Chapter 10 Psychology Terms

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_____ refers to the unique set of core characteristics that influence the way an individual feels, thinks, and acts.
A) Personality
B) Temperament
C) Disposition
D) Character

A

Dr. Conway states that his research investigates the consistent, enduring characteristics that distinguish one person from another. Dr. Conway’s research is MOST likely in the area of:
A) motivation.
B) developmental psychology.
C) personality.
D) social psychology.

C

Which statement BEST expresses the relationship between personality and character?
A) Personality is one aspect of character.
B) Personality and character are different.
C) Personality and character are identical.
D) Personality and character are opposites.

B

4.The distinct patterns of emotional reactions and behaviors seen at a young age make up one’s:
A) character.
B) disposition.
C) temperament.
D) personality.

C

5.Which statement BEST captures the relationship between temperament and personality?
A) Temperament and personality are the same thing.
B) Temperament and personality are unrelated.
C) Temperament is one element of personality.
D) Personality is one aspect of temperament.

C

6.Baby Rebecca is easygoing and curious. She adapts quickly to changes. These characteristics are part of Rebecca’s _____. They will ultimately contribute to part of her adult _____.
A) personality; temperament
B) character; personality
C) temperament; personality
D) temperament; character

C

7.Baby Celeste is busy, active, and sleeps fitfully; her sister, by contrast, was calm and placid as a baby. This vignette illustrates differences in:
A) temperament.
B) character.
C) personality.
D) disposition.

A

8.Both the _____ and the _____ theories of personality have been criticized for relying on concepts that are difficult to define operationally.
A) psychoanalytic; behavioral
B) psychoanalytic; humanistic
C) behavioral; humanistic
D) behavioral; biological

B

9.Both the _____ and the _____ theories of personality have been criticized for their narrow focus.
A) psychoanalytic; humanistic
B) social-cognitive; humanistic
C) behavioral; humanistic
D) behavioral; social-cognitive

D

10.Of the personality theories mentioned in the textbook, which two perspectives place the greatest emphasis on environmental influences on personality?
A) the psychoanalytic and humanistic perspectives
B) the humanistic and social-cognitive perspectives
C) the behavioral and trait perspectives
D) the behavioral and social-cognitive perspectives

D

12.The notion that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces and conflicts is at the core of the _____ approach to personality.
A) behavioral
B) biological
C) psychoanalytic
D) humanistic

C

11.The _____ perspective on personality examines how the environment shapes personality through classical and operant conditioning, as well as through observational learning.
A) behavioral
B) biological
C) trait
D) humanistic

A

13.According to the humanistic perspective, personality reflects:
A) mechanisms of conditioning and learning.
B) an individual’s choices and strivings for personal growth.
C) genetic and physiological mechanisms.
D) internal, unconscious forces and conflicts.

B

14.Which approach to personality takes the most optimistic view of human nature by suggesting that humans are essentially good?
A) social-cognitive
B) psychoanalytic
C) humanistic
D) trait

C

15.Dr. Ainsworth believes that one’s personality largely reflects internal conflicts and unconscious forces. Dr. Ainsworth appears to take a _____ perspective on personality.
A) social-cognitive
B) trait
C) psychoanalytic
D) biological

C

16.Dr. Plater believes that one’s personality is really just a collection of behaviors that have been conditioned, reinforced, or learned through observation. Dr. Plater endorses the _____ perspective on personality.
A) biological
B) trait
C) behavioral
D) humanistic

C

17.Dr. Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the key dimensions necessary to predict behavior. Dr. Montgomery endorses the _____ perspective on personality.
A) social-cognitive
B) trait
C) psychoanalytic
D) biological

B

18.In round numbers, genetic factors account for about _____% of the variation among individuals in sense of humor.
A) 10-30
B) 20-40
C) 30-50
D) 50-70

C

19.The term "psychoanalysis" refers to the psychological theory and system of treatment devised by:
A) Sigmund Freud.
B) Abraham Maslow.
C) Gordon Allport.
D) Alfred Adler.

A

20.Freud’s levels of consciousness do NOT include the:
A) unconscious.
B) subconscious.
C) preconscious.
D) conscious.

