Chap. 4

26.
Which of the following processes involves analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service?
A.

ergonomics

B.

work flow design

C.

utilization analysis

D.

Industrial engineering

E.

break-even analysis

b

27.
In the context of work flow design, which of the following best describes a position?
A.

the set of duties performed by a person

B.

a set of related duties fulfilled by many employees

C.

an aggregate of similar jobs

D.

the set of skills and abilities that is required of a person in a job

E.

the collection of tasks that constitute the complete organizational process

A

28.
Dave wants to set up a manufacturing unit, so he meets with Rodney, a human resource manager at his company. Rodney explains that in order to decide on the human resource needs for the unit, they should conduct a work flow analysis. He suggests they start by defining the outputs of the process. To do this, which of the following should Dave define?
A.

the processes that will be involved in manufacturing

B.

the number of people required for production

C.

the type of products that will need to be manufactured

D.

the special equipment, facilities, and systems needed for production

E.

the data and information needed by the work unit

C

29.
Which of the following statements is true of work flow analysis?
A.

Information cannot be considered to be an input because it is not tangible.

B.

All outputs must be strictly measured in terms of quantity.

C.

Outputs may be tangible or intangible products of the work processes.

D.

Quality standards are not a key criterion in the process of work flow analysis.

E.

Inputs and outputs are only the two stages required to represent a complete work flow cycle.

C

30.
Samcys Services Inc. specializes in providing round-the-clock building security services to multinational companies. Samcys selects security guards, conducts background checks, provides them with uniforms and training, and schedules guards to patrol and monitor security at clients' facilities. In the work flow analysis for Samcys, which of the following terms best describes the security services?
A.

outputs

B.

inputs

C.

resources

D.

jobs

E.

processes

A

31.
Joe's Restaurant, a pizza chain, is known for its quick service. To make a pizza, employees must prepare the dough and add the sauce and toppings. Cooking happens next, followed by packaging. In this scenario, the employees of Joe's Restaurant are engaged in _____.
A.

work processes

B.

task identities

C.

group dynamics

D.

job analyses

E.

ergonomic activities

A

32.
Kidzi Inc. is a toy manufacturing company. As the new production manager, Andrew notices that the production unit has been underperforming. In an attempt to streamline the existing work flow, Andrew brings in an HR specialist to help him conduct a work flow analysis. Andrew describes to specialist the quantity and quality of products to be produced. What will the HR specialist have Andrew define next?
A.

the raw materials required

B.

the number of employees needed

C.

the work processes used to generate the end product

D.

an inventory of equipment, facilities, and systems

E.

the data and information required by the production unit

C

33.
Bitstar Global Inc. is a soft-drink manufacturing company. Kelly, the production manager, works with a human resource consultant to design a new work flow for the production unit. Together they define the necessary inputs. These include raw materials, information, human resources, and _____.
A.

skills

B.

outputs

C.

work processes

D.

equipment

E.

activity

D

34.
Koland Corp. is an interior design firm based in California. The firm has a team of interior designers working closely with manufacturers to create home décor products. In the context of a work flow analysis, the interior designers, manufacturers, and home décor products required to provide interior design services collectively constitute the _____.
A.

outputs

B.

jobs

C.

work processes

D.

operating procedures

E.

inputs

E

35.
The structure of HealthCo Hospital is strongly based on function. Which statement is most describes staff positions at this hospital?
A.

positions require more cognitive ability than at other hospitals

B.

most positions are structured around teamwork

C.

employees have broad authority for decision making

D.

employees work in teams to care for groups of patients

E.

positions are highly specialized

E

36.
LRPN Consulting is a business consulting firm based in Nevada. The departments in the organization are based on the functions carried out by employees, such as customer service, marketing, tech support, and business consulting. Which of the following is most likely true of the organizational structure of LRPN Consulting?
A.

Management jobs are not affected by the organizational structure.

B.

The jobs mostly involve teamwork or broad responsibilities.

C.

The focus is primarily on products or customer groups within LRPN.

D.

The workers work alone at highly specialized jobs.

E.

The workers have more authority and are involved in decision making.

D

37.
Brianna and Natalie are planning an e-commerce company for business travelers. They want to be sure that all the employees have a wide scope of decision-making authority. Which kind of organizational structure is most appropriate for this kind of work?
A.

divisions focused on customer groups

B.

a highly centralized structure

C.

highly specialized departments

D.

employees grouped according to function

E.

authority concentrated in a few people at the top

A

38.
Next Tech applies research into physics and biochemistry to create advanced surgical instruments and implants. Its research department attracts some of the most talented professionals in these disciplines, each with a passion for his or her specialty. Next year, the position of vice president of research will be vacant, so the executive team is working with the HR department to define selection criteria for a new vice president. Given the company's structure, which of the following qualities will be important for the new vice president to possess?
A.

experience in setting up divisions based on customer groups

B.

experience in leading employees with broad responsibilities

C.

skill in setting up structures and jobs

D.

the ability to align researchers' work with the company's strategy

E.

the ability to motivate employees to identify more heavily with their profession

D

39.
A manager of a functional department would require skills in aligning employees' efforts with the organization's higher-level goals. This is a valid statement because
A.

employees in a functional department need to work in a team.

B.

broad responsibilities are assigned to employees working in a functional department.

C.

employees in functional departments tend to identify more with their own departments.

D.

employees expect their managers to empower them by allowing them to work in self-managing teams.

E.

employees in such departments tend to work in cross-functional teams.

C

40.
Jenny is a line manager at Maxvin Corp. She is assigned the task of understanding and gathering detailed information about the requirements of carrying out a certain job. Information gathered by Jenny will be used to provide essential knowledge for staffing, training, performance appraisal, and other HR activities. Which of the following most likely corresponds to the task undertaken by Jenny?
A.

job analysis

B.

job definition

C.

job training

D.

job swapping

E.

job rotation

A

41.
A list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities that a job entails is called a _____.
A.

job evaluation

B.

job description

C.

utilization analysis

D.

conjoint analysis

E.

job standardization

B

42.
Marjorie has joined the HR department of Thomas Johnson Inc. as an intern. The organization plans on giving all newly hired site engineers copies of their job descriptions to help them understand what the organization expects of them. Marjorie has been given the task of conducting job analyses and creating job descriptions for the site engineers. Which of the following should Marjorie consider while creating the job descriptions?
A.

Job descriptions do not include the job title.

B.

Job descriptions focus on the qualities or requirements a person performing a job must possess.

C.

Job descriptions contain only a brief statement that represents the set of responsibilities.

D.

Job descriptions contain detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty.

E.

Job descriptions are lists of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that an individual must have to perform a job.

D

43.
Leeding Engines Inc. specializes in manufacturing internal combustion engines. Recently, Leeding has decided to create a division for the flexible fuel field. During this time, Mark, the HR manager, has been reviewing and updating job descriptions. With the knowledge that a new division of jobs will be created, what would be the appropriate course of action for Mark to take next?
A.

Mark should amend the original job descriptions to say they all will eventually take on flexible fuel responsibilities.

B.

Mark should take care to avoid including the titles of the jobs while formulating new job descriptions.

C.

Mark should wait until the new employees are hired before creating the new job descriptions.

D.

Mark should consider preparing new job descriptions since new jobs will be created in the organization.

E.

Mark should reuse the old job descriptions for the new jobs, instead of creating new ones.

D

44.
N-Pax Technology Corp., a microchip manufacturing company, is hiring for the position of marketing manager for its new division. Nathan, the HR manager, considers the requirements of the job, including the necessary knowledge, level of proficiency, enduring capabilities, and other personality traits, such as persistence or motivation to achieve. Which of the following documents includes these considerations to help Nathan in selecting a candidate?
A.

job description

B.

job definition

C.

job evaluation

D.

job scope

E.

job specification

E

45.
What is a basic difference between job specifications and job descriptions?
A.

Job specifications define tasks, and job descriptions define responsibilities.

B.

Job specifications list observable actions, and job descriptions describe general qualities.

C.

Job specifications look at a job's activities, and job descriptions look at the qualities needed to do the job.

D.

Job descriptions define tasks, and job specifications define responsibilities.

E.

