Chap 20 Lymphatic System (Q-A)

Lymphocytes provide an adaptive or specific defense known as the

A) phagocytic response.
B) adaptive defense.
C) immune response.
D) lymphocytic response.
E) inflammation of tissues.

C) immune response.

The primary function of the lymphatic system is

A) circulation of nutrients.
B) the transport of hormones.
C) defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats.
D) the production and distribution of plasma proteins.
E) circulation of dissolved gases.

C) defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats.

The lymphatic system does all of the following, except
that it

A) helps maintain normal blood volume.
B) transports gases to and away from lymph nodes.
C) eliminates variations in the composition of interstitial fluid.
D) transports lipids from the digestive tract.
E) fights infection.

B) transports gases to and away from lymph nodes.

The lymphatic system is composed of all of the following, except

A) lymphatic vessels.
B) the venae cavae.
C) the spleen.
D) lymph nodes.
E) lymph.

B) the venae cavae.

Compared to blood capillaries, lymph capillaries exhibit all of the following, except that they

A) have no basement membrane.
B) are larger in diameter.
C) have walls of endothelial cells that overlap like shingles.
D) are smaller in diameter.
E) are frequently irregular in shape.

D) are smaller in diameter.

Lymph nodes do all of the following, except that they

A) produce antibodies.
B) monitor the contents of lymph.
C) remove debris and pathogens from the lymph.
D) accumulate cancer cells.
E) remove excess nutrients from the lymph.

E) remove excess nutrients from the lymph.

All of the following are true of the thymus gland, except
that it

A) activates B cells.
B) reaches its greatest relative size during the second year of life.
C) involutes after puberty.
D) produces T cells.
E) lies in the anterior mediastinum.

A) activates B cells.

In general, lymphocytes

A) spend most of their time in lymphatic tissue.
B) have relatively short life spans.
C) have two nuclei.
D) are produced and mature only in red bone marrow.
E) spend most of their time circulating in the blood.

A) spend most of their time in lymphatic tissue.

Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the

A) right lymphatic duct.
B) thoracic duct.
C) cisterna chyli.
D) hepatic portal vein.
E) dural sinus.

B) thoracic duct.

The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the
following regions, except the

A) left breast.
B) right breast.
C) left arm and shoulder.
D) pelvic viscera.
E) left side of neck.

B) right breast.

The medullary cords of a lymph node contain ________ lymphocytes and plasma cells.

A) cytotoxic T
B) medullary
C) NK
D) B
E) cordal

D) B

Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ________ cells.

A) B
B) plasma
C) helper T
D) cytotoxic T
E) suppressor T

D) cytotoxic T

Lymphocytes

A) are actively phagocytic.
B) destroy red blood cells.
C) respond to antigens.
D) are primarily found in red bone marrow.
E) decrease in number during infection.

C) respond to antigens.

Lymphocytes may be found in which of the following tissues or organs?

A) tonsils
B) spleen
C) lymph nodes
D) thymus
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

________ are large lymphatic nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx.

A) Tonsils
B) Peyer patches
C) Lymph nodes
D) Immune complexes
E) Spleens

A) Tonsils

________ are clusters of lymphatic nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine.

A) Tonsils
B) Adenoids
C) Peyer patches
D) Immune complexes
E) Lymph glands

C) Peyer patches

The term lymphadenopathy refers to

A) a congenital lack of lymph nodes.
B) a chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes.
C) accumulations of lymph in the tissue space.
D) the lack of lymphocytes in peripheral circulation.
E) increased numbers of circulating lymphocytes.

B) a chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes.

Stem cells that will form B cells or NK cells are found only in the

A) bone marrow.
B) liver.
C) spleen.
D) thymus.
E) kidneys.

A) bone marrow.

Areas of the spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as

A) Peyer patches.
B) adenoids.
C) white pulp.
D) red pulp.
E) lymph nodes.

C) white pulp.

Which class of leukocytes is particularly abundant in the red pulp of the spleen?

A) T lymphocytes.
B) free and fixed macrophages.
C) B lymphocytes.
D) neutrophils.
E) red blood cells.

B) free and fixed macrophages.

Lymphatic organs differ from lymphatic tissues in what way?

A) They contain T lymphocytes and lymphatic tissues do not.
B) They are found in the digestive tract and lymphatic tissues are found in the thorax.
C) They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphatic tissues are not.
D) They cannot produce antibodies, whereas lymphatic tissues can.
E) They occur throughout the body except in the head.

C) They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphatic tissues are not.

The white pulp of the spleen is populated by

A) lymphocytes.
B) trabeculae.
C) arteries.
D) veins.
E) fibrous connective tissue.

A) lymphocytes.

Lymphocytes are produced and stored in all of the following, except

A) the thymus.
B) lymphatic nodules.
C) lymph node organs.
D) the spleen.
E) the brain.

E) the brain.

Lymphatic capillaries are known for

A) being the starting point of the lymphatic circulation.
B) being the smallest lymphatic vessels.
C) having larger diameters and looser walls than blood capillaries.
D) shingle-like endothelial cells.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Lymphatic vessels commonly occur in association with

A) hyaline cartilage.
B) blood vessels.
C) adipose tissue.
D) sensory nerve endings.
E) both blood vessels and adipose tissue.

B) blood vessels.

The merging of ________ forms the right lymphatic duct.

A) the right jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks
B) the left jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks
C) two great vessels
D) the thoracic and mediastinal ducts
E) superior and inferior lymphatic ducts

A) the right jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks

T is to ________ as B is to ________.

A) top; bottom
B) thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived
C) thyroid; bowel
D) non-thymus-dependent; bottom
E) trabeculae; bursa

B) thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived

Lymphocyte production involves

A) bone marrow.
B) thymus tissue.
C) peripheral lymphatic tissues.
D) stem cells.
E) All of the answers are correct.

D) stem cells.

Dividing lymphocytes can be found in the ________ of the lymphatic nodule.

A) sinus
B) germinal center
C) cortex
D) capsule
E) stromba

B) germinal center

Lymph nodes range in diameter from

A) 1 nm to 10 nm.
B) 1 inch to 2 inches.
C) 1 mm to 25 mm.
D) 1 cm to 25 cm.
E) 1 cm to 1 inch.

C) 1 mm to 25 mm.

Lymphatic vessels are located in almost all portions of the body, except the

A) CNS.
B) periphery.
C) renal arteries.
D) groin.
E) throat.

A) CNS.

Which of these statements about lymph flow in a node is false?

A) Lymph enters in an afferent lymphatic.
B) Lymph first enters the subcapsular space.
C) Lymph flows past dendritic cells.
D) The efferent lymphatic exits at the hilum.
E) The afferent lymphatics enters at the hilum.

E) The afferent lymphatics enters at the hilum.

Lymphatic tissue is found in the greatest quantity in

A) the adult spleen.
B) the adult thymus.
C) bone marrow.
D) the tonsils.
E) Peyer patches.

A) the adult spleen.

If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of

A) B lymphocytes.
B) NK cells.
C) T cells.
D) neutrophils.
E) red blood cells.

C) T cells.

The cell that dominates the deep cortical region of a lymph node is the ________ cell.

A) B
B) T
C) plasma
D) nodule
E) NK

B) T

Innate defenses include

A) phagocytic cells.
B) physical barriers.
C) inflammation.
D) interferons.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include

A) sebaceous glands.
B) mucus.
C) epithelia.
D) epidermal layers.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

The body's innate defenses include all of the following, except

A) the skin.
B) complement.
C) interferon.
D) inflammation.
E) antibodies.

E) antibodies.

Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection, except

A) body hair.
B) epithelium.
C) secretions.
D)complement.
E) basement membranes.

D)complement.

An inflammatory response is triggered when

A) red blood cells release pyrogens.
B) T cells release interferon.
C) mast cells release histamine and heparin.
D) neutrophils phagocytize bacteria.
E) blood flow to an area increases.

C) mast cells release histamine and heparin.

The release of endogenous pyrogen (or interleukin-1) by active macrophages would

A) cause inflammation.
B) produce a fever.
C) activate complement.
D) opsonize pathogens.
E) activate antibodies.

B) produce a fever.

Microphages include

A) monocytes.
B) Kupffer cells.
C) neutrophils.
D) eosinophils.
E) both neutrophils and eosinophils.