B

21.Freud’s preconscious mind is MOST similar to _____ memory.
A) sensory
B) working
C) long-term
D) implicit

B

22.Freud used dream analysis and hypnosis to gain access to the _____ mind.
A) unconscious
B) preconscious
C) subconscious
D) conscious

A

23.In Freud’s view, the _____ mind contains material that is virtually impossible to retrieve, whereas the _____ mind contains material that is outside awareness, but that can be retrieved fairly easily.
A) subconscious; preconscious
B) unconscious; preconscious
C) unconscious; subconscious
D) preconscious; unconscious

B

24.In Freud’s model of the mind, the _____ consists of a pool of primal psychic energy.
A) subconscious
B) id
C) ego
D) superego

B

25.In Freud’s model of the mind, the _____ acts as a mediator or negotiator.
A) id
B) ego
C) preconscious
D) superego

B

26.What one calls one’s "conscience" in everyday life corresponds to the _____ in Freud’s model of the mind.
A) id
B) subconscious
C) ego
D) superego

D

27.The superego starts developing around _____ years of age.
A) 1 or 2
B) 2 or 3
C) 3 or 4
D) 5 or 6

D

28.With respect to Freud’s model of the mind, pleasure is to reality as _____ is to _____.
A) ego; id
B) id; superego
C) id; ego
D) superego; ego

C

29.What do the id and superego have in common?
A) They both reflect society’s rules and constraints.
B) They are both unrealistic.
C) They are both motivated by primitive drives.
D) Absolutely nothing: they are direct opposites.

B

30.Which sequence BEST reflects the order in which Freud’s personality structures develop during infancy and childhood, from first to last?
A) superego > ego > id
B) id > superego > ego
C) id > ego > superego
D) superego > id > ego

C

31.Which sequence BEST reflects the extent to which Freud’s personality structures operate
consciously, from LEAST conscious to MOST conscious?
A) ego > id > superego
B) superego > ego > id
C) ego > superego > id
D) id > superego > ego

D

32.Which choice correctly pairs one of Freud’s personality structures with a key word or phrase?
A) id – pleasure principle
B) ego – conscience
C) superego – reality principle
D) ego – psychic energy

A

33.Which component of the personality uses defense mechanisms and why?
A) The id uses defense mechanisms to express its impulses.
B) The superego uses defense mechanisms to help the id express its impulses.
C) The superego uses defense mechanisms to help the individual conform to society.
D) The ego uses defense mechanisms to prevent excessive anxiety.

D

34.In order to protect herself from experiencing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a:
A) self-actualization principle.
B) fixation process.
C) defense mechanism.
D) psychoanalytic strategy.

C

35.To avoid experiencing anxiety, Logan is attributing his own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Logan is using a defense mechanism called:
A) displacement.
B) projection.
C) sublimation.
D) identification.

B

36.Shauntel tells people that her coworker Clarice dislikes her; if she were honest, though, Shauntel would realize that it is actually she who dislikes Clarice. Shauntel is using a defense mechanism known as:
A) projection.
B) displacement.
C) sublimation.
D) identification.

A

37.The study of defense mechanisms is associated not only with Sigmund Freud but also with:
A) Bertha Pappenheim.
B) Alfred Adler.
C) Karen Horney.
D) Anna Freud.

D

38.In the defense mechanism of _____, unacceptable feelings or impulses are pushed back into the unconscious.
A) displacement
B) denial
C) rationalization
D) repression

D

39.______ is probably the best-known of Freud’s defense mechanisms.
A) Repression
B) Denial
C) Rationalization
D) Projection

A

40.Liz has become more responsive to her partner’s advances since she noticed an attractive woman moved in next door. Liz is using a defense mechanism called:
A) projection.
B) displacement.
C) sublimation.
D) identification.

B

41.Unable to accept his desire for other young men, 15-year-old Juan pours himself into his studies. Juan’s case illustrates the defense mechanism of:
A) projection.
B) displacement.
C) sublimation.
D) identification.

C

42.People use the defense mechanism of _____ when they model their actions or feelings on those of individuals they admire.
A) sublimation
B) projection
C) displacement
D) identification

D

43.Which defense mechanism is correctly matched with its definition?
A) displacement – an unacceptable feeling is redirected from a threatening individual to a less threatening one.
B) sublimation – unacceptable impulses are attributed to another person
C) projection – reasonable excuses are made for unacceptable impulses or situations D) rationalization – unacceptable feelings or situations are not recognized

A

44.According to the textbook, the MOST adaptive defense mechanism is _____, whereas the LEAST adaptive is _____.
A) sublimation; displacement
B) sublimation; denial
C) projection; denial
D) denial; sublimation

B

45.Which sequence indicates the order of the first three stages in Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, from first to last?
A) oral > phallic > anal
B) anal > oral > phallic
C) anal > phallic > oral
D) oral > anal > phallic

D

46.The final psychosexual stage in Freud’s developmental sequence is the _____ stage.
A) oral
B) genital
C) anal
D) phallic

B

47.Which stage of psychosexual development is correctly matched with its age range? A) oral – 3-6 years
phallic – 0-11/2 years
anal – 11/2-3 years
D) genital – 6-12 years

C

48.Which stage of psychosexual development is correctly matched with its key conflict?
A) oral – weaning
B) anal – masturbation
C) phallic – mature sexuality
D) genital – toilet training

A

49.In Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, the genitals are the erogenous zone during:
A) the phallic stage.
B) the genital stage.
C) both the phallic stage and the genital stage.
D) both the oral stage and the genital stage.