Job descriptions look at a job's activities, and job specifications look at the qualities needed to do the job.

E

46.
Catherine is an HR executive looking for a new job. She comes across an advertisement in a newspaper seeking applications for the position of an HR manager. The advertisement exclusively highlights requirements such as strong communications skills, excellent teamwork abilities, and leadership skills. These requirements constitute a _____.
A.

job evaluation

B.

job analysis

C.

job description

D.

job specification

E.

job orientation

D

47.
INRT Software Solutions is a firm that builds information systems for banks and other financial institutions. In its presentations to prospective clients, the firm claims to have skilled employees. What does INRT Software Solutions mean by this?
A.

Its employees have previous experience in performing similar jobs.

B.

It has factual or procedural information that is necessary for successfully performing a task.

C.

Its employees have a significant level of proficiency required to perform a particular task.

D.

Its employees are highly motivated.

E.

Its employees have software certifications.

C

48.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding KSAOs?
A.

KSAOs are characteristics of people and are not directly observable.

B.

KSAOs and TDRs are the same thing.

C.

In developing job specifications, considering all elements of KSAOs is unimportant.

D.

The term stands for knowledge, skill, adaptability, and other characteristics.

E.

KSAOs detail the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job.

A

49.
Henry has been newly appointed as the head of the HR team at AAS Technologies. In an attempt to establish a more efficient and reliable workflow, Henry has taken up the responsibility of creating job descriptions and job specifications for the newly hired and current engineers within the organization. While doing so, Henry gathers information about the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required for an engineer to successfully perform the job. How will determining the KSAOs most benefit the organization?
A.

KSAOs will show engineers the work to be performed on the job.

B.

KSAOs will be a resource for writing job descriptions.

C.

KSAOs play a significant role in interviews and selection decisions.

D.

KSAOs will enable line managers to carry out job analysis.

E.

KSAOs should limit the number of factors listed in job specifications.

C

50.
Information from observers should be used as a supplement to information from incumbents. Identify the statement that is most likely to support this argument.
A.

Incumbents are a logical source of information; however, they may not be able to provide precise information.

B.

Incumbents provide accurate estimates of the importance of job duties, whereas supervisors provide accurate information about the time spent on safety-related risk factors.

C.

Incumbents provide accurate information, but they may have an incentive to exaggerate what they do to appear more valuable to the organization.

D.

Depending on external job analysts to supplement incumbents' information could be risky due to the relative inexperience of the analysts involved.

E.

Information provided by observers who look for a match between what incumbents are doing and what they are supposed to do may be unreliable.

C

51.
Orange Banking Group, a corporation that has a global presence, is seeking to hire employees for its IT team. Among the available job positions are those of system administrators and chief technology officer. Who among the following is most likely to be the best source for preparing an analysis of skills needed to fill these important technical positions?
A.

HR executives

B.

incumbents

C.

supervisors

D.

line managers

E.

external job analysts

E

52.
In the 1930s, the U.S. Department of Labor created the _____ as a vehicle for helping the new public employment system link the demand for skills and the supply of skills in the U.S. workforce.
A.

Career Development Facilitator (CDF)

B.

Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)

C.

Occupational Information Network (O*NET)

D.

Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)

E.

Selected Characteristics of Occupations (SCO)

B

53.
Which of the following is true of the Occupational Information Network (O*NET)?
A.

It provides listings of fixed job titles and narrow task descriptions.

B.

It uses a common language that generalizes across jobs to describe the abilities, work styles, work activities, and work context required for various occupations.

C.

It represents the first attempt made by the U.S. Department of Labor to match the demand and supply of labor.

D.

It uses an online platform to provide information about available federal jobs.

E.

It was created by the U.S. Department of Labor in the 1930s as a vehicle for helping the new public employment system link the demand and supply of skills in the U.S. workforce.

B

54.
ALTS Infosystems is a software consulting firm based in Redmond. The firm uses a standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs. In this scenario, ALTS Infosystems is using _____.
A.

a utilization analysis

B.

the Fleishman Job Analysis System

C.

a work flow design

D.

a conjoint analysis

E.

the Position Analysis Questionnaire

E

55.
Which of the following is true of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)?
A.

It considers only the inputs of a work process, ignoring the outputs.

B.

PAQ reports are very useful for writing job descriptions or redesigning jobs.

C.

PAQ ratings cannot be used to compare dissimilar jobs.

D.

The descriptions in the PAQ reports are very clear and specific.

E.

The PAQ is meant to be completed only by job analysts trained in this method.

E

56.
Josh, a human resource manager at a manufacturing company, recommends that the company use the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) for conducting job analysis. Which of the following statements best supports Josh's recommendation?
A.

The PAQ considers the whole work process, from inputs through outputs.

B.

The PAQ can be easily scored without a computer.

C.

The PAQ is based on 52 categories of abilities.

D.

The PAQ can be completed by untrained personnel.

E.

A person who fills out the PAQ does not need college-level reading skills.

A

57.
Identify the disadvantage of using the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ).
A.

It applies exclusively to similar job profiles.

B.

It measures only the inputs of a work process.

C.

It fails to provide computerized reports.

D.

It only deals with the mental processes involved in performing a job.

E.

It results in abstract reports that are of limited use.

E

58.
Sharon, an HR manager, is considering methods of job analysis to introduce at her organization in order to improve the process of writing job descriptions. One option she is considering is the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Which of the following statements best explains a drawback of the PAQ that would be relevant to her objectives?
A.

This method considers only the inputs of a work process, ignoring the outputs.

B.

This method relies on fixed job titles and narrow task descriptions.

C.

This method cannot be used to compare dissimilar jobs.

D.

This method allows people with very basic reading skills to fill out the questionnaire.

E.

This method provides descriptions that are rather abstract.

E

59.
Which of the following job analysis methods requires subject-matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of abilities required to perform the job?
A.

Work Sampling Technique

B.

Participant Observation Technique

C.

Fleishman Job Analysis System

D.

Position Analysis Questionnaire

E.

Conjoint Analysis Technique

C

60.
To gather information about worker requirements, the Fleishman Job Analysis System typically asks _____ to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job.
A.

subject-matter experts

B.

supervisors

C.

HR specialists

D.

external analysts

E.

CEOs

A

61.
Which of the following HR activities is similar to analyzing a job that does not yet exist?
A.

human resource planning

B.

performance appraisal

C.

job evaluation

D.

work redesign

E.

selection

D

62.
Aaron, an HR manager, observes that the number of employees quitting their jobs has been steadily increasing over the last six months. On closer inspection, he finds that a majority of the employees who quit were unhappy with the pay structures. Aaron assesses the significance of each job to the organization, which helps him set up fair pay structures. This in turn helps the organization retain valuable employees. Which of the following most likely relates to the task undertaken by Aaron?
A.

job evaluation

B.

career planning

C.

job training

D.

performance appraisal

E.

selection

A

63.
Which of the following best defines a competency?
A.

It is the set of duties performed by a particular team.

B.

It is the list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails.

C.

It is a set of related duties for accomplishing work.

D.

It is the activity that a work unit's members engage in to produce a given output.

E.

It is an area of personal capability that enables employees to perform successfully.

E

64.
Which of the following is true of competency models?
A.

They help HR professionals ensure that all aspects of talent management are aligned with an organization's strategy.

B.

They identify and describe a few competencies required for success in a particular occupation or set of jobs.

C.

They are only applicable to middle managers of an organization.

D.

They focus more on tasks and outcomes and not on how people work.

E.

They are only created for different occupational groups in an organization.

A

65.
All-Best Milling is a small machine shop that makes custom parts for manufacturers in the metropolitan area where it is located. For 20 years, Monica was the office assistant. She was hired to fill a position that involved keeping track of customers' orders and purchasing supplies. After Monica retired, the company hired another office assistant to perform the same tasks. Soon afterward, however, the company's owner began hearing from frustrated customers complaining that when they called the company with questions and problems, no one was taking responsibility and helping them as Monica had. What problem with job analysis is most likely to have occurred when Monica retired?
A.

All-Best should have engaged in downsizing so fewer employees could get the work done.

B.

When hiring the new employee, All-Best failed to use the fixed job description found on O*Net.

C.

All-Best Milling wasn't adaptable, although its environment was subject to change.