E) both neutrophils and eosinophils.

Various types of macrophages are derived from

A) lymphocytes.
B) monocytes.
C) neutrophils.
D) eosinophils.
E) basophils.

B) monocytes.

Plasma contains ________ special complement proteins that form the complement system.

A) 3
B) 5
C) 7
D) 9
E) 11

E) 11

Inflammation produces localized

A) swelling.
B) redness.
C) heat.
D) pain.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Histamine increases blood flow and vascular permeability. This would account for all of the following changes that occur during inflammation, except

A) redness of the inflamed tissue.
B) chemotaxis of phagocytes.
C) heat of the inflamed tissue.
D) movement of defense proteins and cells into the interstitial space.
E) swelling of the inflamed tissue.

B) chemotaxis of phagocytes.

Fever is the maintenance of body temperature greater than

A) 105°F.
B) 99°F.
C) 98.6°F.
D) 102°F.
E) 99.5°F.

B) 99°F.

Leslie has a bad sore throat and the lymph nodes in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that

A) the focus of the infection is the lymph nodes.
B) lymph is not flowing through these lymph nodes.
C) the affected lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes.
D) the lymph node is actively producing phagocytes.
E) the lymph node has increased its secretion of thymosin.

C) the affected lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes.

A sample of John's blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John

A) is feeling achy.
B) is producing T lymphocytes.
C) has a sore throat.
D) is running a fever.
E) has swollen lymph nodes.

D) is running a fever.

The effects of activating the complement system include all of the following, except

A) destruction of target cell plasma membranes.
B) stimulation of inflammation.
C) inhibition of the immune response.
D) opsonization.
E) chemotaxis.

C) inhibition of the immune response.

The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the protein C1 binds to

A) the cell wall of bacteria.
B) the plasma membrane of bacteria.
C) an antibody attached to an antigen.
D) a cell surface antigen.
E) a plasma protein.

C) an antibody attached to an antigen.

Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called ________ immunity.

A) active
B) natural passive
C) passive
D) auto
E) innate

E) innate

The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ________ cells.

A) NK
B) plasma
C) B
D) helper T
E) suppressor T

A) NK

Cytotoxic T cells can attack target cells with which of these chemical weapons?

A) secrete strong acid
B) secrete organic solvent
C) secrete free radicals
D) secrete a cytokine that triggers apoptosis
E) secrete mutant proteins

D) secrete a cytokine that triggers apoptosis

Adaptive defenses depend on the activities of

A) monocytes.
B) leukocytes.
C) agranulocytes.
D) erythrocytes.
E) lymphocytes.

E) lymphocytes.

Characteristics of adaptive defenses include

A) versatility.
B) tolerance.
C) memory.
D) specificity.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by

A) innate immunity.
B) adaptive immunity.
C) immunological surveillance.
D) skin defenses.
E) fever.

B) adaptive immunity.

The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the

A) T cells.
B) B cells.
C) NK cells.
D) phagocytes.
E) plasma cells.

D) phagocytes.

Immunity that results from antibodies that pass through the placenta from mother to fetus is called ________ immunity.

A) active
B) naturally acquired passive
C) passive
D) auto
E) innate

B) naturally acquired passive

In passive immunization, the

A) immune system attacks normal body cells.
B) body is deliberately exposed to an antigen.
C) body receives antibodies produced by other humans.
D) body receives antibodies produced by an animal.
E) body receives antibodies produced by other humans or by an animal.

E) body receives antibodies produced by other humans or by an animal.

During a primary humoral response to antigens all of the following occur, except

A) B cells may differentiate into plasma cells immediately.
B) B cells may undergo several rounds of mitosis before producing plasma cells and memory cells.
C) antibody levels do not peak until 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure.
D) neutrophils invade the surrounding areas, releasing chemotactic substances.
E) the first immunoglobulins to appear in circulation are of the IgM type.

D) neutrophils invade the surrounding areas, releasing chemotactic substances.

In an experimental situation, a rabbit is exposed to a viral antigen to which it makes antibodies. These antibodies are then purified and injected into a human with the same viral disease. This is an example of

A) innate immunity.
B) active immunization.
C) passive immunization.
D) natural immunity.
E) alloimmunity.

C) passive immunization.

All of the following are true of the secondary response of humoral immunity, except that it

A) depends on memory B cells.
B) results in much higher antibody titers than in the primary response.
C) results in much quicker rise in antibody titers.
D) produces more effective antibodies.
E) weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive for a year or two.

E) weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive for a year or two.

All of the following are true of the primary response of humoral immunity, except that

A) it depends on antigen triggering the appropriate B cell.
B) it requires B cell differentiation into plasma cells.
C) it is delayed by the memory cell stage.
D) circulating antibodies undergo a gradual, sustained rise.
E) it peaks 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure.

C) it is delayed by the memory cell stage.

Hormones of the immune system include all of the following, except

A) interleukins.
B) interferons.
C) natriuretic factor.
D) thymosins.
E) tumor necrosis factor.

C) natriuretic factor.

Interleukins do all of the following, except

A) increase T-cell sensitivity to antigens exposed on macrophage membranes.
B) stimulate B-cell activity, plasma cell formation, and antibody production.
C) stimulate inflammation.
D) elevate body temperature.
E) stimulate collagen synthesis.

E) stimulate collagen synthesis.

Cells that help regulate the immune response are ________ cells.

A) B
B) plasma
C) helper T
D) cytotoxic T
E) NK

C) helper T

Suppressor T cells act to

A) suppress antigens.
B) erase memory T cells.
C) limit antigen proliferation.
D) inhibit T and B cell activities.
E) produce antibodies involved in autoimmunity.

D) inhibit T and B cell activities.

Which of the following statements about MHC proteins is not true?

A) bind complement
B) allow the body to differentiate its own cells from foreign cells
C) function in antigen presentation
D) fall into two major classes
E) are found on all nucleated cells

A) bind complement

When an antigen is bound to a Class I MHC molecule, it can stimulate a ________ cell.

A) B
B) plasma
C) helper T
D) cytotoxic T
E) NK

D) cytotoxic T

Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following?

A) all body cells with a nucleus
B) red blood cells
C) granulocytes and microphages
D) lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
E) liver cells and macrophages in the spleen

D) lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells

When an antigen is bound to a Class II MHC protein, it can activate a ________ cell.

A) plasma
B) helper T
C) NK
D) suppressor T
E) cytotoxic T

B) helper T

Helper T cells do all of the following, except

A) trigger B-cell division, plasma cell maturation, and antibody production.
B) provide a rapid response to a future exposure to the antigen.
C) enhance production of memory and cytotoxic T cells.
D) attract macrophages to the affected area.
E) enhance nonspecific defenses.

B) provide a rapid response to a future exposure to the antigen.

Stem cells that will form T cells develop in the

A) bone marrow.
B) liver.
C) spleen.
D) thymus.
E) kidneys.

D) thymus.

T cells and B cells can be activated only by

A) pathogens.
B) interleukins, interferons, and colony-stimulating factors.
C) cells infected with viruses, bacteria, or cancer cells.
D) exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a plasma membrane.
E) disease-causing agents.

D) exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a plasma membrane.

Class II MHC proteins are present in the plasma membrane only

A) when plasma cells are releasing antibodies.
B) in antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes.
C) when cytotoxic T cells are inhibited.
D) when NK cells are activated.
E) during infections.

B) in antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes.

If the disulfide bonds in IgG were broken, how many protein chains would be set free?

A) 2
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8
E) dozens

B) 4

The various classes of immunoglobulins are differentiated on the basis of their

A) asymmetry.
B) antigen specificity.
C) light-chain variable segments.
D) heavy-chain constant segments.
E) reactivity.

D) heavy-chain constant segments.

Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

D) IgG.

Immunoglobulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

C) IgE.

Immunoglobulins that are found on the surface of B cells and may activate antibody production are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

B) IgD.

Immunoglobulins, formed of five subunits, that are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection, are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

E) IgM.

Immunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions such as saliva and tears are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

A) IgA.

The binding of an antibody to an antigen can result in

A) neutralization of the antigen.
B) agglutination or precipitation.
C) complement activation and opsonization.
D) inflammation.
E) All of the answers are correct.

D) inflammation.