C

50.Stephanie smokes cigarettes and tends to overeat; Saul is rigid, organized, and stingy; Shirley is flirtatious, promiscuous, and seems to have little regard for "the rules." Which choice correctly matches each individual with the psychosexual stage at which he or she is fixated?
A) Stephanie – phallic; Saul – anal; Shirley – oral
B) Stephanie – oral; Saul – anal; Shirley – phallic
C) Stephanie – anal; Saul – oral; Shirley – phallic
D) Stephanie – oral; Saul – genital; Shirley – anal

B

51.In Freud’s theory, developmental concerns that persist into adulthood and continue to influence personality are called:
A) defense mechanisms.
B) erogenous complexes.
C) fixations.
D) conflicts.

C

52.According to Freud, during which stage of psychosexual development must the developing child negotiate the Oedipal conflict?
A) oral
B) genital
C) anal
D) phallic

D

53.Young children resolve the Oedipus and Electra conflicts by wanting to be as much like the same-sex parent as possible through a process called:
A) identification.
B) projection.
C) displacement.
D) sublimation.

A

54.In Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, mature adult sexuality develops during the:
A) latency period.
B) genital stage.
C) phallic stage.
D) oral stage.

B

55.With respect to Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, weaning is to toilet training as _____ is to _____.
A) oral; anal
B) oral; phallic
C) anal; oral
D) phallic; anal

A

56.With respect to Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, anal is to toilet training as _____ is to _____.
A) oral; masturbation
B) phallic; weaning
C) phallic; masturbation
D) genital; weaning

C

57.Baby Jordyn will be 2 in a few weeks. Her mother has instituted a strict toilet-training schedule. Jordyn is placed on the "potty" seat at regular intervals, and is forced to remain there until she has had a bowel movement. Jordyn is immediately punished when she has an "accident." Her mother’s rigid toilet training procedures may result in Jordyn having a _____ at the ____ stage of psychosexual development.
A) complex; anal
B) complex; genital
C) fixation; anal
D) fixation; genital

C

58.Davina is a "neat freak." She can’t stand to be late for anything. Other people have to do things "just right" for her to be happy. A psychoanalytic theorist might suggest that Davina is fixated at the _____ stage of development.
A) anal
B) genital
C) oral
D) phallic

A

59.With respect to Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, Oedipus complex is to Electra complex as _____ is to _____.
A) anal stage; phallic stage
B) girl; boy
C) phallic stage; anal stage
D) boy; girl

D

60.Young girls experience the _____ complex during the ____ stage of psychosexual development.
A) Electra; genital
B) Electra; phallic
C) Oedipus; genital
D) Oedipus; phallic

B

61.Warner alternates between needy dependency and false machismo. He is vain and considers himself a real "ladies’ man." However, he spends a fair amount of time masturbating while watching pornographic video clips. Warner may be fixated at Freud’s
____ stage of psychosexual development.
A) oral
B) anal
C) phallic
D) genital
Ans: C
62.According to Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, young children "discover" masturbation during the ______ stage.
A) oral
B) anal
C) phallic
D) genital
Ans: C

62.According to Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, young children "discover" masturbation during the ______ stage.
A) oral
B) anal
C) phallic
D) genital
Ans: C

63.Which statement best contrasts the phallic stage and the genital stage?
A) The genitals are the erogenous zone in the genital stage, but not in the phallic stage.
B) Relationships are the focus of the genital stage, but not the phallic stage.
C) Relationships are the focus of the phallic stage, but not the genital stage.
D) The genital stage occurs much earlier in development than does the phallic stage.

B

64.Psychosexual development slows during the _____, which lasts from ages _____.
A) latency period; 3 to 6
B) latency period; 6 to 12
C) phallic stage; 3 to 6
D) phallic stage; 6 to 12

B

65.Critics of psychoanalytic theory contend that Freud paid too little attention to:
A) the role of the unconscious mind.
B) childhood experiences.
C) people’s capacity for change.
D) sexuality.

C

66.Which statement is MOST accurate with respect to the empirical evaluation of Freud’s theory?
A) A substantial body of research supports Freud’s theory.
B) There is relatively little published research examining Freud’s theory.
C) Extensive empirical research yields a mixed picture regarding Freud’s theory.
D) Research has consistently failed to support Freud’s theory.

B

67.Freud based much of his theory on:
A) naturalistic observation.
B) case studies.
C) large-scale surveys.
D) controlled experiments.