D.

Monica took on customer service duties, but the job description didn't reflect the change.

E.

The company didn't prevent Monica from changing her job based on personal preferences.

D

66.
Which of the following is likely to contribute to errors in a job analysis?
A.

use of multiple analysis methods to obtain a detailed job analysis

B.

inputs from multiple sources such as incumbents and supervisors

C.

fixed and unchanging job descriptions for various jobs

D.

a combination of internal and external sources of information for job analysis

E.

the creation of comprehensive and detailed job descriptions

C

67.
Steve contends that a manager conducting a job analysis is required not only to define jobs when they are created but also to detect changes in jobs. What is the validity of Steve's argument?
A.

Errors in job analysis have multiple sources, but most result from outdated job descriptions.

B.

Today's workplace is more or less inflexible and is not constantly subject to change.

C.

People imagine jobs to be unstable, whereas jobs actually do not change or evolve over time.

D.

Changes in jobs occur only when there is a change in the descriptions of jobs.

E.

Steve's argument is incorrect because new jobs do not have job descriptions.

A

68.
Maxwin Infomatics Corp., a nationwide logistics company, has announced the opening of a new unit for the manufacturing division. Alex, the HR manager, has been asked to help plan for the creation of the new unit. Which of the following relates to the task undertaken by Alex, if he is involved in the process of explaining how an employee will execute his or her tasks?
A.

job rotation

B.

job evaluation

C.

job design

D.

job enrichment

E.

job extension

C

69.
Clean N Green is a two-year-old company that makes wind turbines. The business owner, Janelle, is struggling to compete. Finding enough employees who know how to do the work has been difficult, and Janelle believes that her labor costs are too high because she cannot afford to match the prices of her nearest competitors. To help with these problems, Janelle hires a new HR manager, Dylan. Dylan recommends they start by bringing in an industrial engineer. How is this approach to job design most likely to help Clean N Green?
A.

by reducing injuries among workers

B.

by giving employees feedback about performance effectiveness

C.

by simplifying work and increasing output per worker

D.

by motivating workers to do their best

E.

by enlarging employees' jobs

C

70.
Javier, a regional manager for a leading automobile company in the U.S., decides to design a manufacturing job based on the principles of industrial engineering. Following its successful implementation, which of the following outcomes should he expect?
A.

increased efficiency

B.

increased complexity

C.

decreased repetitiveness

D.

increased skill requirements

E.

decreased specialization

A

71.
Natalie, a manager at a construction company, contends that applying industrial engineering is the simplest way to structure work and maximize efficiency. Which of the following statements supports Natalie's argument?
A.

Applying industrial engineering reduces the complexity of work.

B.

Applying industrial engineering makes jobs more dynamic.

C.

Organizations cannot combine industrial engineering with other approaches to job design.

D.

Applying industrial engineering makes training people extremely difficult and time consuming.

E.

Applying industrial engineering to a job increases its complexity.

A

72.
The industrial engineering approach is most likely to emphasize _____.
A.

defining work arrangements and reporting requirements

B.

streamlining jobs to make them simpler and more efficient

C.

designing jobs in such a way that they require minimal specialization

D.

exploring new and diverse ways of doing the same job

E.

creating complex and challenging jobs that require innovative employees

B

73.
Which of the following would be a benefit to the company if it plans on applying industrial engineering to existing jobs?
A.

Industrial engineering will increase the complexity of the work.

B.

Industrial engineering will eliminate the need for specialization in the job.

C.

Industrial engineering will make jobs less specialized and less repetitive.

D.

Industrial engineering will provide measurable and practical benefits.

E.

Industrial engineering will represent the best way to make jobs more meaningful.

D

74.
Name the model that was developed by Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham to describe ways to make jobs more motivating.
A.

the Cognitive Dissonance Model

B.

the Situational Leadership Model

C.

the Job Characteristics Model

D.

the Fleishman Job Analysis Model

E.

the Motivation-Hygiene Model

C

75.
According to the Job Characteristics Model, which of the following best describes task identity?
A.

the extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved

B.

the degree to which a job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work will be carried out

C.

the extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself

D.

the degree to which a job requires completing a "whole" piece of work from beginning to end

E.

the extent to which a job has an important impact on the lives of other people

D

76.
Which of the following scenarios reflects a job lacking the characteristic of task significance?
A.

a job requiring a variety of skills to be performed

B.

a job requiring completion of the whole piece of work from beginning to end

C.

a job that has minimal impact on the lives of other people

D.

a job allowing individuals to make autonomous decisions about the job

E.

a job where a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself

C

77.
According to the Job Characteristics Model, _____ refers to the job characteristic that reflects the degree to which a job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work is carried out.
A.

task knowledge

B.

task ability

C.

skill variety

D.

autonomy

E.

feedback

D

78.
In terms of the Job Characteristics Model, feedback refers to the extent to which _____.
A.

a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved in the job and its duties

B.

employees are given the authority to make decisions

C.

performance appraisals are perceived as transparent and fair by employees

D.

a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved

E.

a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself

E

79.
Which of the following is the objective of job enlargement?
A.

to make jobs less repetitive and more interesting

B.

to increase efficiency by identifying the best way to perform a job

C.

to decrease the burden of decision-making responsibilities for employees

D.

to assess the relative dollar value of each job to an organization

E.

to decrease the impact a job has on the lives of other people

A

80.
Creations Media Inc., a publishing company, conducted an internal survey on employee satisfaction. The results indicated that a majority of its support staff considered their jobs to be monotonous. In order to change this, management decided to combine the job duties of assistants, typists, and file clerks into a single job that requires all three kinds of work. Which of the following techniques of job design did this move constitute?
A.

job analysis

B.

job review

C.

job identification

D.

job evaluation

E.

job extension

E

81.
Which of the following arrangements would qualify as job rotation?
A.

a receptionist hired to perform the jobs of file clerk and typist

B.

support staff being trained in front-office functions through periods of alternating work arrangements

C.

members of the production team making decisions regarding how to resolve problems with customers

D.

a manager participating in a meeting while on vacation with his family

E.

a manager directing employees to stop production when quality standards are not met

B

82.
Job enrichment differs from job rotation in that job enrichment
A.

empowers workers by adding more decision-making authority to their jobs.

B.

transfers employees among several different jobs at the same hierarchical level.

C.

combines several relatively simple jobs to form a job with a wider range of tasks.

D.

allows employees to mutually exchange work roles at the same organizational level.

E.

assesses the relative dollar value of each job to an organization.

A

83.
Which of the following job design techniques involving the addition of decision-making authorities to a job is credited to Frederick Herzberg?
A.

job extension

B.

job rotation

C.

job enrichment

D.

job enlargement

E.

job sharing

C

84.
According to Herzberg's two-factor theory, which of the following factors would motivate individuals the most?
A.

meaningfulness of a job

B.

fringe benefits of a job

C.

shares of company stock

D.

salary and allowances

E.

periodic bonuses

A

85.
Identify the step that can be taken by an organization to enrich manufacturing jobs for its employees.
A.

Divide tasks among employees in greater detail.

B.

Carry out time-and-motion studies to identify the best way to perform a job.

C.

Make the tasks repetitive and simple to avoid errors.

D.

Give employees more authority to manage the production process.

E.

Establish a centralized decision-making process.

D

86.
Pamela, the manager of an electronics store in California, gives her staff the authority to resolve customer complaints. She lets the staff decide whether to issue refunds or replace merchandise in case of consumer grievances. Which of the following job design techniques is Pamela implementing in her store?
A.

job sharing

B.

job extension

C.

job rotation

D.

job enrichment

E.

job evaluation

D

87.
Richard, a researcher, is of the opinion that organizations should empower employees, and suggests this should be done by designing work to be done by self-managing teams. Which of the following statements would validate Richard's argument?
A.

Self-managing teams are highly involved in decision making.

B.

Self-managing teams do not have the authority to schedule work or hire team members.

C.

Organizations do not have to incur additional training expenditures.

D.

Team members do not have to perform a wide variety of tasks, and they view their effort as significant.

E.

Self-managing teams consume more time and result in lower productivity.

A

88.
Which of the following is true of self-managing work teams?
A.

Team members' job duties are narrowly defined.