In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must

A) be phagocytized by the lymphocyte.
B) enter the cytoplasm of the lymphocyte.
C) bind to the DNA of the lymphocyte.
D) bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface.
E) depolarize the lymphocyte.

D) bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface.

The role of antigen-presenting cells in immunity is to

A) activate T cells.
B) display antigen fragments.
C) process antigens.
D) bind antigens to glycoproteins.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

B cells are primarily activated by the activities of

A) antigens.
B) antibodies.
C) helper T cells.
D) macrophages.
E) plasma cells.

C) helper T cells.

In IgG, the antigen binding site is formed by

A) the variable segment of the light chain.
B) the variable segment of the heavy chain.
C) the constant segment of the heavy chain.
D) the variable segments of both the light and heavy chains.
E) the ionized segment of the light chain and the isotropic segment of the heavy chain.

D) the variable segments of both the light and heavy chains.

________ is the class of antibody first secreted in response to a new antigen.

A) IgG
B) IgE
C) IgD
D) IgM
E) IgA

D) IgM

Which of these is not a property of an IgG heavy chain?

A) has one constant segment
B) has one variable segment
C) binds one light chain
D) binds antigen at both ends
E) binds complement in the constant region

D) binds antigen at both ends

Each IgG has ________ binding sites for attachment to antigenic determinants.

A) 1
B) 2
C) 4
D) up to 8
E) as many as a 1000

B) 2

During a primary immune response, the

A) IgM titer is initially higher than the IgG titer.
B) IgG titer is initially higher than the IgM titer.
C) IgM titer and the IgG titer rise in parallel.

A) IgM titer is initially higher than the IgG titer.

In a routine examination, some blood is taken and analyzed. The results show a high IgM titer for the mumps virus but a low IgG anti-mumps titer. This would indicate the person

A) has just recovered from mumps.
B) was recently infected with mumps.
C) is allergic to mumps.
D) is immune to mumps.
E) is relying on passive immunity.

B) was recently infected with mumps.

A crime scene investigator found that a biological fluid sample contains a large amount of IgA-type antibody. This fluid is probably

A) blood.
B) lymph.
C) serum.
D) tears.
E) interstitial.

D) tears.

Newborns gain their immunity initially from

A) early immunizations.
B) contact with viruses and bacteria.
C) antibodies passed across the placenta from the mother.
D) contact with siblings.
E) breast milk.

C) antibodies passed across the placenta from the mother.

The only antibodies that normally cross the placenta are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

D) IgG.

Autoantibodies are

A) produced by activated T cells.
B) produced during an allergic reaction.
C) directed against the body's own antigens.
D) the first step in immunological competence.
E) important in tissue rejection reactions.

C) directed against the body's own antigens.

Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are

A) immunodeficiency diseases.
B) autoimmune diseases.
C) allergies.
D) the result of stress.
E) signs of a weak system.

C) allergies.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects ________ cells.

A) B
B) plasma
C) cytotoxic T
D) helper T
E) suppressor T

D) helper T

Infection with the HIV virus occurs through

A) eating contaminated food.
B) airborne droplets from coughs and sneezes.
C) intimate contact with an infected person's body fluids.
D) casual contact with an infected individual.
E) sharing clothes with an infected individual.

C) intimate contact with an infected person's body fluids.

Which of these is not a characteristic of AIDS?

A) has killed at least 1/2 million people in the United States
B) is spread most often through sexual contact
C) attacks the T helper (CD4) cells
D) is declining worldwide
E) almost always eventually fatal

D) is declining worldwide

Milly has just received a kidney transplant and is taking cyclosporin A. What does this medication do?

A) prevents inflammation from destroying the transplanted kidney
B) depresses hematopoiesis
C) decreases chemotaxis of macrophages to the transplanted kidney
D) weakens antibodies in the blood
E) suppresses helper T cells, thus preventing rejection

E) suppresses helper T cells, thus preventing rejection

Stress can affect the immune response in all of the following ways, except by

A) inhibiting glucocorticoid release.
B) depressing the inflammatory response.
C) reducing the number of phagocytes.
D) inhibiting interleukin secretion.
E) increasing the level of glucocorticoids.

A) inhibiting glucocorticoid release.

Changes in the immune system that accompany aging include

A) T cells becoming less responsive to antigens.
B) fewer cytotoxic T cells responding to infections.
C) decreased numbers of T helper cells.
D) B cells less responsive.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine. (T/F)

FALSE

The lymphatics function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream (T/F)

TRUE

Lymph always flows away from the heart (T/F)

FALSE

Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins (T/F)

TRUE

Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries. (T/F)

TRUE

Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system (T/F)

TRUE

All lymphoid organs develop from mesoderm (T/F)

FALSE

About 3 liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph (T/F)

TRUE

Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics (T/F)

TRUE

Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue (T/F)

TRUE

All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth (T/F)

FALSE

An infected lymph gland is called a bubo (T/F)

TRUE

The largest lymphatic vessels are called lacteals (T/F)

FALSE

The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs (T/F)

FALSE

If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself (T/F)

TRUE

The thymus lacks T cells (T/F)

FALSE

Lymph is most similar to __________.

A. water
B. interstitial fluid
C. saliva
D. blood plasma

B. interstitial fluid Interstitial fluid and lymph are the same in composition. Interstitial fluid is renamed lymph as soon as it enters a lymphatic vessel.

Once collected, lymph is returned to __________.

A. the liver for detoxification
B. venous circulation
C. arterial circulation
D. the kidneys for filtration

B. venous circulation From the terminal lymphatic ducts, lymph rejoins venous circulation via the subclavian veins.

What is the role of the mini-valves in lymph capillaries?

A. speed transport
B. reduce pressure in the lymphatic capillary
C. increase permeability
D. connect to blood capillaries

C. increase permeability The lymph capillaries owe their permeability to the mini-valves formed by the lack of tight junctions between the endothelial cells and the collagen filaments anchoring the endothelial cells to surrounding structures.

Which of the following lymphoid tissues/organs does NOT contain reticular connective tissue?

A. tonsils
B. thymus
C. spleen
D. lymph nodes

B. thymus

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid cell?

A. eosinophil
B. reticular cell
C. macrophage
D. dendritic cell

A. eosinophil Eosinophils are granular WBCs that destroy parasitic worms. They are not lymphoid cells.

Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?

A. They return lymph to circulation.
B. They filter lymph.
C. They produce lymph.
D. They produce red blood cells.

B. They filter lymph. Lymph nodes are rich with macrophages, B cells, and T cells; therefore, the lymph nodes are primed for activating the immune system. Structurally, lymph nodes have a capsule and medullary chords and sinuses that serve to filter lymph fluid.

Which lymphoid organ serves in immune surveillance and in filtering lymph?

A. tonsils
B. the spleen
C. the thymus
D. lymph nodes

D. lymph nodes Lymph nodes function as lymph filters and immune surveillance units. They exist in large numbers and are located everywhere in the body, with the exception of the bones, teeth, bone marrow, and the entire central nervous system.

Which lymphoid organ serves as the site where T lymphocytes become immunocompetent T cells?

A. thymus gland
B. tonsils
C. thyroid gland
D. spleen

A. thymus gland

Which of the following is NOT a part of MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)?

A. lymph nodes
B. tonsils
C. appendix
D. Peyer's patches

A. lymph nodes Lymph nodes are scattered through the interior of the body. They are not a component of MALT as they are not associated with mucous membranes.

Which lymphoid organ provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response and provides blood-cleansing functions?

A. tonsil
B. thymus
C. lymph node
D. spleen

D. spleen The spleen provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response, and blood-cleansing functions such as storing some of the breakdown products of erythrocytes and storage of platelets.

Lymphedema may be treated by all EXCEPT which of the following?

A. manual compression of the affected area
B. movements of the affected area
C. treatments that promote growth of lymphatic vessels
D. bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area

D. bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area Lymphedema is swelling that occurs when normal lymphatic drainage is blocked. If a person remains stationary, it decreases skeletal muscle contraction, which facilitates lymph drainage.

Within buboes, bacteria are directly attacked by ______.

A. dendritic cells
B. B cells
C. macrophages
D. None of the listed responses is correct.

C. macrophages Macrophages are large phagocytic cells (macro = big; phage = to eat). They are capable of directly destroying invading bacteria by engulfing and breaking them down using lysosomal enzymes. Buboes are lymph nodes that are inflamed due to a bacterial infection.