B

68.The neo-Freudian psychologist Alfred Adler argued that humans are conscious and intentional, striving for growth and improvement. Adler can therefore be seen as a precursor to the _____ perspective on personality.
A) humanistic
B) social-cognitive
C) behavioral
D) psychoanalytic

A

69.One of the first psychologists to theorize about the potential effects of birth order was:
A) Karl Jung.
B) Alfred Adler.
C) Sigmund Freud.
D) Karen Horney.

B

70.Humans constantly strive to grow and improve themselves, a motivation Adler termed the striving for:
A) actualization.
B) transcendence.
C) superiority.
D) understanding.

C

71.Individual is to analytic as _____ is to _____.
A) Horney; Jung
B) Jung; Adler
C) Adler; Horney
D) Adler; Jung
Ans: D

D

72.In research examining the relationship between birth order and personality, family size is often a(n) _____ variable.
A) experimental
B) dependent
C) confounding
D) independent

C

73.Animus is to _____ as anima is to _____.
A) masculine; feminine
B) personal; collective
C) feminine; masculine
D) collective; personal

A

74.Jung suggested that the questing hero figure prominent in many legends, stories, epic poems, and so forth represents a(n) _____, a symbolic representation of a universal experience.
A) anima
B) mandala
C) animus
D) archetype
Ans: D

D

75.In positing the collective unconscious, Jung may be seen as pursuing a goal similar to that of contemporary evolutionary psychologists. Why?
A) He was attempting to explain phenomena that are universal across cultures.
B) He was attempting to suggest how consciousness aids our adaptation to our environment.
C) He was attempting to specify the physiological bases of thought and behavior.
D) He was attempting to describe the influence of an individual’s culture on her thought and behavior.

A

76._____ suggested that people move toward others, away from others, or against others to deal with _____.
A) Alfred Adler; basic anxiety
B) Alfred Adler; feelings of inferiority
C) Karen Horney; basic anxiety
D) Karen Horney; feelings of inferiority

C

77.Which psychologist is MOST likely to have said, "Penis envy is really power envy"?
A) Karl Jung
B) Karen Horney
C) Abraham Maslow
D) Alfred Adler

B

78.Which of these is NOT among a neo-Freudian psychologist?
A) Carl Jung
B) Raymond Cattell
C) Karen Horney
D) Alfred Adler

B

79.Which choice correctly matches a neo-Freudian theorist with his or her key concept?
A) Adler – basic anxiety
B) Horney – inferiority complex
C) Jung – collective unconscious
D) Horney – archetype

C

80.The humanistic perspective on personality may be considered a reaction against the _____ perspective.
A) social-cognitive
B) trait
C) biological
D) psychoanalytic

D

81._____ and _____ are prominent psychologists associated with the humanistic perspective.
A) Abraham Maslow; Alfred Adler
B) Abraham Maslow; Carl Rogers
C) Alfred Adler; Carl Rogers
D) B.F. Skinner; Albert Bandura

B

82.Humanistic psychologists suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward:
A) self-actualization.
B) self-transcendence.
C) superiority.
D) self-efficacy.

A

83._____, a _____ psychologist, wrote that people are driven "to feel free and to be free."
A) Abraham Maslow; humanistic
B) Carl Rogers; humanistic
C) Abraham Maslow; psychoanalytic
D) Carl Rogers; psychoanalytic

A

84.Chantal is self-sufficient and somewhat unconventional. She is tolerant and open-minded. She has a strong sense of self and a close circle of lifelong friends. In Maslow’s terms, Chantal seems to have a _____ personality.
A) transcendent
B) Oedipal
C) archetypal
D) self-actualized

D

85.Which attribute is NOT an element of Maslow’s self-actualized personality?
A) grateful
B) spontaneous
C) intelligent
D) creative

C

86._____ emphasized the importance of one’s self-concept.
A) Julian Rotter
B) Karl Jung
C) Abraham Maslow
D) Carl Rogers

D

87.Toni sees herself as creative and intelligent. In Carl Rogers’ terms, these attributes are:
A) part of Toni’s self-concept.
B) among Toni’s surface traits.
C) two of Toni’s source traits.
D) elements of Toni’s archetype.

A

88.According to Carl Rogers, one’s _____ contains the set of beliefs an individual holds about what she is like as a person.
A) self-concept
B) ego ideal
C) archetype
D) self-schema

A

89.According to Carl Rogers, people experience anxiety when:
A) they feel inferior in the face of a challenging task.
B) they become conscious of unacceptable sexual impulses.
C) their self-concept is at odds with their experience.
D) they cannot satisfy their basic needs.

C

90.John’s therapist strives to provide an atmosphere of acceptance and respect, no matter what comes up during the sessions. In _____’s terms, John’s therapist is providing _____.
A) Abraham Maslow; conditions of worth
B) Abraham Maslow; unconditional positive regard
C) Carl Rogers; conditions of worth
D) Carl Rogers; unconditional positive regard

D

91.In what way does unconditional positive regard facilitate self-actualization?
A) It encourages the development of accurate self-concepts.
B) It provides the atmosphere of freedom necessary for self-actualization.
C) It motivates an individual to self-actualize.
D) It creates appropriate conditions of worth.