B.

Team members usually share work assignments.

C.

Team members' joint responsibilities are minimal.

D.

Team members only have the authority to schedule work.

E.

Team members are only responsible for their individual tasks.

B

89.
DigiAd Inc., an advertising firm, requires its employees to be at work between the hours of 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. This work rule allows employees to work additional hours before or after the time period in order to work the full day. Identify the job design method implemented in this scenario.
A.

zero-hour contract

B.

flextime

C.

compressed workweek

D.

telework

E.

retroactive overtime

B

90.
Which of the following best describes job sharing?
A.

It is a work option in which two part-time employees carry out the tasks associated with a single job.

B.

It is a work option that allows full-time employees to choose start and end times within the guidelines specified by an organization.

C.

It is a work option that empowers individual workers by adding more opportunities for specialization in their current job duties.

D.

It is a work option that enlarges jobs by combining several relatively simple jobs to form a job with a wider range of tasks.

E.

It is a work option that enlarges jobs in an organization by moving employees among several different jobs.

A

91.
Employees in a company's accounting department work 10 hours a day for 4 days a week, while employees in the other departments work 8 hours a day for 5 days a week. The flexible work schedule option affecting the accounting department is known as _____.
A.

a zero-hour contract

B.

a compressed workweek

C.

a flexible workweek

D.

retroactive overtime

E.

telework

B

92.
Which of the following would qualify as a compressed workweek?
A.

Employees are required to be at work from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. and can choose additional hours before or after this period.

B.

Two part-time employees work in different shifts and share the tasks of a specific job.

C.

Employees work in the office two days a week and work from home the other three days.

D.

Employees can choose to work away from a centrally located work area.

E.

Employees work 10 hours a day so that they work fewer days per week.

E

93.
The human resource department of Revlay Corp, wants to improve worker motivation, so it is investigating changes to job design. The department invites employees to suggest ideas related to scheduling. One of the most popular is a schedule in which full-time workers complete their weekly hours in fewer than five days. For example, instead of working eight hours a day for five days, the employees could complete 40 hours of work in four 10-hour days. Staffers in the HR department recognize the idea as being the flexible work arrangement known as _______.
A.

a zero-hour contract

B.

telework

C.

retroactive overtime

D.

flextime

E.

a compressed workweek

E

94.
Adam, an HR executive observes that telework or telecommuting has been a rising trend. He considers developing a policy to allow telecommuting at his company. Which of the following statements is a fact about telecommuting that would support implementing this policy?
A.

Telecommuting may support a strategy of corporate social responsibility.

B.

Organizations that use telecommuting require more office space.

C.

Employees telecommuting may have greater absences from work.

D.

A telework arrangement is easy to set up for manufacturing workers.

E.

A telework arrangement is difficult to set up for people in managerial, professional, or sales jobs.

A

95.
Which of the following is true of telework arrangements?
A.

They are the most difficult to implement for people in managerial or professional jobs.

B.

They are the easiest to set up for manufacturing workers.

C.

They support the strategy of corporate social responsibility by reducing an employee's need to commute using a vehicle.

D.

They are limited to employees who are disabled or need to be available for children or elderly relatives.

E.

They are only provided for employees who hold key strategic positions in a company.

C

96.
Penta Toy Corp. is a firm that manufactures toys. Very often, employees of the firm are on leave, citing physical strain as the cause. An expert hired by the company investigates the situation and recommends investing in an ergonomics study of the work environment. In this scenario, the expert is recommending
A.

a study of the interface between individuals' physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment.

B.

a study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency.

C.

a study of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of employees in a new job.

D.

a study of the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to perform a job.

E.

a study of the relationship between intrinsic rewards and employee motivation in the context of human resource management.

A

97.
Sairs Info Solutions is a firm that develops software applications for other companies. After the company moves into a new office space, most of the employees complain about the lack of comfortable seating arrangements. Following up on the complaint, the HR department advises management to invest in studying the ergonomics of the new office space. Which of the following would serve as an incentive for the company to invest in the study of ergonomics?
A.

Ergonomics empowers employees by giving them decision-making authority.

B.

Ergonomics reduces the physical strain on employees performing a job.

C.

Ergonomics reduces the number of reporting relationships in a job.

D.

Ergonomics enlarges jobs by moving employees among different jobs.

E.

Ergonomics increases a job's mental demands.

B

98.
The manager of a local grocery store introduces a short conveyor belt that allows customers to place items on it prior to checking out. This saves the cashier from the physical strain of bending forward and reaching into the carts to retrieve the items. This change is an example of the _____ approach to job design.
A.

telecommuting

B.

job enrichment

C.

ergonomic

D.

flextime

E.

job sharing

C

99.
Walters & Williams, a consulting firm, equips all of its employees with laptop computers, which they use at their desks and carry to client meetings. What ergonomic challenge may result from employees using these devices throughout the day?
A.

shoulder strain from carrying them around

B.

pain from the tactile feedback of pressing keys

C.

fatigue from taking frequent breaks to move around

D.

physical strain to wrists from improper positioning for typing

E.

distraction from paying attention to posture

D

100.
Which of the following is a strategy used by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to increase ergonomic job design?
A.

issuing regulations rather than guidelines for industries

B.

penalizing companies that allow employee participation in ergonomic redesign

C.

enforcing violations of its requirement that employers have a general duty to protect workers from hazards, including ergonomic hazards

D.

levying fines on employers who issue computers with keyboards instead of touchscreen tablets

E.

working with organizations to design workspaces in such a manner that they meet the standards of ergonomics

C

101.
Anthony, an HR manager at Synergy Inc., wishes to design jobs that do not exceed the mental capabilities and limitations of employees. To do so, Anthony would most likely have to ______.
A.

allow employees to opt for a compact workweek schedule

B.

control autonomy and stress error-free work

C.

increase the amount of reporting requirements and documentation

D.

train employees to multitask and self-manage teams

E.

reduce the information-processing requirements of a job

E

102.
In the past, hospitals deferred to physicians' judgments in how they carry out their work. More recently, hospitals have begun asking surgical teams to use pre-surgical checklists aimed at avoiding miscommunications and oversights. From a job design perspective, why is this aspect of work flow an appropriate one for a hospital to focus on?
A.

Simplifying work is especially beneficial when jobs are challenging and the costs of error are severe.

B.

Simplifying work is especially important when jobs are challenging and employees are poorly trained.

C.

When jobs are complex and challenging, job design should focus on motivational issues such as autonomy.

D.

Simplifying the mental demands of the jobs may enable a hospital to replace high-priced physicians with technicians.

E.

Use of checklists will limit the amount of memorization and information required by a surgical team.

A

103.
A survey of employee satisfaction among a county's 9-1-1 dispatchers found that employees struggle to keep up with calls, feel little or no control over their situation, and constantly worry about making mistakes. A suggestion is made to simplify the jobs in order to deal with these sources of dissatisfaction. Why would simplifying the jobs be beneficial in this case?
A.

The employees face few challenges already.

B.

The costs of employee errors are severe.

C.

The scope for employee errors is minimal.

D.

The employees do not engage in multitasking.

E.

The information-processing requirements of the job are minimal.

B

104.
The employees at NeiFra Infosystems Inc., a website design company, have been struggling to provide quality services to clients. An investigation reveals that employees feel dissatisfied and mentally fatigued due to the challenging nature of their jobs. Ellen, the HR manager, suggests simplifying jobs in order to reduce errors and increase accuracy. Which of the following options would be a way to simplify the mental demands of employees' jobs?
A.

imposing rigorous quality control standards

B.

training employees to multitask between different job responsibilities

C.

using software that helps with tracking progress

D.

providing comfortably designed office chairs

E.

increasing the information-processing requirements of the job

C

105.
In which of the following uses of information technology is the technology reducing mental demands and the likelihood of errors?
A.

Email notifications popping up on a clerk's screen while he is entering data

B.

Software that creates a graph of daily production levels for a supervisor

C.

Text messages arriving on a salesperson's phone while she is meeting with a client

D.

Searches for office supplies that generate 12,000 results to compare

E.