After surgical removal of the spleen (i.e., a splenectomy), some other organs take over most of its functions. Which of the following spleen functions in the adult can be performed by bone marrow?

A. immune surveillance
B. erythropoiesis
C. removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood
D. storage of platelets

C. removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood. The bone marrow lacks mature macrophages. Macrophages are essential in the destruction of red blood cells in the spleen.

Which of the following is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?

A. lymph nodes
B. blood vessels
C. lymphatic vessels
D. lymph

B. blood vessels

Lymphangitis is caused by ______.
A. an infection
B. inflammation of the vasa vasorum
C. increased formation of interstitial fluid from blood flowing through the congested vasa vasorum
D. All of the listed responses are correct.

A. an infection The suffix -itis indicates an infection of the tissue or structure within the root word. In this case, it is an infection of the lymph vessels.

The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.

TRUE

Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins.

TRUE

Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries.

TRUE

Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system.

TRUE

About 3 liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph.

TRUE

Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics.

TRUE

When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells.

TRUE

The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs.

FALSE

Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

A. lumbar trunk
B. cisterna chyli
C. thoracic duct
D. right lymphatic duct

D. right lymphatic duct

The lymphatic capillaries are ________.

A. as permeable as blood capillaries
B. more permeable than blood capillaries
C. completely impermeable
D. less permeable than blood capillaries

B. more permeable than blood capillaries

Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

A. Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling.
B. Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins.
C. Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits.
D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?

A. water
B. red blood cells
C. ions
D. plasma proteins

B. red blood cells

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

A. carrying out immune responses
B. draining excess interstitial fluid
C. transporting respiratory gases
D. transporting dietary fats

C. transporting respiratory gases

Lymph capillary permeability is due to minivalves and protein filaments.

TRUE

Like blood, lymph flows both to and from the heart.

FALSE

Lymph transport involves all but which of the following?

A. lymph capillary minivalve action
B. milking action of active muscle fibers
C. thorax pressure changes during breathing
D. smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

D. smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

Which of the following is not a part of the lymphatic system?

A. lymphatic vessels
B. erythrocytes
C. lymph nodes
D. lymph

B. erythrocytes

When the lymphatic structures of a limb are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

A. increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal in the limb to the blockage
B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb
C. abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region
D. shrinkage of tissues distal in the limb to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph

B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb

Lymph capillaries are absent in all except which of the following?

A. bone marrow
B. CNS
C. digestive organs
D. bones and teeth

C. digestive organs

Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.

A. cervical region
B. lower extremities
C. axillary region
D. inguinal region

B. lower extremities

Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?

A. skeletal muscle contraction
B. valves in lymph vessel walls
C. breathing
D. capillary smooth muscle contraction

D. capillary smooth muscle contraction

Lymphatic collecting vessels are most closely associated with __________.

A. bone marrow
B. arterioles
C. the heart
D. capillary beds

D. capillary beds

Which of the following statements is true regarding veins versus lymphatic collecting vessels?

A. Veins and lymphatic vessels have a different number of tunics.
B. Veins tend to form more branches (anastamoses) than do lymphatic vessels.
C. Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels.
D. Veins have thinner walls than do lymphatic vessels.

C. Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels. Veins and lymphatic collecting vessels both have valves, but lymphatic vessels have more valves than do veins. Veins also have specialized endothelial flap valves, which allow them to more readily collect fluid from the interstitial space.

Lymphatic vessels __________.

A. supply nutrients to tissues
B. deliver oxygen to tissues
C. return tissue fluid to the bloodstream
D. collect blood from tissues

C. return tissue fluid to the bloodstream Lymphatic vessels have a role in transporting tissue fluid, leaked proteins, and absorbed fats to the blood. They do not deliver nutrients nor gases to the tissues; that is the role of blood vessels.

Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. These cells form a unique structural modification that increases their permeability that is known as the __________.

A. chyle
B. lacteals
C. lymph nodes
D. minivalves

D. minivalves

Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

A. anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers
B. inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries
C. increasing pressure in the interstitial space
D. increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

D. increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

To what organ do the lymphatic vessels return protein-rich escaped fluids to rejoin circulation?

A. lymph nodes
B. heart
C. thymus
D. spleen

B. heart

What do collecting lymphatic vessels NOT share in common with veins of the cardiovascular system?

A. fluids transported toward the heart
B. three tunics or layers
C. thickness of the walls
D. presence of valves

C. thickness of the walls

What is the main function of the lymphatic system?

A. The lymphatic system pumps and transports blood throughout the body.
B. The lymphatic system makes blood cells through a process known as hematopoiesis.
C. The lymphatic system regulates blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism.
D. The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

D. The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

Which of the following lacks lymph capillaries?

A. bones and teeth
B. small intestine
C. skin
D. loose connective tissues

A. bones and teeth

Lymph from the right leg ultimately is delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?

A. right lymphatic duct
B. jugular trunk
C. subclavian trunk
D. thoracic duct

D. thoracic duct

Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?

A. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax
B. digestive organs and lower limbs
C. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax, and the right lower limb
D. left upper limb, left side of the head and thorax, and both lower limbs

A. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax

What is the name of the enlarged sac to which the lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk returns lymph?

A. thoracic duct
B. lacteals
C. cisterna chyli
D. right lymphatic duct

C. cisterna chyli

Which of the following returns lymph to the right lymphatic duct?

A. left arm
B. right side of the head
C. left side of the head
D. cisterna chyli

B. right side of the head

Which of the following delivers lymph into the junction of the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein?

A. subclavian trunk
B. jugular trunk
C. thoracic duct
D. cisterna chyli

C. thoracic duct

Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue.

TRUE

Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body.

TRUE

The simplest lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes.

FALSE

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

A. T lymphocytes
B. plasma cells
C. medullary cords
D. lymph nodes

B. plasma cells

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.

A. T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue.
B. The two main types are T cells and macrophages.
C. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
D. T cells are the precursors of B cells.

C. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

A. Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
B. T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances.
C. Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood.
D. Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently.

A. Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?

A. furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
B. house and provide a proliferation site for neutrophils
C. house and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes
D. A and C

D. Both A and C

Which of the following lymphoid cells secrete antibodies?

A. dendritic cells
B. macrophages
C. T lymphocytes
D. plasma cells

D. plasma cells

Antibodies are produced by __________.

A. dendritic cells
B. plasma cells
C. reticular cells
D. macrophages

B. plasma cells

What type of tissue is commonly found in all lymphoid organs and tissues (except the thymus)?

A. reticular connective tissue
B. elastic connective tissue
C. elastic cartilage connective tissue
D. areolar connective tissue

A. reticular connective tissue

What is the role of the B lymphocytes (B cells) in lymphoid tissue?

A. capture antigens and bring them back to the lymph nodes
B. phagocytize foreign substances
C. manage the immune response
D. produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies

D. produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies

What is the role of dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue?

A. manage the immune response
B. capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes
C. phagocytize foreign substances
D. help activate T cells

B. capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes

What is a bubo?

A. an infected Peyer's patch
B. a wall in a lymph node
C. an infected lymph node
D. a lobe of the spleen

C. an infected lymph node

Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?

A. act as lymph filters and activate the immune system
B. produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid
C. produce lymphoid cells and granular WBCs
D. serve as antigen surveillance areas

B. produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid

While passing through a village on safari you notice a man with one enormous leg and one normal-sized leg. What is the most likely reason for the increased size of the swollen leg?

A. The man has cancer that is blocking his lymph vessels, causing edema.
B. The man had mononucleosis, which is a viral disease that causes swelling of the lymph nodes and localized edema.
C. The man had surgery on his leg, which removed the local lymph vessels and lymph nodes, causing edema.
D. The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

D. The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

Why might lymphedema occur as a complication after a radical mastectomy, in which lymph nodes have been removed?

A. Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.
B. Lymphedema will not occur, as the blood vessels will carry away the excess accumulated fluid in the area.
C. Lymphedema will not occur: the lymph vessels will still be able to transport the lymph away from the area without the lymph nodes being present.
D. Removal of any lymph nodes results in systemic edema, as lymph is not returned to the circulatory system.

A. Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.

