Chapter 1- Introduction to Psychology

Which aspect of the scientific method occurs first?

A. data collection

B. experiment

C. hypothesis

D. observation

C. hypothesis

For a scientific explanation to be testable, it must also be ________.

A. conscious and unconscious

B. experimental and provable

C. hypothesized and theoretical

D. perceivable and measurable

D. perceivable and measurable For example, that a bird sings because it is happy is not a testable hypothesis, since we have no way to measure the happiness of a bird. We must ask a different question, perhaps about the brain state of the bird, since this can be measured.

Guillermo spends some time each day applying the principles of structuralism to examine his own conscious experience as carefully as possible. Guillermo is engaged in ________.

A. behaviorism

B. client-centered therapy

C. introspection

D. psychoanalysis

C. introspection introspection= "internal perception", a process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible, making the human mind like any other aspect of nature that a scientist observed.

Functionalist psychologists focus on the function of behavior and ________.

A. explaining the subconscious

B. the operation of individual parts of the mind

C. the operation of the whole mind rather than the individual parts

D. understanding the id, ego, and superego

C. the operation of the whole mind rather than the individual parts Functionalism focused on how mental activities helped an organism fit into its environment.

Dr. Bogdarian noticed that one of her students addresses her with the word mother instead of the word professor or doctor. Dr. Bogdarian applies the principles of ________, and
hypothesizes the student misspeaks because he is unconsciously associating her with his mother.

A. functionalism

B. Gestalt psychology

C. psychoanalytic theory

D. structuralism

C. psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of a person's unconscious, as well as early childhood experiences

A series of dots arranged in the shape of a face will be perceived as a face, not a series of dots. A psychologist studying this phenomenon is applying the principals of ________.

A. Gestalt psychology

B. humanism

C. psychoanalytic theory

D. structuralism

A. Gestalt psychology Gestalt psychology deals with the fact that although a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole is often what the individual responds to in perception

I provide Ralph with the positive reinforcement of a candy bar when he does something I like. I punish him by squirting him with a squirt gun when he does something I don't like. I am applying the principles of ________ in an attempt to modify Ralph's behavior.

A. classical conditioning

B. functionalism

C. humanism

D. operant conditioning

D. operant conditioning In operant conditioning, a response is associated with a consequence

In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the ________ include food, water, and shelter.

A. basic survival needs

B. comfort objects

C. higher-level needs

D. wants

A. basic survival needs

Marta is pursuing a graduate degree in psychology. As part of her program, she must write a long research paper based on the data she spent the last year gathering. What is the long research paper called?

A. dissertation

B. PhD

C. postdoctoral

D. PsyD

A. dissertation is essentially a long research paper or bundled published articles describing research that was conducted as a part of the candidate's doctoral training.

Penelope studies how the structure and function of the nervous system is related to behavior. She is a ________.

A. biopsychologist

B. developmental psychologist

C. humanist

D. social psychologist

A. biopsychologist

Lucy wants to study changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, and social behavior across the lifespan. Lucy should specialize in ________ psychology.

A. cognitive

B. developmental

C. personality

D. social

B. developmental is the scientific study of development across a lifespan.

If you show an adult a toy, and then hide it behind a curtain, the adult knows that the toy still exists. However, infants act as if a hidden object no longer exists. What does this exemplify?

A. article blindness

B. developmental theory

C. object permanence

D. perpetuation

C. object permanence refers to the understanding that physical things continue to exist, even if they are hidden from us.

Cognitive psychology focuses on studying ________.

A. genetics and the effect of genetics on behavior

B. sensation and the effect of culture on perception

C. the effect of gender, race, and class on behavior

D. thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions

D. thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions

In the study of personality, the ________ model includes dimensions of conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion.

A. H.O.P.E.S.

B. Either-Or

C. Fifth Dimension

D. Five Factor

D. Five Factor

Edmund wants to identify relatively consistent patterns of thought and behavior, measure these traits, and determine how these traits interact in a particular context to determine how a person will behave in any given situation. Edmund wants to conduct research in the area of ________.

A. cognition

B. perception

C. personality

D. social psychology

C. personality

Susan wants to study prejudice, attraction, how we explain our own behavior versus how we explain the behavior of others, and how we resolve interpersonal conflicts. Susan should conduct research in the area of ________.

A. Gestalt psychology

B. personality

C. psychoanalysis

D. social psychology

D. social psychology Social psychology focuses on how we interact with and relate to others.

Select the correctly ordered list of psychological theorists, with the earliest theorist listed first.