Instant messages from a supervisor who expects responses within a few minutes

B

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26.
Which of the following processes involves analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service?
A.

ergonomics

B.

work flow design

C.

utilization analysis

D.

Industrial engineering

E.

break-even analysis

b

27.
In the context of work flow design, which of the following best describes a position?
A.

the set of duties performed by a person

B.

a set of related duties fulfilled by many employees

C.

an aggregate of similar jobs

D.

the set of skills and abilities that is required of a person in a job

E.

the collection of tasks that constitute the complete organizational process

A

28.
Dave wants to set up a manufacturing unit, so he meets with Rodney, a human resource manager at his company. Rodney explains that in order to decide on the human resource needs for the unit, they should conduct a work flow analysis. He suggests they start by defining the outputs of the process. To do this, which of the following should Dave define?
A.

the processes that will be involved in manufacturing

B.

the number of people required for production

C.

the type of products that will need to be manufactured

D.

the special equipment, facilities, and systems needed for production

E.

the data and information needed by the work unit

C

29.
Which of the following statements is true of work flow analysis?
A.

Information cannot be considered to be an input because it is not tangible.

B.

All outputs must be strictly measured in terms of quantity.

C.

Outputs may be tangible or intangible products of the work processes.

D.

Quality standards are not a key criterion in the process of work flow analysis.

E.

Inputs and outputs are only the two stages required to represent a complete work flow cycle.

C

30.
Samcys Services Inc. specializes in providing round-the-clock building security services to multinational companies. Samcys selects security guards, conducts background checks, provides them with uniforms and training, and schedules guards to patrol and monitor security at clients’ facilities. In the work flow analysis for Samcys, which of the following terms best describes the security services?
A.

outputs

B.

inputs

C.

resources

D.

jobs

E.

processes

A

31.
Joe’s Restaurant, a pizza chain, is known for its quick service. To make a pizza, employees must prepare the dough and add the sauce and toppings. Cooking happens next, followed by packaging. In this scenario, the employees of Joe’s Restaurant are engaged in _____.
A.

work processes

B.

task identities

C.

group dynamics

D.

job analyses

E.

ergonomic activities

A

32.
Kidzi Inc. is a toy manufacturing company. As the new production manager, Andrew notices that the production unit has been underperforming. In an attempt to streamline the existing work flow, Andrew brings in an HR specialist to help him conduct a work flow analysis. Andrew describes to specialist the quantity and quality of products to be produced. What will the HR specialist have Andrew define next?
A.

the raw materials required

B.

the number of employees needed

C.

the work processes used to generate the end product

D.

an inventory of equipment, facilities, and systems

E.

the data and information required by the production unit

C

33.
Bitstar Global Inc. is a soft-drink manufacturing company. Kelly, the production manager, works with a human resource consultant to design a new work flow for the production unit. Together they define the necessary inputs. These include raw materials, information, human resources, and _____.
A.

skills

B.

outputs

C.

work processes

D.

equipment

E.

activity

D

34.
Koland Corp. is an interior design firm based in California. The firm has a team of interior designers working closely with manufacturers to create home décor products. In the context of a work flow analysis, the interior designers, manufacturers, and home décor products required to provide interior design services collectively constitute the _____.
A.

outputs

B.

jobs

C.

work processes

D.

operating procedures

E.

inputs

E

35.
The structure of HealthCo Hospital is strongly based on function. Which statement is most describes staff positions at this hospital?
A.

positions require more cognitive ability than at other hospitals

B.

most positions are structured around teamwork

C.

employees have broad authority for decision making

D.

employees work in teams to care for groups of patients

E.

positions are highly specialized

E

36.
LRPN Consulting is a business consulting firm based in Nevada. The departments in the organization are based on the functions carried out by employees, such as customer service, marketing, tech support, and business consulting. Which of the following is most likely true of the organizational structure of LRPN Consulting?
A.

Management jobs are not affected by the organizational structure.

B.

The jobs mostly involve teamwork or broad responsibilities.

C.

The focus is primarily on products or customer groups within LRPN.

D.

The workers work alone at highly specialized jobs.

E.

The workers have more authority and are involved in decision making.

D

37.
Brianna and Natalie are planning an e-commerce company for business travelers. They want to be sure that all the employees have a wide scope of decision-making authority. Which kind of organizational structure is most appropriate for this kind of work?
A.

divisions focused on customer groups

B.

a highly centralized structure

C.

highly specialized departments

D.

employees grouped according to function

E.

authority concentrated in a few people at the top

A

38.
Next Tech applies research into physics and biochemistry to create advanced surgical instruments and implants. Its research department attracts some of the most talented professionals in these disciplines, each with a passion for his or her specialty. Next year, the position of vice president of research will be vacant, so the executive team is working with the HR department to define selection criteria for a new vice president. Given the company’s structure, which of the following qualities will be important for the new vice president to possess?
A.

experience in setting up divisions based on customer groups

B.

experience in leading employees with broad responsibilities

C.

skill in setting up structures and jobs

D.

the ability to align researchers’ work with the company’s strategy

E.

the ability to motivate employees to identify more heavily with their profession

D

39.
A manager of a functional department would require skills in aligning employees’ efforts with the organization’s higher-level goals. This is a valid statement because
A.

employees in a functional department need to work in a team.

B.

broad responsibilities are assigned to employees working in a functional department.

C.

employees in functional departments tend to identify more with their own departments.

D.

employees expect their managers to empower them by allowing them to work in self-managing teams.

E.

employees in such departments tend to work in cross-functional teams.

C

40.
Jenny is a line manager at Maxvin Corp. She is assigned the task of understanding and gathering detailed information about the requirements of carrying out a certain job. Information gathered by Jenny will be used to provide essential knowledge for staffing, training, performance appraisal, and other HR activities. Which of the following most likely corresponds to the task undertaken by Jenny?
A.

job analysis

B.

job definition

C.

job training

D.

job swapping

E.

job rotation

A

41.
A list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities that a job entails is called a _____.
A.

job evaluation

B.

job description

C.

utilization analysis

D.

conjoint analysis

E.

job standardization

B

42.
Marjorie has joined the HR department of Thomas Johnson Inc. as an intern. The organization plans on giving all newly hired site engineers copies of their job descriptions to help them understand what the organization expects of them. Marjorie has been given the task of conducting job analyses and creating job descriptions for the site engineers. Which of the following should Marjorie consider while creating the job descriptions?
A.

Job descriptions do not include the job title.

B.

Job descriptions focus on the qualities or requirements a person performing a job must possess.

C.

Job descriptions contain only a brief statement that represents the set of responsibilities.

D.

Job descriptions contain detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty.

E.

Job descriptions are lists of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that an individual must have to perform a job.

D

43.
Leeding Engines Inc. specializes in manufacturing internal combustion engines. Recently, Leeding has decided to create a division for the flexible fuel field. During this time, Mark, the HR manager, has been reviewing and updating job descriptions. With the knowledge that a new division of jobs will be created, what would be the appropriate course of action for Mark to take next?
A.

Mark should amend the original job descriptions to say they all will eventually take on flexible fuel responsibilities.

B.

Mark should take care to avoid including the titles of the jobs while formulating new job descriptions.

C.

Mark should wait until the new employees are hired before creating the new job descriptions.

D.

Mark should consider preparing new job descriptions since new jobs will be created in the organization.

E.

Mark should reuse the old job descriptions for the new jobs, instead of creating new ones.

D

44.
N-Pax Technology Corp., a microchip manufacturing company, is hiring for the position of marketing manager for its new division. Nathan, the HR manager, considers the requirements of the job, including the necessary knowledge, level of proficiency, enduring capabilities, and other personality traits, such as persistence or motivation to achieve. Which of the following documents includes these considerations to help Nathan in selecting a candidate?
A.

job description

B.

job definition

C.

job evaluation

D.

job scope

E.

job specification

E

45.
What is a basic difference between job specifications and job descriptions?
A.

Job specifications define tasks, and job descriptions define responsibilities.

B.

Job specifications list observable actions, and job descriptions describe general qualities.

C.

Job specifications look at a job’s activities, and job descriptions look at the qualities needed to do the job.

D.

Job descriptions define tasks, and job specifications define responsibilities.

E.

Job descriptions look at a job’s activities, and job specifications look at the qualities needed to do the job.