There are more efferent lymphatic vessels leaving a lymph node than there are afferent vessels entering a lymph node.

FALSE

Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.

A. lymph follicles
B. lymphatics
C. lacteals
D. lymph nodes

D. lymph nodes

Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.

A. the cortical sinus
B. the subcapsular sinus
C. afferent lymphatic vessels
D. efferent lymphatic vessels

D. efferent lymphatic vessels

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid tissue/organ?

A. spleen
B. bone marrow
C. Peyer's patches
D. tonsils

B. bone marrow

Where are the three large clusters of superficial lymph nodes?

A. cervical, acromial, and mammary regions
B. lumbar, inguinal, and femoral regions
C. axillary, brachial, and subclavian regions
D. cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

D. cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

The filtration of lymph and immune system activation are the two basic functions of the __________.

A. spleen
B. tonsils
C. lymph nodes
D. Peyer's patches

C. lymph nodes

Lymph nodes are surrounded by a capsule from which connective tissue strands extend inward to divide the node into compartments. What is the name of these strands?

A. hilum
B. trabeculae
C. lymph sinuses
D. medullary cords

B. trabeculae

What region of the lymph node contains densely packed follicles with dividing B cells?

A. capsule
B. cortex
C. medulla
D. trabeculae

B. cortex

Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine.

FALSE

If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself.

TRUE

The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response.

FALSE

Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?

A. Peyer's patches of the intestine
B. spleen
C. tonsils
D. pancreas

D. pancreas

The thymus is most active during ________.

A. middle age
B. childhood
C. fetal development
D. old age

B. childhood

Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?

A. macrophages
B. basophils
C. monocytes
D. lymphocytes

D. lymphocytes

Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.

A. storage of iron
B. removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood
C. storage of blood platelets
D. forming crypts that trap bacteria

D. forming crypts that trap bacteria

Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.

A. appendix
B. thymus
C. Peyer's patch
D. tonsil

D. tonsil

Peyer's patches are found in the ________.

A. duodenum of the small intestine
B. large intestine
C. ileum of the small intestine
D. jejunum of the small intestine

C. ileum of the small intestine

The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:

A. produce hormones
B. have lymphocytes
C. have a cortex and medulla
D. directly fight antigens

D. directly fight antigens

Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.

A. palatine tonsils
B. lingual tonsils
C. Peyer's patches
D. islets of Langerhans

D. islets of Langerhans

In the spleen, red pulp is involved in the immune functions and white pulp is involved in disposing of worn-out RBCs.

FALSE

Which of the following statements regarding the thymus is not true?

A. It functions strictly in T lymphocyte maturation.
B. It has follicles similar to those in the spleen.
C. It does not fight antigens.
D. Its stroma consists of epithelial tissue.

B. It has follicles similar to those in the spleen.

Which of the following does not contain a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?

A. Peyer's patch
B. tonsil
C. thymus
D. appendix

C. thymus

Of the following lymphoid organs, which is (are) structurally simplest and lack(s) a complete capsule?

A. tonsils
B. lymph nodes
C. thymus gland
D. spleen

A. tonsils Tonsils lack a complete capsule. The epithelium overlying tonsils invaginates deeply into their interior to form crypts where bacteria and particulate matter are trapped to be destroyed in the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils.

Where are Peyer's patches located?

A. proximal portion of the small intestine
B. distal portion of the small intestine
C. appendix
D. large intestine

B. distal portion of the small intestine

The __________ is (are) the most likely to become infected.

A. tubal tonsil
B. lingual tonsil
C. palatine tonsils
D. pharyngeal tonsil

C. palatine tonsils

Peyer's patches are located __________.

A. in the liver
B. in the spleen
C. in the wall of the colon
D. in the wall of the small intestine

D. in the wall of the small intestine

The first lymphoid organ(s) to appear during fetal development is (are) the __________.

A. thymus
B. appendix
C. tonsils
D. lymph nodes

A. thymus Although the thymus is the first lymphoid organ to appear in the developing fetus, only the tonsils and the spleen are well developed by birth.

Lymph arrives to the lymph nodes via efferent lymphatic vessels.

FALSE

Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

A. splenic cords
B. red pulp
C. white pulp
D. splenic sinusoids

C. white pulp

Where are worn-out erythrocytes found in the spleen?

A. red pulp
B. splenic cords
C. capsule
D. white pulp

A. red pulp

Where is the spleen located?

A. inferior neck and extending into the superior thorax, partially overlying the heart deep to the sternum
B. clusters of lymphoid follicles located in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestines
C. left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach
D. forming a ring of lymphoid tissue around the entrance to the pharynx (throat)

C. left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach

Where is the lingual tonsil located?

A. base of the tongue
B. posterior wall of the nasopharynx
C. surrounding the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx
D. either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity

A. base of the tongue

Tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsil. What is missing from the tonsil that allows for the presence of tonsillar crypts?

A. lymphocytes
B. lymphoid follicles
C. capsule
D. germinal centers

C. capsule

Which tonsil is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx and is referred to as the adenoids if it is enlarged?

A. tubal tonsils
B. palatine tonsils
C. pharyngeal tonsil
D. lingual tonsil

C. pharyngeal tonsil

All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth.

FALSE

A sentinel node is ________.

A. the first node at the junction of all the lumbar trunks
B. a lymph node found in the intestinal lamina propria
C. the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
D. a small node in the spleen

C. the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

The thymus functions strictly in maturation of T cells.

TRUE The thymus is prominent in newborns and it continues to increase in size until the child is about a year old. After puberty, the thymus begins to diminish in size. Unlike the other lymphoid tissues/organs, the thymus does not directly combat foreign antigens. Rather, the exclusive role of the thymus is to foster T cell maturation (not B cell maturation). Structurally, the thymus is the only lymphoid tissue/organ that lacks reticular fibers.

Lymphedema may be treated by all EXCEPT which of the following?

bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area

Lymphatic collecting vessels are most closely associated with __________.

capillary beds

Lymphatic vessels __________.

return tissue fluid to the bloodstream

Lymph arrives to the lymph nodes via efferent lymphatic vessels. (T/F)

False

The thymus functions strictly in maturation of T cells. (T/F)

True

The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream. (T/F)

True

When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells. (T/F)

True

Lymph capillary permeability is due to minivalves and protein filaments. (T/F)

True

Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body. (T/F)

True

There are more efferent lymphatic vessels leaving a lymph node than there are afferent vessels entering a lymph node. (T/F)

False

The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response. (T/F)

False

In the spleen, red pulp is involved in the immune functions and white pulp is involved in disposing of worn-out RBCs. (T/F)

False

The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the blood stream. (T/F)

True

Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body. (T/F)

True

All lymphoid organs are well developed before birth. (T/F)

False

All lymphatic organs are composed of epithelial tissue. (T/F)

False

The simplest lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes. (T/F)

False

The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________. A) islets of Langerhans
B) Peyer's patches
C) rugae
D) villi

B) Peyer's patches

Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________. A) the pumping action of the heart
B) skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
C) contraction of the vessels themselves
D) two-way valves

B) skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement

The thymus is most active during _____.
A) fetal development
B) childhood
C) middle age
D) old age

B) childhood

What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?
A) The size of the thymus increases continuously from birth to death.
B) The size of the thymus decreases continuously from birth to death.
C) The thymus is not affected by age.
D) The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.

D) The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.
A) Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently.
B) Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood.
C) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
D) T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances.

C) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

Which of the following is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue? A) tonsil
B) thymus
C) Peyer's patch
D) appendix

B) thymus

Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow? A) skeletal muscle contraction
B) breathing
C) valves in lymph vessel walls
D) smooth muscle contraction

D) smooth muscle contraction

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.

A) lingual tonsils
B) palatine tonsils
C) pharyngeal tonsils
D) Peyer's tonsils

A) lingual tonsils

Chap 20 Lymphatic System (Q-A) - Subjecto.com

Chap 20 Lymphatic System (Q-A)

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Lymphocytes provide an adaptive or specific defense known as the

A) phagocytic response.
B) adaptive defense.
C) immune response.
D) lymphocytic response.
E) inflammation of tissues.

C) immune response.

The primary function of the lymphatic system is

A) circulation of nutrients.
B) the transport of hormones.
C) defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats.
D) the production and distribution of plasma proteins.
E) circulation of dissolved gases.

C) defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats.

The lymphatic system does all of the following, except
that it

A) helps maintain normal blood volume.
B) transports gases to and away from lymph nodes.
C) eliminates variations in the composition of interstitial fluid.
D) transports lipids from the digestive tract.
E) fights infection.

B) transports gases to and away from lymph nodes.

The lymphatic system is composed of all of the following, except

A) lymphatic vessels.
B) the venae cavae.
C) the spleen.
D) lymph nodes.
E) lymph.

B) the venae cavae.

Compared to blood capillaries, lymph capillaries exhibit all of the following, except that they

A) have no basement membrane.
B) are larger in diameter.
C) have walls of endothelial cells that overlap like shingles.
D) are smaller in diameter.
E) are frequently irregular in shape.

D) are smaller in diameter.

Lymph nodes do all of the following, except that they

A) produce antibodies.
B) monitor the contents of lymph.
C) remove debris and pathogens from the lymph.
D) accumulate cancer cells.
E) remove excess nutrients from the lymph.

E) remove excess nutrients from the lymph.

All of the following are true of the thymus gland, except
that it

A) activates B cells.
B) reaches its greatest relative size during the second year of life.
C) involutes after puberty.
D) produces T cells.
E) lies in the anterior mediastinum.

A) activates B cells.

In general, lymphocytes

A) spend most of their time in lymphatic tissue.
B) have relatively short life spans.
C) have two nuclei.
D) are produced and mature only in red bone marrow.
E) spend most of their time circulating in the blood.

A) spend most of their time in lymphatic tissue.

Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the

A) right lymphatic duct.
B) thoracic duct.
C) cisterna chyli.
D) hepatic portal vein.
E) dural sinus.

B) thoracic duct.

The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the
following regions, except the

A) left breast.
B) right breast.
C) left arm and shoulder.
D) pelvic viscera.
E) left side of neck.

B) right breast.

The medullary cords of a lymph node contain ________ lymphocytes and plasma cells.

A) cytotoxic T
B) medullary
C) NK
D) B
E) cordal

D) B

Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ________ cells.

A) B
B) plasma
C) helper T
D) cytotoxic T
E) suppressor T

D) cytotoxic T

Lymphocytes

A) are actively phagocytic.
B) destroy red blood cells.
C) respond to antigens.
D) are primarily found in red bone marrow.
E) decrease in number during infection.

C) respond to antigens.

Lymphocytes may be found in which of the following tissues or organs?

A) tonsils
B) spleen
C) lymph nodes
D) thymus
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

________ are large lymphatic nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx.

A) Tonsils
B) Peyer patches
C) Lymph nodes
D) Immune complexes
E) Spleens

A) Tonsils

________ are clusters of lymphatic nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine.

A) Tonsils
B) Adenoids
C) Peyer patches
D) Immune complexes
E) Lymph glands

C) Peyer patches

The term lymphadenopathy refers to

A) a congenital lack of lymph nodes.
B) a chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes.
C) accumulations of lymph in the tissue space.
D) the lack of lymphocytes in peripheral circulation.
E) increased numbers of circulating lymphocytes.

B) a chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes.

Stem cells that will form B cells or NK cells are found only in the

A) bone marrow.
B) liver.
C) spleen.
D) thymus.
E) kidneys.

A) bone marrow.

Areas of the spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as

A) Peyer patches.
B) adenoids.
C) white pulp.
D) red pulp.
E) lymph nodes.

C) white pulp.

Which class of leukocytes is particularly abundant in the red pulp of the spleen?

A) T lymphocytes.
B) free and fixed macrophages.
C) B lymphocytes.
D) neutrophils.
E) red blood cells.

B) free and fixed macrophages.

Lymphatic organs differ from lymphatic tissues in what way?

A) They contain T lymphocytes and lymphatic tissues do not.
B) They are found in the digestive tract and lymphatic tissues are found in the thorax.
C) They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphatic tissues are not.
D) They cannot produce antibodies, whereas lymphatic tissues can.
E) They occur throughout the body except in the head.

C) They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphatic tissues are not.

The white pulp of the spleen is populated by

A) lymphocytes.
B) trabeculae.
C) arteries.
D) veins.
E) fibrous connective tissue.

A) lymphocytes.

Lymphocytes are produced and stored in all of the following, except

A) the thymus.
B) lymphatic nodules.
C) lymph node organs.
D) the spleen.
E) the brain.

E) the brain.

Lymphatic capillaries are known for

A) being the starting point of the lymphatic circulation.
B) being the smallest lymphatic vessels.
C) having larger diameters and looser walls than blood capillaries.
D) shingle-like endothelial cells.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Lymphatic vessels commonly occur in association with

A) hyaline cartilage.
B) blood vessels.
C) adipose tissue.
D) sensory nerve endings.
E) both blood vessels and adipose tissue.

B) blood vessels.

The merging of ________ forms the right lymphatic duct.

A) the right jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks
B) the left jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks
C) two great vessels
D) the thoracic and mediastinal ducts
E) superior and inferior lymphatic ducts

A) the right jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks

T is to ________ as B is to ________.

A) top; bottom
B) thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived
C) thyroid; bowel
D) non-thymus-dependent; bottom
E) trabeculae; bursa

B) thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived

Lymphocyte production involves

A) bone marrow.
B) thymus tissue.
C) peripheral lymphatic tissues.
D) stem cells.
E) All of the answers are correct.

D) stem cells.

Dividing lymphocytes can be found in the ________ of the lymphatic nodule.

A) sinus
B) germinal center
C) cortex
D) capsule
E) stromba

B) germinal center

Lymph nodes range in diameter from

A) 1 nm to 10 nm.
B) 1 inch to 2 inches.
C) 1 mm to 25 mm.
D) 1 cm to 25 cm.
E) 1 cm to 1 inch.

C) 1 mm to 25 mm.

Lymphatic vessels are located in almost all portions of the body, except the

A) CNS.
B) periphery.
C) renal arteries.
D) groin.
E) throat.

A) CNS.

Which of these statements about lymph flow in a node is false?

A) Lymph enters in an afferent lymphatic.
B) Lymph first enters the subcapsular space.
C) Lymph flows past dendritic cells.
D) The efferent lymphatic exits at the hilum.
E) The afferent lymphatics enters at the hilum.

E) The afferent lymphatics enters at the hilum.

Lymphatic tissue is found in the greatest quantity in

A) the adult spleen.
B) the adult thymus.
C) bone marrow.
D) the tonsils.
E) Peyer patches.

A) the adult spleen.

If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of

A) B lymphocytes.
B) NK cells.
C) T cells.
D) neutrophils.
E) red blood cells.

C) T cells.

The cell that dominates the deep cortical region of a lymph node is the ________ cell.

A) B
B) T
C) plasma
D) nodule
E) NK

B) T

Innate defenses include

A) phagocytic cells.
B) physical barriers.
C) inflammation.
D) interferons.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include

A) sebaceous glands.
B) mucus.
C) epithelia.
D) epidermal layers.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

The body’s innate defenses include all of the following, except

A) the skin.
B) complement.
C) interferon.
D) inflammation.
E) antibodies.

E) antibodies.

Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection, except

A) body hair.
B) epithelium.
C) secretions.
D)complement.
E) basement membranes.

D)complement.

An inflammatory response is triggered when

A) red blood cells release pyrogens.
B) T cells release interferon.
C) mast cells release histamine and heparin.
D) neutrophils phagocytize bacteria.
E) blood flow to an area increases.

C) mast cells release histamine and heparin.

The release of endogenous pyrogen (or interleukin-1) by active macrophages would

A) cause inflammation.
B) produce a fever.
C) activate complement.
D) opsonize pathogens.
E) activate antibodies.

B) produce a fever.

Microphages include

A) monocytes.
B) Kupffer cells.
C) neutrophils.
D) eosinophils.
E) both neutrophils and eosinophils.

E) both neutrophils and eosinophils.

Various types of macrophages are derived from

A) lymphocytes.
B) monocytes.
C) neutrophils.
D) eosinophils.
E) basophils.

B) monocytes.

Plasma contains ________ special complement proteins that form the complement system.