A

92.The textbook states that, "caregivers who place too much emphasis on rules . . . [and
ignore] a child’s innate goodness can create conditions of worth." Think back to the discussion of parenting styles in Chapter 8 of the textbook. Which of Baumrind’s parenting styles is probably MOST likely to create conditions of worth?
A) permissive
B) authoritative
C) authoritarian
D) uninvolved

C

93.Which word BEST completes this sentence: "Julian Rotter _____ the work of traditional learning theorists such as B.F. Skinner."
A) rejected
B) extended
C) ignored
D) echoed

B

94.As an early social learning theorist, _____ represented a bridge between the behavioral and social-cognitive perspectives on personality.
A) Julian Rotter
B) Raymond Cattell
C) Carl Rogers
D) Gordon Allport

A

95.Julian Rotter proposed the concept of:
A) self-actualization.
B) source traits.
C) self-efficacy.
D) locus of control.

D

96."Your perspective is too limited. Not everything is immediately observable. In addition, people can think about what is happening, both internally and in the world at large." These words might be spoken by _____ to _____.
A) Albert Bandura; Julian Rotter
B) B.F. Skinner; Julain Rotter
C) Julian Rotter; B.F. Skinner
D) Julian Rotter; Albert Bandura

C

97.Julian Rotter used the term _____ to denote a pattern of beliefs about where the responsibility for outcomes resides.
A) expectancy
B) locus of control
C) self-efficacy
D) reinforcement value

B

98.People with an _____ locus of control believes that outcomes are determined by outside
forces such as fate or luck. By contrast, people with an _____ locus of control believe that outcomes are determined by their own actions or efforts.
A) internal; external
B) external; internal
C) intrinsic; extrinsic
D) extrinsic; intrinsic

B

99.Dustin believes that landing a good job largely depends on luck and the overall state of the economy. Jennifer believes that getting her "dream job" depends mainly on her education, job search skills, and attitude. Dustin displays an _____ locus of control, whereas Jennifer exhibits an _____ locus of control.
A) external; internal
B) internal; external
C) extrinsic; intrinsic
D) intrinsic; extrinsic

A

100.Gina believes that meeting "that special someone" is a matter of luck. Unfortunately, Gina also believes that she is a spectacularly unlucky person. How would Julian Rotter summarize Gina’s pattern of beliefs?
A) external locus of control, high expectancy
B) external locus of control, low expectancy
C) internal locus of control, high expectancy
D) internal locus of control, low expectancy

B

101.Bradley knows that an "A" on tomorrow’s final examination is critical if he hopes to keep his scholarship. He feels confident that he is well-prepared and knows the material inside and out. Which phrase would Julian Rotter use to summarize Bradley’s situation?
A) high reinforcement value, high expectancy
B) high reinforcement value, low expectancy
C) low reinforcement value, high expectancy
D) low reinforcement value, low expectancy

A

102.Which of these is NOT one of Julian Rotter’s concepts?
A) locus of control
B) expectancy
C) self-efficacy
D) reinforcement value

C

103.Albert Bandura is one of the leading proponents of a _____ perspective on personality.
A) trait
B) social-cognitive
C) behavioral
D) psychoanalytic

B

104.Whose approach to personality emphasizes the role played by self-efficacy?
A) Albert Bandura’s social-cognitive approach
B) B.F. Skinner’s behaviorist approach
C) Gordon Allport’s trait theory
D) Carl Rogers’s humanistic theory

A

105.Rhiannon is confident she can complete a difficult problem set in one of her engineering courses. Rhiannon has high:
A) self-esteem.
B) self-efficacy.
C) self-actualization.
D) self-awareness.

B

106.Mrs. Linley is a middle school math teacher. She provides constant, consistent feedback and encouragement on her students’ math assignments. Mrs. Linley is trying to develop her students’:
A) self-efficacy.
B) self-esteem.
C) self-actualization.
D) self-awareness.

A

107._____ rejected the behaviorists’ argument that psychologists should focus only on observable behavior.
A) Rotter
B) Bandura
C) Both Rotter and Bandura
D) Neither Rotter nor Bandura

C

108.The social-cognitive perspective:
A) suggests that personality reflects the conscious choices an individual makes in an effort to grow and change.
B) proposes that personality may be described by relatively stable internal characteristics.
C) suggests that personality reflects thought patterns and environmental factors such as relationships.
D) argues that personality refers to a collection of behaviors that have been reinforced in the past.