E

46.
Catherine is an HR executive looking for a new job. She comes across an advertisement in a newspaper seeking applications for the position of an HR manager. The advertisement exclusively highlights requirements such as strong communications skills, excellent teamwork abilities, and leadership skills. These requirements constitute a _____.
A.

job evaluation

B.

job analysis

C.

job description

D.

job specification

E.

job orientation

D

47.
INRT Software Solutions is a firm that builds information systems for banks and other financial institutions. In its presentations to prospective clients, the firm claims to have skilled employees. What does INRT Software Solutions mean by this?
A.

Its employees have previous experience in performing similar jobs.

B.

It has factual or procedural information that is necessary for successfully performing a task.

C.

Its employees have a significant level of proficiency required to perform a particular task.

D.

Its employees are highly motivated.

E.

Its employees have software certifications.

C

48.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding KSAOs?
A.

KSAOs are characteristics of people and are not directly observable.

B.

KSAOs and TDRs are the same thing.

C.

In developing job specifications, considering all elements of KSAOs is unimportant.

D.

The term stands for knowledge, skill, adaptability, and other characteristics.

E.

KSAOs detail the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job.

A

49.
Henry has been newly appointed as the head of the HR team at AAS Technologies. In an attempt to establish a more efficient and reliable workflow, Henry has taken up the responsibility of creating job descriptions and job specifications for the newly hired and current engineers within the organization. While doing so, Henry gathers information about the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required for an engineer to successfully perform the job. How will determining the KSAOs most benefit the organization?
A.

KSAOs will show engineers the work to be performed on the job.

B.

KSAOs will be a resource for writing job descriptions.

C.

KSAOs play a significant role in interviews and selection decisions.

D.

KSAOs will enable line managers to carry out job analysis.

E.

KSAOs should limit the number of factors listed in job specifications.

C

50.
Information from observers should be used as a supplement to information from incumbents. Identify the statement that is most likely to support this argument.
A.

Incumbents are a logical source of information; however, they may not be able to provide precise information.

B.

Incumbents provide accurate estimates of the importance of job duties, whereas supervisors provide accurate information about the time spent on safety-related risk factors.

C.

Incumbents provide accurate information, but they may have an incentive to exaggerate what they do to appear more valuable to the organization.

D.

Depending on external job analysts to supplement incumbents’ information could be risky due to the relative inexperience of the analysts involved.

E.

Information provided by observers who look for a match between what incumbents are doing and what they are supposed to do may be unreliable.

C

51.
Orange Banking Group, a corporation that has a global presence, is seeking to hire employees for its IT team. Among the available job positions are those of system administrators and chief technology officer. Who among the following is most likely to be the best source for preparing an analysis of skills needed to fill these important technical positions?
A.

HR executives

B.

incumbents

C.

supervisors

D.

line managers

E.

external job analysts

E

52.
In the 1930s, the U.S. Department of Labor created the _____ as a vehicle for helping the new public employment system link the demand for skills and the supply of skills in the U.S. workforce.
A.

Career Development Facilitator (CDF)

B.

Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)

C.

Occupational Information Network (O*NET)

D.

Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)

E.

Selected Characteristics of Occupations (SCO)

B

53.
Which of the following is true of the Occupational Information Network (O*NET)?
A.

It provides listings of fixed job titles and narrow task descriptions.

B.

It uses a common language that generalizes across jobs to describe the abilities, work styles, work activities, and work context required for various occupations.

C.

It represents the first attempt made by the U.S. Department of Labor to match the demand and supply of labor.

D.

It uses an online platform to provide information about available federal jobs.

E.

It was created by the U.S. Department of Labor in the 1930s as a vehicle for helping the new public employment system link the demand and supply of skills in the U.S. workforce.

B

54.
ALTS Infosystems is a software consulting firm based in Redmond. The firm uses a standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs. In this scenario, ALTS Infosystems is using _____.
A.

a utilization analysis

B.

the Fleishman Job Analysis System

C.

a work flow design

D.

a conjoint analysis

E.

the Position Analysis Questionnaire

E

55.
Which of the following is true of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)?
A.

It considers only the inputs of a work process, ignoring the outputs.

B.

PAQ reports are very useful for writing job descriptions or redesigning jobs.

C.

PAQ ratings cannot be used to compare dissimilar jobs.

D.

The descriptions in the PAQ reports are very clear and specific.

E.

The PAQ is meant to be completed only by job analysts trained in this method.

E

56.
Josh, a human resource manager at a manufacturing company, recommends that the company use the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) for conducting job analysis. Which of the following statements best supports Josh’s recommendation?
A.

The PAQ considers the whole work process, from inputs through outputs.

B.

The PAQ can be easily scored without a computer.

C.

The PAQ is based on 52 categories of abilities.

D.

The PAQ can be completed by untrained personnel.

E.

A person who fills out the PAQ does not need college-level reading skills.

A

57.
Identify the disadvantage of using the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ).
A.

It applies exclusively to similar job profiles.

B.

It measures only the inputs of a work process.

C.

It fails to provide computerized reports.

D.

It only deals with the mental processes involved in performing a job.

E.

It results in abstract reports that are of limited use.

E

58.
Sharon, an HR manager, is considering methods of job analysis to introduce at her organization in order to improve the process of writing job descriptions. One option she is considering is the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Which of the following statements best explains a drawback of the PAQ that would be relevant to her objectives?
A.

This method considers only the inputs of a work process, ignoring the outputs.

B.

This method relies on fixed job titles and narrow task descriptions.

C.

This method cannot be used to compare dissimilar jobs.

D.

This method allows people with very basic reading skills to fill out the questionnaire.

E.

This method provides descriptions that are rather abstract.

E

59.
Which of the following job analysis methods requires subject-matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of abilities required to perform the job?
A.

Work Sampling Technique

B.

Participant Observation Technique

C.

Fleishman Job Analysis System

D.

Position Analysis Questionnaire

E.

Conjoint Analysis Technique

C

60.
To gather information about worker requirements, the Fleishman Job Analysis System typically asks _____ to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job.
A.

subject-matter experts

B.

supervisors

C.

HR specialists

D.

external analysts

E.

CEOs

A

61.
Which of the following HR activities is similar to analyzing a job that does not yet exist?
A.

human resource planning

B.

performance appraisal

C.

job evaluation

D.

work redesign

E.

selection

D

62.
Aaron, an HR manager, observes that the number of employees quitting their jobs has been steadily increasing over the last six months. On closer inspection, he finds that a majority of the employees who quit were unhappy with the pay structures. Aaron assesses the significance of each job to the organization, which helps him set up fair pay structures. This in turn helps the organization retain valuable employees. Which of the following most likely relates to the task undertaken by Aaron?
A.

job evaluation

B.

career planning

C.

job training

D.

performance appraisal

E.

selection

A

63.
Which of the following best defines a competency?
A.

It is the set of duties performed by a particular team.

B.

It is the list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails.

C.

It is a set of related duties for accomplishing work.

D.

It is the activity that a work unit’s members engage in to produce a given output.

E.

It is an area of personal capability that enables employees to perform successfully.

E

64.
Which of the following is true of competency models?
A.

They help HR professionals ensure that all aspects of talent management are aligned with an organization’s strategy.

B.

They identify and describe a few competencies required for success in a particular occupation or set of jobs.

C.

They are only applicable to middle managers of an organization.

D.

They focus more on tasks and outcomes and not on how people work.

E.

They are only created for different occupational groups in an organization.

A

65.
All-Best Milling is a small machine shop that makes custom parts for manufacturers in the metropolitan area where it is located. For 20 years, Monica was the office assistant. She was hired to fill a position that involved keeping track of customers’ orders and purchasing supplies. After Monica retired, the company hired another office assistant to perform the same tasks. Soon afterward, however, the company’s owner began hearing from frustrated customers complaining that when they called the company with questions and problems, no one was taking responsibility and helping them as Monica had. What problem with job analysis is most likely to have occurred when Monica retired?
A.

All-Best should have engaged in downsizing so fewer employees could get the work done.

B.

When hiring the new employee, All-Best failed to use the fixed job description found on O*Net.

C.

All-Best Milling wasn’t adaptable, although its environment was subject to change.