A) 3
B) 5
C) 7
D) 9
E) 11

E) 11

Inflammation produces localized

A) swelling.
B) redness.
C) heat.
D) pain.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Histamine increases blood flow and vascular permeability. This would account for all of the following changes that occur during inflammation, except

A) redness of the inflamed tissue.
B) chemotaxis of phagocytes.
C) heat of the inflamed tissue.
D) movement of defense proteins and cells into the interstitial space.
E) swelling of the inflamed tissue.

B) chemotaxis of phagocytes.

Fever is the maintenance of body temperature greater than

A) 105°F.
B) 99°F.
C) 98.6°F.
D) 102°F.
E) 99.5°F.

B) 99°F.

Leslie has a bad sore throat and the lymph nodes in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that

A) the focus of the infection is the lymph nodes.
B) lymph is not flowing through these lymph nodes.
C) the affected lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes.
D) the lymph node is actively producing phagocytes.
E) the lymph node has increased its secretion of thymosin.

C) the affected lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes.

A sample of John’s blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John

A) is feeling achy.
B) is producing T lymphocytes.
C) has a sore throat.
D) is running a fever.
E) has swollen lymph nodes.

D) is running a fever.

The effects of activating the complement system include all of the following, except

A) destruction of target cell plasma membranes.
B) stimulation of inflammation.
C) inhibition of the immune response.
D) opsonization.
E) chemotaxis.

C) inhibition of the immune response.

The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the protein C1 binds to

A) the cell wall of bacteria.
B) the plasma membrane of bacteria.
C) an antibody attached to an antigen.
D) a cell surface antigen.
E) a plasma protein.

C) an antibody attached to an antigen.

Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called ________ immunity.

A) active
B) natural passive
C) passive
D) auto
E) innate

E) innate

The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ________ cells.

A) NK
B) plasma
C) B
D) helper T
E) suppressor T

A) NK

Cytotoxic T cells can attack target cells with which of these chemical weapons?

A) secrete strong acid
B) secrete organic solvent
C) secrete free radicals
D) secrete a cytokine that triggers apoptosis
E) secrete mutant proteins

D) secrete a cytokine that triggers apoptosis

Adaptive defenses depend on the activities of

A) monocytes.
B) leukocytes.
C) agranulocytes.
D) erythrocytes.
E) lymphocytes.

E) lymphocytes.

Characteristics of adaptive defenses include

A) versatility.
B) tolerance.
C) memory.
D) specificity.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by

A) innate immunity.
B) adaptive immunity.
C) immunological surveillance.
D) skin defenses.
E) fever.

B) adaptive immunity.

The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the

A) T cells.
B) B cells.
C) NK cells.
D) phagocytes.
E) plasma cells.

D) phagocytes.

Immunity that results from antibodies that pass through the placenta from mother to fetus is called ________ immunity.

A) active
B) naturally acquired passive
C) passive
D) auto
E) innate

B) naturally acquired passive

In passive immunization, the

A) immune system attacks normal body cells.
B) body is deliberately exposed to an antigen.
C) body receives antibodies produced by other humans.
D) body receives antibodies produced by an animal.
E) body receives antibodies produced by other humans or by an animal.

E) body receives antibodies produced by other humans or by an animal.

During a primary humoral response to antigens all of the following occur, except

A) B cells may differentiate into plasma cells immediately.
B) B cells may undergo several rounds of mitosis before producing plasma cells and memory cells.
C) antibody levels do not peak until 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure.
D) neutrophils invade the surrounding areas, releasing chemotactic substances.
E) the first immunoglobulins to appear in circulation are of the IgM type.

D) neutrophils invade the surrounding areas, releasing chemotactic substances.

In an experimental situation, a rabbit is exposed to a viral antigen to which it makes antibodies. These antibodies are then purified and injected into a human with the same viral disease. This is an example of

A) innate immunity.
B) active immunization.
C) passive immunization.
D) natural immunity.
E) alloimmunity.

C) passive immunization.

All of the following are true of the secondary response of humoral immunity, except that it

A) depends on memory B cells.
B) results in much higher antibody titers than in the primary response.
C) results in much quicker rise in antibody titers.
D) produces more effective antibodies.
E) weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive for a year or two.

E) weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive for a year or two.

All of the following are true of the primary response of humoral immunity, except that

A) it depends on antigen triggering the appropriate B cell.
B) it requires B cell differentiation into plasma cells.
C) it is delayed by the memory cell stage.
D) circulating antibodies undergo a gradual, sustained rise.
E) it peaks 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure.

C) it is delayed by the memory cell stage.

Hormones of the immune system include all of the following, except

A) interleukins.
B) interferons.
C) natriuretic factor.
D) thymosins.
E) tumor necrosis factor.

C) natriuretic factor.

Interleukins do all of the following, except

A) increase T-cell sensitivity to antigens exposed on macrophage membranes.
B) stimulate B-cell activity, plasma cell formation, and antibody production.
C) stimulate inflammation.
D) elevate body temperature.
E) stimulate collagen synthesis.

E) stimulate collagen synthesis.

Cells that help regulate the immune response are ________ cells.

A) B
B) plasma
C) helper T
D) cytotoxic T
E) NK

C) helper T

Suppressor T cells act to

A) suppress antigens.
B) erase memory T cells.
C) limit antigen proliferation.
D) inhibit T and B cell activities.
E) produce antibodies involved in autoimmunity.

D) inhibit T and B cell activities.

Which of the following statements about MHC proteins is not true?

A) bind complement
B) allow the body to differentiate its own cells from foreign cells
C) function in antigen presentation
D) fall into two major classes
E) are found on all nucleated cells

A) bind complement

When an antigen is bound to a Class I MHC molecule, it can stimulate a ________ cell.

A) B
B) plasma
C) helper T
D) cytotoxic T
E) NK

D) cytotoxic T

Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following?

A) all body cells with a nucleus
B) red blood cells
C) granulocytes and microphages
D) lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
E) liver cells and macrophages in the spleen

D) lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells

When an antigen is bound to a Class II MHC protein, it can activate a ________ cell.

A) plasma
B) helper T
C) NK
D) suppressor T
E) cytotoxic T

B) helper T

Helper T cells do all of the following, except

A) trigger B-cell division, plasma cell maturation, and antibody production.
B) provide a rapid response to a future exposure to the antigen.
C) enhance production of memory and cytotoxic T cells.
D) attract macrophages to the affected area.
E) enhance nonspecific defenses.

B) provide a rapid response to a future exposure to the antigen.

Stem cells that will form T cells develop in the

A) bone marrow.
B) liver.
C) spleen.
D) thymus.
E) kidneys.

D) thymus.

T cells and B cells can be activated only by

A) pathogens.
B) interleukins, interferons, and colony-stimulating factors.
C) cells infected with viruses, bacteria, or cancer cells.
D) exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a plasma membrane.
E) disease-causing agents.

D) exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a plasma membrane.

Class II MHC proteins are present in the plasma membrane only

A) when plasma cells are releasing antibodies.
B) in antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes.
C) when cytotoxic T cells are inhibited.
D) when NK cells are activated.
E) during infections.

B) in antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes.

If the disulfide bonds in IgG were broken, how many protein chains would be set free?

A) 2
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8
E) dozens

B) 4

The various classes of immunoglobulins are differentiated on the basis of their

A) asymmetry.
B) antigen specificity.
C) light-chain variable segments.
D) heavy-chain constant segments.
E) reactivity.

D) heavy-chain constant segments.

Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

D) IgG.

Immunoglobulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

C) IgE.

Immunoglobulins that are found on the surface of B cells and may activate antibody production are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

B) IgD.

Immunoglobulins, formed of five subunits, that are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection, are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

E) IgM.

Immunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions such as saliva and tears are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

A) IgA.

The binding of an antibody to an antigen can result in

A) neutralization of the antigen.
B) agglutination or precipitation.
C) complement activation and opsonization.
D) inflammation.
E) All of the answers are correct.

D) inflammation.

In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must

A) be phagocytized by the lymphocyte.
B) enter the cytoplasm of the lymphocyte.
C) bind to the DNA of the lymphocyte.
D) bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface.
E) depolarize the lymphocyte.

D) bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface.

The role of antigen-presenting cells in immunity is to

A) activate T cells.
B) display antigen fragments.
C) process antigens.
D) bind antigens to glycoproteins.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

B cells are primarily activated by the activities of

A) antigens.
B) antibodies.
C) helper T cells.
D) macrophages.
E) plasma cells.