A. Noam Chomsky, Sigmund Freud, Wilhelm Wundt

B. Noam Chomsky, Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud

C. Sigmund Freud, Noam Chomsky, Wilhelm Wundt

D. Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud, Noam Chomsky

D. Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud, Noam Chomsky

Behaviorism focuses on making psychology an objective science by ________.

A. studying how emotional responses influence behavior while deemphasizing the

importance of the subconscious

B. studying implicit motivations for behavior through the use of implicit association tests

C. studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes

D. studying the genetic basis for behavior and theorizing how instincts influence behavior

C. studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes

Oona wants to conduct research on personnel management, workplace environment, and what type of environment results in high levels of employee productivity and efficiency. Oona should conduct research in the area of ________ psychology.

A. biological

B. Gestalt

C. industrial-organizational

D. social

C. industrial-organizational

Which of the following is an example of research someone might conduct in the area of health psychology?

A. how the age of a leader affects the productivity of the group

B. what personality traits are present more often in men compared to women

C. whether culture influences perception

D. whether people working at a desk are more likely to be obese

D. whether people working at a desk are more likely to be obese Health psychology focuses on how health is affected by the interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Health psychologists are interested in helping individuals achieve better health through public policy, education, intervention, and research.

Which theorist had the most influence in shaping how clinicians interact with people seeking psychotherapy?

A. Abraham Maslow

B. Carl Rogers

C. Wilhelm Wundt

D. William James

B. Carl Rogers Rogers used a therapeutic technique known as client-centered therapy in helping his clients deal with problematic issues that resulted in their seeking psychotherapy.

Ashya wants to focus on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior. What area of psychology should she work in?

A. clinical psychology

B. cognitive psychology

C. organizational psychology

D. social psychology

A. clinical psychology the area of psychology that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior.

Which kind of psychologist would be consulted in jury selection and witness preparation?

A. cognitive

B. counseling

C. forensic

D. legal

C. forensic

Select the correctly ordered list of psychological perspectives, with the earliest perspective listed first.

A. humanism, behaviorism, structuralism, functionalism

B. humanism, structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism

C. structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, humanism

D. structuralism, functionalism, humanism, behaviorism

C. structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, humanism

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Chapter 1- Introduction to Psychology

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Which aspect of the scientific method occurs first?

A. data collection

B. experiment

C. hypothesis

D. observation

C. hypothesis

For a scientific explanation to be testable, it must also be ________.

A. conscious and unconscious

B. experimental and provable

C. hypothesized and theoretical

D. perceivable and measurable

D. perceivable and measurable For example, that a bird sings because it is happy is not a testable hypothesis, since we have no way to measure the happiness of a bird. We must ask a different question, perhaps about the brain state of the bird, since this can be measured.

Guillermo spends some time each day applying the principles of structuralism to examine his own conscious experience as carefully as possible. Guillermo is engaged in ________.

A. behaviorism

B. client-centered therapy

C. introspection

D. psychoanalysis

C. introspection introspection= "internal perception", a process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible, making the human mind like any other aspect of nature that a scientist observed.

Functionalist psychologists focus on the function of behavior and ________.

A. explaining the subconscious

B. the operation of individual parts of the mind

C. the operation of the whole mind rather than the individual parts

D. understanding the id, ego, and superego

C. the operation of the whole mind rather than the individual parts Functionalism focused on how mental activities helped an organism fit into its environment.

Dr. Bogdarian noticed that one of her students addresses her with the word mother instead of the word professor or doctor. Dr. Bogdarian applies the principles of ________, and
hypothesizes the student misspeaks because he is unconsciously associating her with his mother.

A. functionalism

B. Gestalt psychology

C. psychoanalytic theory

D. structuralism

C. psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of a person’s unconscious, as well as early childhood experiences

A series of dots arranged in the shape of a face will be perceived as a face, not a series of dots. A psychologist studying this phenomenon is applying the principals of ________.

A. Gestalt psychology

B. humanism

C. psychoanalytic theory

D. structuralism

A. Gestalt psychology Gestalt psychology deals with the fact that although a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole is often what the individual responds to in perception

I provide Ralph with the positive reinforcement of a candy bar when he does something I like. I punish him by squirting him with a squirt gun when he does something I don’t like. I am applying the principles of ________ in an attempt to modify Ralph’s behavior.

A. classical conditioning

B. functionalism

C. humanism

D. operant conditioning

D. operant conditioning In operant conditioning, a response is associated with a consequence

In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the ________ include food, water, and shelter.

