they will embrace deferred gratification

theorists who suggest that the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain anatomy of reserve workers are most aligned with the _______ perspective

conflict

jacob is single, 40 years old and loving in government subsidized housing. he does not want to pursue regular employment because he feels there are other members of society who need the work more than he does. jacob’s situation is an example of which of the following explanations of why people are poor?

the characteristic of the individual

there was a much publicized myth of the late 1800s that centered around the rags-to-rights exploits of fictional boy heroes. these myths were perpetuated by their author,

horatio alger

intentionally keeping groups of people unemployed during periods of economic recession until they are needed for the next economic boom is a strategy by the government to establish what is called a

reserve labor force

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