C

109.As compared to a Skinnerian learning-theory approach to personality, the social cognitive approach places _____ emphasis on _____.
A) less; the individual
B) more; the environment
C) more; the interaction between the individual and the environment
D) less; the interaction between the individual and the environment

C

110.Betty does not believe she can meet the weight-loss and strength-training goals her personal trainer has set. In Bandura’s terms, Betty:
A) lacks self-esteem.
B) has an external locus of control.
C) has low self-efficacy.
D) lacks expectancy.

C

111.Bandura used the term "_____ determinism" to denote the complex interaction among the individual, behavior, and the environment.
A) dialectical
B) bidirectional
C) reciprocal
D) mutual

C

112.As compared to the psychoanalytic and humanistic perspectives on personality, the behavioral and social-cognitive perspectives:
A) place less emphasis on the environment.
B) better highlight the role of emotional processes in personality.
C) emphasize research and objectivity to a greater extent.
D) focus in greater depth on the unconscious mind.

C

113.Which psychologist is paired with the correct concept?
A) Abraham Maslow – self-concept
B) Carl Rogers – self-actualization
C) Albert Bandura – self-efficacy
D) Julian Rotter – self-esteem

C

114.As compared to the other perspectives on personality, the _____ perspective is less interested in explaining than in describing personality.
A) humanistic
B) trait
C) psychoanalytic
D) social-cognitive

B

115.Which person is NOT a trait theorist?
A) Gordon Allport
B) Carl Rogers
C) Hans Eysenck
D) Raymond Cattell

B

116.In the 1920s, ______ found that the English language identified 4,500 personality traits.
A) Raymond Cattell
B) Gordon Allport
C) Hans Eysenck
D) Albert Bandura

B

117.A graduate student is using a statistical software package to identify the basic patterns underlying the many relationships among a large number of variables. She is performing ______ analysis.
A) trend
B) matrix
C) factor
D) correlation

C

118.Anastasia is using a statistical procedure to detect the broader relationships among a large number of correlation coefficients. She is performing _____ analysis.
A) trend
B) matrix
C) correlation
D) factor

D

119."Reserved versus outgoing" is one of:
A) Hans Eysenck’s three personality dimensions.
B) the four Myers-Briggs dimensions.
C) Raymond Cattell’s 16 personality factors.
D) the Big Five personality dimensions.

C

120.Surface trait is to source trait as _____ is to _____.
A) Allport; Cattell
B) introverted; quiet
C) foundational; observable
D) many; few

D

121.Which is NOT one of Hans Eysenck’s basic personality dimensions?
A) extraversion
B) psychoticism
C) agreeableness
D) neuroticism

C

122.In Eysenck’s theory, an outgoing, active, sociable person is MOST likely high in:
A) extraversion.
B) introversion.
C) neuroticism.
D) psychoticism.

A

123.Doris is prone to mood swings. She’s always anxious and often restless and dissatisfied. In Eysenck’s theory, Doris is high in:
A) extraversion.
B) introversion.
C) neuroticism.
D) psychoticism.

C

124.In Eysenck’s theory, an individual who is even-tempered and reliable is MOST likely a(n):
A) stable extravert.
B) stable introvert.
C) unstable extravert.
D) unstable introvert.

B

125.Eysenck related introversion-extraversion to levels of activity in the brain’s:
A) reticular formation.
B) amygdala.
C) prefrontal cortex.
D) hippocampus.

A

126.Which choice correctly matches a trait theorist with his contribution?
A) Gordon Allport – described personality using three basic dimensions
B) Hans Eysenck – identified 4,500 distinct trait terms
C) Raymond Cattell – distinguished between surface and source traits
D) Hans Eysenck – identified 16 personality factors

C

127.The most current trait approach to describing personality is:
A) Gordon Allport’s trait theory.
B) Raymond Cattell’s 16-factor theory.
C) Hans Eysenck’s three-dimensional approach.
D) the five-factor model.

D

128.The Big Five refers to the five:
A) most important personality theorists.
B) personality factors that identify psychoticism.
C) key personality factors.
D) most common defense mechanisms.

C

129.Which is NOT one of the five-factor personality dimensions?
A) extraversion
B) openness
C) neuroticism
D) psychoticism

D

130.The textbook offers the acronym OCEAN as way to help you remember the five-factor model. In this acronym, the A stands for:
A) ambitiousness.
B) achievement orientation.
C) agreeableness.
D) aggressiveness.

C

131.In the five-factor model, an individual’s willingness to try new experiences is called:
A) openness.
B) conscientiousness.
C) agreeableness.
D) neuroticism.

A

132.Which specific trait is correctly paired with its description in terms of the five-factor model’s dimensions?
A) helpful – high extraversion
B) emotional – low conscientiousness
C) calm – high agreeableness
D) imaginative – high openness
Ans: D

D

133.Garner is imaginative, curious, and interested in new ideas. Brandy is conventional, down-to-earth, and has limited interests. It is likely that Garner scores high while Brandy scores low on the Big Five dimension of:
A) neuroticism.
B) openness.
C) extraversion.
D) agreeableness.