D.

Monica took on customer service duties, but the job description didn’t reflect the change.

E.

The company didn’t prevent Monica from changing her job based on personal preferences.

D

66.
Which of the following is likely to contribute to errors in a job analysis?
A.

use of multiple analysis methods to obtain a detailed job analysis

B.

inputs from multiple sources such as incumbents and supervisors

C.

fixed and unchanging job descriptions for various jobs

D.

a combination of internal and external sources of information for job analysis

E.

the creation of comprehensive and detailed job descriptions

C

67.
Steve contends that a manager conducting a job analysis is required not only to define jobs when they are created but also to detect changes in jobs. What is the validity of Steve’s argument?
A.

Errors in job analysis have multiple sources, but most result from outdated job descriptions.

B.

Today’s workplace is more or less inflexible and is not constantly subject to change.

C.

People imagine jobs to be unstable, whereas jobs actually do not change or evolve over time.

D.

Changes in jobs occur only when there is a change in the descriptions of jobs.

E.

Steve’s argument is incorrect because new jobs do not have job descriptions.

A

68.
Maxwin Infomatics Corp., a nationwide logistics company, has announced the opening of a new unit for the manufacturing division. Alex, the HR manager, has been asked to help plan for the creation of the new unit. Which of the following relates to the task undertaken by Alex, if he is involved in the process of explaining how an employee will execute his or her tasks?
A.

job rotation

B.

job evaluation

C.

job design

D.

job enrichment

E.

job extension

C

69.
Clean N Green is a two-year-old company that makes wind turbines. The business owner, Janelle, is struggling to compete. Finding enough employees who know how to do the work has been difficult, and Janelle believes that her labor costs are too high because she cannot afford to match the prices of her nearest competitors. To help with these problems, Janelle hires a new HR manager, Dylan. Dylan recommends they start by bringing in an industrial engineer. How is this approach to job design most likely to help Clean N Green?
A.

by reducing injuries among workers

B.

by giving employees feedback about performance effectiveness

C.

by simplifying work and increasing output per worker

D.

by motivating workers to do their best

E.

by enlarging employees’ jobs

C

70.
Javier, a regional manager for a leading automobile company in the U.S., decides to design a manufacturing job based on the principles of industrial engineering. Following its successful implementation, which of the following outcomes should he expect?
A.

increased efficiency

B.

increased complexity

C.

decreased repetitiveness

D.

increased skill requirements

E.

decreased specialization

A

71.
Natalie, a manager at a construction company, contends that applying industrial engineering is the simplest way to structure work and maximize efficiency. Which of the following statements supports Natalie’s argument?
A.

Applying industrial engineering reduces the complexity of work.

B.

Applying industrial engineering makes jobs more dynamic.

C.

Organizations cannot combine industrial engineering with other approaches to job design.

D.

Applying industrial engineering makes training people extremely difficult and time consuming.

E.

Applying industrial engineering to a job increases its complexity.

A

72.
The industrial engineering approach is most likely to emphasize _____.
A.

defining work arrangements and reporting requirements

B.

streamlining jobs to make them simpler and more efficient

C.

designing jobs in such a way that they require minimal specialization

D.

exploring new and diverse ways of doing the same job

E.

creating complex and challenging jobs that require innovative employees

B

73.
Which of the following would be a benefit to the company if it plans on applying industrial engineering to existing jobs?
A.

Industrial engineering will increase the complexity of the work.

B.

Industrial engineering will eliminate the need for specialization in the job.

C.

Industrial engineering will make jobs less specialized and less repetitive.

D.

Industrial engineering will provide measurable and practical benefits.

E.

Industrial engineering will represent the best way to make jobs more meaningful.

D

74.
Name the model that was developed by Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham to describe ways to make jobs more motivating.
A.

the Cognitive Dissonance Model

B.

the Situational Leadership Model

C.

the Job Characteristics Model

D.

the Fleishman Job Analysis Model

E.

the Motivation-Hygiene Model

C

75.
According to the Job Characteristics Model, which of the following best describes task identity?
A.

the extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved

B.

the degree to which a job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work will be carried out

C.

the extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself

D.

the degree to which a job requires completing a "whole" piece of work from beginning to end

E.

the extent to which a job has an important impact on the lives of other people

D

76.
Which of the following scenarios reflects a job lacking the characteristic of task significance?
A.

a job requiring a variety of skills to be performed

B.

a job requiring completion of the whole piece of work from beginning to end

C.

a job that has minimal impact on the lives of other people

D.

a job allowing individuals to make autonomous decisions about the job

E.

a job where a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself

C

77.
According to the Job Characteristics Model, _____ refers to the job characteristic that reflects the degree to which a job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work is carried out.
A.

task knowledge

B.

task ability

C.

skill variety

D.

autonomy

E.

feedback

D

78.
In terms of the Job Characteristics Model, feedback refers to the extent to which _____.
A.

a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved in the job and its duties

B.

employees are given the authority to make decisions

C.

performance appraisals are perceived as transparent and fair by employees

D.

a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved

E.

a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself

E

79.
Which of the following is the objective of job enlargement?
A.

to make jobs less repetitive and more interesting

B.

to increase efficiency by identifying the best way to perform a job

C.

to decrease the burden of decision-making responsibilities for employees

D.

to assess the relative dollar value of each job to an organization

E.

to decrease the impact a job has on the lives of other people

A

80.
Creations Media Inc., a publishing company, conducted an internal survey on employee satisfaction. The results indicated that a majority of its support staff considered their jobs to be monotonous. In order to change this, management decided to combine the job duties of assistants, typists, and file clerks into a single job that requires all three kinds of work. Which of the following techniques of job design did this move constitute?
A.

job analysis

B.

job review

C.

job identification

D.

job evaluation

E.

job extension

E

81.
Which of the following arrangements would qualify as job rotation?
A.

a receptionist hired to perform the jobs of file clerk and typist

B.

support staff being trained in front-office functions through periods of alternating work arrangements

C.

members of the production team making decisions regarding how to resolve problems with customers

D.

a manager participating in a meeting while on vacation with his family

E.

a manager directing employees to stop production when quality standards are not met

B

82.
Job enrichment differs from job rotation in that job enrichment
A.

empowers workers by adding more decision-making authority to their jobs.

B.

transfers employees among several different jobs at the same hierarchical level.

C.

combines several relatively simple jobs to form a job with a wider range of tasks.

D.

allows employees to mutually exchange work roles at the same organizational level.

E.

assesses the relative dollar value of each job to an organization.

A

83.
Which of the following job design techniques involving the addition of decision-making authorities to a job is credited to Frederick Herzberg?
A.

job extension

B.

job rotation

C.

job enrichment

D.

job enlargement

E.

job sharing

C

84.
According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory, which of the following factors would motivate individuals the most?
A.

meaningfulness of a job

B.

fringe benefits of a job

C.

shares of company stock

D.

salary and allowances

E.

periodic bonuses

A

85.
Identify the step that can be taken by an organization to enrich manufacturing jobs for its employees.
A.

Divide tasks among employees in greater detail.

B.

Carry out time-and-motion studies to identify the best way to perform a job.

C.

Make the tasks repetitive and simple to avoid errors.

D.

Give employees more authority to manage the production process.

E.

Establish a centralized decision-making process.

D

86.
Pamela, the manager of an electronics store in California, gives her staff the authority to resolve customer complaints. She lets the staff decide whether to issue refunds or replace merchandise in case of consumer grievances. Which of the following job design techniques is Pamela implementing in her store?
A.

job sharing

B.

job extension

C.

job rotation

D.

job enrichment

E.

job evaluation

D

87.
Richard, a researcher, is of the opinion that organizations should empower employees, and suggests this should be done by designing work to be done by self-managing teams. Which of the following statements would validate Richard’s argument?
A.

Self-managing teams are highly involved in decision making.

B.

Self-managing teams do not have the authority to schedule work or hire team members.

C.

Organizations do not have to incur additional training expenditures.

D.

Team members do not have to perform a wide variety of tasks, and they view their effort as significant.

E.

Self-managing teams consume more time and result in lower productivity.

A

88.
Which of the following is true of self-managing work teams?
A.

Team members’ job duties are narrowly defined.