A. basic survival needs

B. comfort objects

C. higher-level needs

D. wants

A. basic survival needs

Marta is pursuing a graduate degree in psychology. As part of her program, she must write a long research paper based on the data she spent the last year gathering. What is the long research paper called?

A. dissertation

B. PhD

C. postdoctoral

D. PsyD

A. dissertation is essentially a long research paper or bundled published articles describing research that was conducted as a part of the candidate’s doctoral training.

Penelope studies how the structure and function of the nervous system is related to behavior. She is a ________.

A. biopsychologist

B. developmental psychologist

C. humanist

D. social psychologist

A. biopsychologist

Lucy wants to study changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, and social behavior across the lifespan. Lucy should specialize in ________ psychology.

A. cognitive

B. developmental

C. personality

D. social

B. developmental is the scientific study of development across a lifespan.

If you show an adult a toy, and then hide it behind a curtain, the adult knows that the toy still exists. However, infants act as if a hidden object no longer exists. What does this exemplify?

A. article blindness

B. developmental theory

C. object permanence

D. perpetuation

C. object permanence refers to the understanding that physical things continue to exist, even if they are hidden from us.

Cognitive psychology focuses on studying ________.

A. genetics and the effect of genetics on behavior

B. sensation and the effect of culture on perception

C. the effect of gender, race, and class on behavior

D. thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions

D. thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions

In the study of personality, the ________ model includes dimensions of conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion.

A. H.O.P.E.S.

B. Either-Or

C. Fifth Dimension

D. Five Factor

D. Five Factor

Edmund wants to identify relatively consistent patterns of thought and behavior, measure these traits, and determine how these traits interact in a particular context to determine how a person will behave in any given situation. Edmund wants to conduct research in the area of ________.

A. cognition

B. perception

C. personality

D. social psychology

C. personality

Susan wants to study prejudice, attraction, how we explain our own behavior versus how we explain the behavior of others, and how we resolve interpersonal conflicts. Susan should conduct research in the area of ________.

A. Gestalt psychology

B. personality

C. psychoanalysis

D. social psychology

D. social psychology Social psychology focuses on how we interact with and relate to others.

Select the correctly ordered list of psychological theorists, with the earliest theorist listed first.

A. Noam Chomsky, Sigmund Freud, Wilhelm Wundt

B. Noam Chomsky, Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud

C. Sigmund Freud, Noam Chomsky, Wilhelm Wundt

D. Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud, Noam Chomsky

D. Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud, Noam Chomsky

Behaviorism focuses on making psychology an objective science by ________.

A. studying how emotional responses influence behavior while deemphasizing the

importance of the subconscious

B. studying implicit motivations for behavior through the use of implicit association tests

C. studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes

D. studying the genetic basis for behavior and theorizing how instincts influence behavior

C. studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes

Oona wants to conduct research on personnel management, workplace environment, and what type of environment results in high levels of employee productivity and efficiency. Oona should conduct research in the area of ________ psychology.

A. biological

B. Gestalt

C. industrial-organizational

D. social

C. industrial-organizational

Which of the following is an example of research someone might conduct in the area of health psychology?

A. how the age of a leader affects the productivity of the group

B. what personality traits are present more often in men compared to women

C. whether culture influences perception

D. whether people working at a desk are more likely to be obese

D. whether people working at a desk are more likely to be obese Health psychology focuses on how health is affected by the interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Health psychologists are interested in helping individuals achieve better health through public policy, education, intervention, and research.

Which theorist had the most influence in shaping how clinicians interact with people seeking psychotherapy?

A. Abraham Maslow

B. Carl Rogers

C. Wilhelm Wundt

D. William James

B. Carl Rogers Rogers used a therapeutic technique known as client-centered therapy in helping his clients deal with problematic issues that resulted in their seeking psychotherapy.

Ashya wants to focus on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior. What area of psychology should she work in?

A. clinical psychology

B. cognitive psychology

C. organizational psychology

D. social psychology

A. clinical psychology the area of psychology that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior.

Which kind of psychologist would be consulted in jury selection and witness preparation?

A. cognitive

B. counseling

C. forensic

D. legal

C. forensic

Select the correctly ordered list of psychological perspectives, with the earliest perspective listed first.

A. humanism, behaviorism, structuralism, functionalism

B. humanism, structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism

C. structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, humanism

D. structuralism, functionalism, humanism, behaviorism

C. structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, humanism

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