B

134.Pearl is gentle, cooperative, trusting, and helpful. Ruby is outgoing, talkative, fun-loving, and affectionate. Pearl probably scores high on the Big Five dimension of _____, whereas Ruby likely scores high on _____.
A) openness; agreeableness
B) conscientiousness; agreeableness
C) agreeableness; extraversion
D) extraversion; openness

C

135.Carlos is emotionally unstable, insecure, anxious, and moody. Quinn is disorganized, spontaneous, and impulsive. Johann is quiet, serious, and somewhat timid. Kris is imaginative, independent, and fond of variety. Which of these individuals is correctly matched with his Big Five description?
A) Quinn – low conscientiousness
B) Carlos – low openness
C) Kris – high extraversion
D) Johann – high agreeableness

A

136.The heritability of the Big Five traits ranges from approximately:
A) .20 to .40.
B) .30 to .50.
C) .40 to .60.
D) .50 to .70.

C

137.Of the Big Five traits, the MOST heritable is _____, whereas the LEAST heritable is _____.
A) conscientiousness; agreeableness
B) openness; agreeableness
C) openness; extraversion
D) agreeableness; neuroticism

B

138.As people age, they tend to score higher on the Big Five trait of:
A) openness.
B) extraversion.
C) neuroticism.
D) agreeableness.

D

139.Age is _____ correlated with neuroticism scores and ______ correlated with extraversion scores.
A) negatively; negatively
B) negatively; positively
C) positively; negatively
D) positively; positively

140.In general, women score higher than men on all the Big Five traits EXCEPT for:
A) agreeableness.
B) openness.
C) extraversion.
D) conscientiousness.

B

141.The Big Five personality dimensions demonstrate:
A) biological reality.
B) cross-cultural generality.
C) both biological reality and cross-cultural generality.
D) neither biological reality nor cross-cultural generality.

C

142.With respect to national personality stereotypes, empirical research:
A) supports their validity.
B) offers mixed support for their accuracy.
C) offers no support for their validity.
D) has yet to be conducted.

C

143.Which is an advantage of the trait theories of personality?
A) Trait theories address developmental and motivational factors.
B) Trait theories have cross-cultural generality.
C) Trait theories explain the origins of personality.
D) Trait theories address the influence of the environment.

B

144.Physical health is related to all of these Big Five dimensions EXCEPT:
A) neuroticism.
B) conscientiousness.
C) agreeableness.
D) openness.

C

145.A psychological test is reliable when it:
A) measures what it is supposed to measure.
B) is scored using a standardized procedure.
C) yields consistent measurements.
D) has been normed using a representative sample.

C

146._____ reliability refers to the consistency of a test’s results when the same individual takes the test more than once.
A) Interrater
B) Split-half
C) Objective
D) Test-retest

D

147."Every time I take it, it comes up with something different!" remarks Rita, turning away from the online personality quiz she just completed. Rita is complaining about the test’s ______ reliability.
A) split-half
B) projective
C) interrater
D) test-retest

D

148._____ reliability refers to the consistency of a test’s results when it is scored by more than one person.
A) Interrater
B) Split-half
C) Objective
D) Test-retest

A

149.Two psychologists interpret participants’ responses on a projective personality test quite differently. The test may lack _____ reliability.
A) split-half
B) interrater
C) test-retest
D) internal

B

150.Dr. Cavanaugh creates an assessment to examine the relationship between the trait of hardiness and senior citizens’ compliance with medication regimes. A reviewer finds, however, that scores on the even-numbered items of the hardiness measure do not correlate with scores on the odd-numbered items. Dr. Cavanaugh’s hardiness assessment may lack _____ reliability.
A) split-half
B) interrater
C) test-retest
D) alternate forms

A

151.Which term indicates the ability of a test to measure what it actually is supposed to measure?
A) consistency
B) reliability
C) objectivity
D) validity

D

152.Dr. Delmonte develops a questionnaire to assess the personality trait of impulsivity among adults. In a journal article, she presents evidence that college students tend to get essentially the same score if they take the test twice, 2 months apart. However, when a reviewer examines the sample questionnaire items included in the article, it seems that they relate more to whether a person is sociable, outgoing, and fun-loving than to whether an individual is impulsive. Dr. Delmonte’s questionnaire may lack:
A)test-retest reliability.
B) objectivity.
C) validity.
D) interrater reliability.