B.

Team members usually share work assignments.

C.

Team members’ joint responsibilities are minimal.

D.

Team members only have the authority to schedule work.

E.

Team members are only responsible for their individual tasks.

B

89.
DigiAd Inc., an advertising firm, requires its employees to be at work between the hours of 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. This work rule allows employees to work additional hours before or after the time period in order to work the full day. Identify the job design method implemented in this scenario.
A.

zero-hour contract

B.

flextime

C.

compressed workweek

D.

telework

E.

retroactive overtime

B

90.
Which of the following best describes job sharing?
A.

It is a work option in which two part-time employees carry out the tasks associated with a single job.

B.

It is a work option that allows full-time employees to choose start and end times within the guidelines specified by an organization.

C.

It is a work option that empowers individual workers by adding more opportunities for specialization in their current job duties.

D.

It is a work option that enlarges jobs by combining several relatively simple jobs to form a job with a wider range of tasks.

E.

It is a work option that enlarges jobs in an organization by moving employees among several different jobs.

A

91.
Employees in a company’s accounting department work 10 hours a day for 4 days a week, while employees in the other departments work 8 hours a day for 5 days a week. The flexible work schedule option affecting the accounting department is known as _____.
A.

a zero-hour contract

B.

a compressed workweek

C.

a flexible workweek

D.

retroactive overtime

E.

telework

B

92.
Which of the following would qualify as a compressed workweek?
A.

Employees are required to be at work from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. and can choose additional hours before or after this period.

B.

Two part-time employees work in different shifts and share the tasks of a specific job.

C.

Employees work in the office two days a week and work from home the other three days.

D.

Employees can choose to work away from a centrally located work area.

E.

Employees work 10 hours a day so that they work fewer days per week.

E

93.
The human resource department of Revlay Corp, wants to improve worker motivation, so it is investigating changes to job design. The department invites employees to suggest ideas related to scheduling. One of the most popular is a schedule in which full-time workers complete their weekly hours in fewer than five days. For example, instead of working eight hours a day for five days, the employees could complete 40 hours of work in four 10-hour days. Staffers in the HR department recognize the idea as being the flexible work arrangement known as _______.
A.

a zero-hour contract

B.

telework

C.

retroactive overtime

D.

flextime

E.

a compressed workweek

E

94.
Adam, an HR executive observes that telework or telecommuting has been a rising trend. He considers developing a policy to allow telecommuting at his company. Which of the following statements is a fact about telecommuting that would support implementing this policy?
A.

Telecommuting may support a strategy of corporate social responsibility.

B.

Organizations that use telecommuting require more office space.

C.

Employees telecommuting may have greater absences from work.

D.

A telework arrangement is easy to set up for manufacturing workers.

E.

A telework arrangement is difficult to set up for people in managerial, professional, or sales jobs.

A

95.
Which of the following is true of telework arrangements?
A.

They are the most difficult to implement for people in managerial or professional jobs.

B.

They are the easiest to set up for manufacturing workers.

C.

They support the strategy of corporate social responsibility by reducing an employee’s need to commute using a vehicle.

D.

They are limited to employees who are disabled or need to be available for children or elderly relatives.

E.

They are only provided for employees who hold key strategic positions in a company.

C

96.
Penta Toy Corp. is a firm that manufactures toys. Very often, employees of the firm are on leave, citing physical strain as the cause. An expert hired by the company investigates the situation and recommends investing in an ergonomics study of the work environment. In this scenario, the expert is recommending
A.

a study of the interface between individuals’ physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment.

B.

a study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency.

C.

a study of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of employees in a new job.

D.

a study of the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to perform a job.

E.

a study of the relationship between intrinsic rewards and employee motivation in the context of human resource management.

A

97.
Sairs Info Solutions is a firm that develops software applications for other companies. After the company moves into a new office space, most of the employees complain about the lack of comfortable seating arrangements. Following up on the complaint, the HR department advises management to invest in studying the ergonomics of the new office space. Which of the following would serve as an incentive for the company to invest in the study of ergonomics?
A.

Ergonomics empowers employees by giving them decision-making authority.

B.

Ergonomics reduces the physical strain on employees performing a job.

C.

Ergonomics reduces the number of reporting relationships in a job.

D.

Ergonomics enlarges jobs by moving employees among different jobs.

E.

Ergonomics increases a job’s mental demands.

B

98.
The manager of a local grocery store introduces a short conveyor belt that allows customers to place items on it prior to checking out. This saves the cashier from the physical strain of bending forward and reaching into the carts to retrieve the items. This change is an example of the _____ approach to job design.
A.

telecommuting

B.

job enrichment

C.

ergonomic

D.

flextime

E.

job sharing

C

99.
Walters & Williams, a consulting firm, equips all of its employees with laptop computers, which they use at their desks and carry to client meetings. What ergonomic challenge may result from employees using these devices throughout the day?
A.

shoulder strain from carrying them around

B.

pain from the tactile feedback of pressing keys

C.

fatigue from taking frequent breaks to move around

D.

physical strain to wrists from improper positioning for typing

E.

distraction from paying attention to posture

D

100.
Which of the following is a strategy used by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to increase ergonomic job design?
A.

issuing regulations rather than guidelines for industries

B.

penalizing companies that allow employee participation in ergonomic redesign

C.

enforcing violations of its requirement that employers have a general duty to protect workers from hazards, including ergonomic hazards

D.

levying fines on employers who issue computers with keyboards instead of touchscreen tablets

E.

working with organizations to design workspaces in such a manner that they meet the standards of ergonomics

C

101.
Anthony, an HR manager at Synergy Inc., wishes to design jobs that do not exceed the mental capabilities and limitations of employees. To do so, Anthony would most likely have to ______.
A.

allow employees to opt for a compact workweek schedule

B.

control autonomy and stress error-free work

C.

increase the amount of reporting requirements and documentation

D.

train employees to multitask and self-manage teams

E.

reduce the information-processing requirements of a job

E

102.
In the past, hospitals deferred to physicians’ judgments in how they carry out their work. More recently, hospitals have begun asking surgical teams to use pre-surgical checklists aimed at avoiding miscommunications and oversights. From a job design perspective, why is this aspect of work flow an appropriate one for a hospital to focus on?
A.

Simplifying work is especially beneficial when jobs are challenging and the costs of error are severe.

B.

Simplifying work is especially important when jobs are challenging and employees are poorly trained.

C.

When jobs are complex and challenging, job design should focus on motivational issues such as autonomy.

D.

Simplifying the mental demands of the jobs may enable a hospital to replace high-priced physicians with technicians.

E.

Use of checklists will limit the amount of memorization and information required by a surgical team.

A

103.
A survey of employee satisfaction among a county’s 9-1-1 dispatchers found that employees struggle to keep up with calls, feel little or no control over their situation, and constantly worry about making mistakes. A suggestion is made to simplify the jobs in order to deal with these sources of dissatisfaction. Why would simplifying the jobs be beneficial in this case?
A.

The employees face few challenges already.

B.

The costs of employee errors are severe.

C.

The scope for employee errors is minimal.

D.

The employees do not engage in multitasking.

E.

The information-processing requirements of the job are minimal.

B

104.
The employees at NeiFra Infosystems Inc., a website design company, have been struggling to provide quality services to clients. An investigation reveals that employees feel dissatisfied and mentally fatigued due to the challenging nature of their jobs. Ellen, the HR manager, suggests simplifying jobs in order to reduce errors and increase accuracy. Which of the following options would be a way to simplify the mental demands of employees’ jobs?
A.

imposing rigorous quality control standards

B.

training employees to multitask between different job responsibilities

C.

using software that helps with tracking progress

D.

providing comfortably designed office chairs

E.

increasing the information-processing requirements of the job

C

105.
In which of the following uses of information technology is the technology reducing mental demands and the likelihood of errors?
A.

Email notifications popping up on a clerk’s screen while he is entering data

B.

Software that creates a graph of daily production levels for a supervisor

C.

Text messages arriving on a salesperson’s phone while she is meeting with a client

D.

Searches for office supplies that generate 12,000 results to compare

E.

Instant messages from a supervisor who expects responses within a few minutes

B

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