C

153.______ tests are not always flexible, whereas ______ tests are not always reliable.
A) Projective; subjective
B) Subjective; objective
C) Subjective; projective
D) Objective; subjective

D

154.Most psychologists rely on _____ assessments.
A) projective
B) subjective
C) objective
D) both subjective and objective

D

155.In a(n) _____ face-to-face interview, there is no predetermined line of questioning.
A) projective
B) unstructured
C) semistructured
D) subjective

B

156.Dr. Gilbert is a clinical psychologist. When she interviews a client, she does not use a fixed set of questions. Instead, she subtly guides each interview so that the client’s unique issues will gradually emerge. Dr. Gilbert uses _____ interviews.
A) structured
B) projective
C) unstructured
D) semistructured

C

157._____ interviews entail a predetermined line of questions.
A) Unstructured
B) Objective and subjective
C) Semistructured and structured
D) Structured

C

158._____ personality tests involve respondents’ interpretation of complex, ambiguous stimuli.
A) Projective
B) Cognitive
C) Objective
D) Reflective

A

159.Projective tests are based on the assumption that people have unresolved, often unconscious, conflicts. Projective tests are therefore most likely to be used by psychologists adhering to the _____ perspective.
A) behavioral
B) psychoanalytic
C) humanistic
D) social-cognitive

B

160.Barry is looking at an abstract collage of colors, lines, and shapes, trying to come up with an interpretation of it. Barry may be taking a(n) _____ personality test.
A) objective
B) reflective
C) cognitive
D) projective

D

166.Minnie is taking the TAT. Tammy is taking the Rorschach. Minnie is looking at _____. Tammy is examining _____.
A) inkblots; inkblots
B) inkblots; pictures
C) pictures; inkblots
D) pictures; pictures
Ans: C

C

161.The TAT and the Rorschach are _____ tests of personality.
A) objective
B) reflective
C) projective
D) behavioral

C

167.Projective tests are:
A) time-consuming but high in reliability and validity.
B) time-consuming and low in reliability and validity.
C) efficient and high in reliability and validity.
D) efficient but low in reliability and validity.
Ans: B

B

162.The best-known projective test of personality is the:
A) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).
B) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
C) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
D) Rorschach Inkblot Test.

D

163.The _____ consists of 20 cards with black-and-white illustrations of ambiguous scenes.
A) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
B) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
C) Rorschach Inkblot Test
D) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

A

164.Vicki
man. Vicki is most likely taking the:
is telling a story about a black-and-white illustration of an old woman and a young
A) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).
B) Rorschach Inkblot Test.
C) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
D) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

C

165.Inkblot is to picture as _____ is to _____.
A) Rorschach; Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
B) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT); Rorschach
C) Rorschach; Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
D) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2); Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A

Suppose a researcher asks participants to rate Facebook users on the Big Five personality dimensions based on the users’ profiles. Based on research described in the textbook, the correlation between these ratings and the users’ actual Big Five scores should be:
A) negative, but weak.
B) near zero.
C) modest.
D) robust and positive. Ans: D

Which aspect of a Facebook profile do viewers weigh most heavily when making inferences about an individual’s personality?
A) the profile photo
B) the list of interests
C) the list of "likes"
D) the recent activity

A

____ personality tests use a standard set of questions and are scored in a standardized way.
A) Objective
B) Projective
C) Reflective
D) Subjective

A

The most commonly used objective personality test is the:
A) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
B) Rorschach Inkblot Test.
C) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).
D) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

C

Russ is completing a personality test containing over 500 true-false questions. Russell is taking the:
A) Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).
B) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).
C) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
D) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).

B

The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16-PF) was originally created by:
A) Gordon Allport.
B) Hans Eysenck.
C) Raymond Cattell.
D) Henry Murray.

C

Mimi’s personality has been profiled along 16 dimensions, such as "reserved vs. outgoing" and "relaxed vs. tense." Mimi has completed the:
A) Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).
B) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
C) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).
D) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

A

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was originally designed to:
A) identify broad dimensions of personality.
B) predict educational achievement.
C) help employers select employees.
D) diagnose psychological disorders.

D

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is:
A) popular.
B) reliable.
C) valid.
D) rarely used.

A

The ______ designates a personality "type" based on scores on four personality dimensions.
A) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
B) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
C) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
D) Rorschach Inkblot Test

A

Rose Marie describes herself as an "ESTJ." Rose Marie is referring to her scores on the:
A) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).
B) Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).
C) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
D) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

D

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores fail to correlate with scores on measures related to occupational success and job performance. These results cast doubt on the MBTI’s:
A) interrater reliability.
B) validity.
C) test-retest reliability.
D) objectivity.

B

An individual can take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) twice and end up with different results because the measure lacks _____ reliability.
A) split-half
B) interrater
C) test-retest
D) objective

C

One drawback of _____ tests of personality, such as the _____, is that they are susceptible to socially desirable responding.
A) objective; Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)
B) objective; Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
C) projective; Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
D) projective; Rorschach Inkblot

A

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