C) helper T cells.

In IgG, the antigen binding site is formed by

A) the variable segment of the light chain.
B) the variable segment of the heavy chain.
C) the constant segment of the heavy chain.
D) the variable segments of both the light and heavy chains.
E) the ionized segment of the light chain and the isotropic segment of the heavy chain.

D) the variable segments of both the light and heavy chains.

________ is the class of antibody first secreted in response to a new antigen.

A) IgG
B) IgE
C) IgD
D) IgM
E) IgA

D) IgM

Which of these is not a property of an IgG heavy chain?

A) has one constant segment
B) has one variable segment
C) binds one light chain
D) binds antigen at both ends
E) binds complement in the constant region

D) binds antigen at both ends

Each IgG has ________ binding sites for attachment to antigenic determinants.

A) 1
B) 2
C) 4
D) up to 8
E) as many as a 1000

B) 2

During a primary immune response, the

A) IgM titer is initially higher than the IgG titer.
B) IgG titer is initially higher than the IgM titer.
C) IgM titer and the IgG titer rise in parallel.

A) IgM titer is initially higher than the IgG titer.

In a routine examination, some blood is taken and analyzed. The results show a high IgM titer for the mumps virus but a low IgG anti-mumps titer. This would indicate the person

A) has just recovered from mumps.
B) was recently infected with mumps.
C) is allergic to mumps.
D) is immune to mumps.
E) is relying on passive immunity.

B) was recently infected with mumps.

A crime scene investigator found that a biological fluid sample contains a large amount of IgA-type antibody. This fluid is probably

A) blood.
B) lymph.
C) serum.
D) tears.
E) interstitial.

D) tears.

Newborns gain their immunity initially from

A) early immunizations.
B) contact with viruses and bacteria.
C) antibodies passed across the placenta from the mother.
D) contact with siblings.
E) breast milk.

C) antibodies passed across the placenta from the mother.

The only antibodies that normally cross the placenta are

A) IgA.
B) IgD.
C) IgE.
D) IgG.
E) IgM.

D) IgG.

Autoantibodies are

A) produced by activated T cells.
B) produced during an allergic reaction.
C) directed against the body’s own antigens.
D) the first step in immunological competence.
E) important in tissue rejection reactions.

C) directed against the body’s own antigens.

Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are

A) immunodeficiency diseases.
B) autoimmune diseases.
C) allergies.
D) the result of stress.
E) signs of a weak system.

C) allergies.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects ________ cells.

A) B
B) plasma
C) cytotoxic T
D) helper T
E) suppressor T

D) helper T

Infection with the HIV virus occurs through

A) eating contaminated food.
B) airborne droplets from coughs and sneezes.
C) intimate contact with an infected person’s body fluids.
D) casual contact with an infected individual.
E) sharing clothes with an infected individual.

C) intimate contact with an infected person’s body fluids.

Which of these is not a characteristic of AIDS?

A) has killed at least 1/2 million people in the United States
B) is spread most often through sexual contact
C) attacks the T helper (CD4) cells
D) is declining worldwide
E) almost always eventually fatal

D) is declining worldwide

Milly has just received a kidney transplant and is taking cyclosporin A. What does this medication do?

A) prevents inflammation from destroying the transplanted kidney
B) depresses hematopoiesis
C) decreases chemotaxis of macrophages to the transplanted kidney
D) weakens antibodies in the blood
E) suppresses helper T cells, thus preventing rejection

E) suppresses helper T cells, thus preventing rejection

Stress can affect the immune response in all of the following ways, except by

A) inhibiting glucocorticoid release.
B) depressing the inflammatory response.
C) reducing the number of phagocytes.
D) inhibiting interleukin secretion.
E) increasing the level of glucocorticoids.

A) inhibiting glucocorticoid release.

Changes in the immune system that accompany aging include

A) T cells becoming less responsive to antigens.
B) fewer cytotoxic T cells responding to infections.
C) decreased numbers of T helper cells.
D) B cells less responsive.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Peyer’s patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine. (T/F)

FALSE

The lymphatics function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream (T/F)

TRUE

Lymph always flows away from the heart (T/F)

FALSE

Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins (T/F)

TRUE

Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries. (T/F)

TRUE

Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system (T/F)

TRUE

All lymphoid organs develop from mesoderm (T/F)

FALSE

About 3 liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph (T/F)

TRUE

Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics (T/F)

TRUE

Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue (T/F)

TRUE

All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth (T/F)

FALSE

An infected lymph gland is called a bubo (T/F)

TRUE

The largest lymphatic vessels are called lacteals (T/F)

FALSE

The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs (T/F)

FALSE

If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself (T/F)

TRUE

The thymus lacks T cells (T/F)

FALSE

Lymph is most similar to __________.

A. water
B. interstitial fluid
C. saliva
D. blood plasma

B. interstitial fluid Interstitial fluid and lymph are the same in composition. Interstitial fluid is renamed lymph as soon as it enters a lymphatic vessel.

Once collected, lymph is returned to __________.

A. the liver for detoxification
B. venous circulation
C. arterial circulation
D. the kidneys for filtration

B. venous circulation From the terminal lymphatic ducts, lymph rejoins venous circulation via the subclavian veins.

What is the role of the mini-valves in lymph capillaries?

A. speed transport
B. reduce pressure in the lymphatic capillary
C. increase permeability
D. connect to blood capillaries

C. increase permeability The lymph capillaries owe their permeability to the mini-valves formed by the lack of tight junctions between the endothelial cells and the collagen filaments anchoring the endothelial cells to surrounding structures.

Which of the following lymphoid tissues/organs does NOT contain reticular connective tissue?

A. tonsils
B. thymus
C. spleen
D. lymph nodes

B. thymus

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid cell?

A. eosinophil
B. reticular cell
C. macrophage
D. dendritic cell

A. eosinophil Eosinophils are granular WBCs that destroy parasitic worms. They are not lymphoid cells.

Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?

A. They return lymph to circulation.
B. They filter lymph.
C. They produce lymph.
D. They produce red blood cells.

B. They filter lymph. Lymph nodes are rich with macrophages, B cells, and T cells; therefore, the lymph nodes are primed for activating the immune system. Structurally, lymph nodes have a capsule and medullary chords and sinuses that serve to filter lymph fluid.

Which lymphoid organ serves in immune surveillance and in filtering lymph?

A. tonsils
B. the spleen
C. the thymus
D. lymph nodes

D. lymph nodes Lymph nodes function as lymph filters and immune surveillance units. They exist in large numbers and are located everywhere in the body, with the exception of the bones, teeth, bone marrow, and the entire central nervous system.

Which lymphoid organ serves as the site where T lymphocytes become immunocompetent T cells?

A. thymus gland
B. tonsils
C. thyroid gland
D. spleen

A. thymus gland

Which of the following is NOT a part of MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)?

A. lymph nodes
B. tonsils
C. appendix
D. Peyer’s patches

A. lymph nodes Lymph nodes are scattered through the interior of the body. They are not a component of MALT as they are not associated with mucous membranes.

Which lymphoid organ provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response and provides blood-cleansing functions?

A. tonsil
B. thymus
C. lymph node
D. spleen

D. spleen The spleen provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response, and blood-cleansing functions such as storing some of the breakdown products of erythrocytes and storage of platelets.

Lymphedema may be treated by all EXCEPT which of the following?

A. manual compression of the affected area
B. movements of the affected area
C. treatments that promote growth of lymphatic vessels
D. bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area

D. bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area Lymphedema is swelling that occurs when normal lymphatic drainage is blocked. If a person remains stationary, it decreases skeletal muscle contraction, which facilitates lymph drainage.

Within buboes, bacteria are directly attacked by ______.

A. dendritic cells
B. B cells
C. macrophages
D. None of the listed responses is correct.

C. macrophages Macrophages are large phagocytic cells (macro = big; phage = to eat). They are capable of directly destroying invading bacteria by engulfing and breaking them down using lysosomal enzymes. Buboes are lymph nodes that are inflamed due to a bacterial infection.

After surgical removal of the spleen (i.e., a splenectomy), some other organs take over most of its functions. Which of the following spleen functions in the adult can be performed by bone marrow?

A. immune surveillance
B. erythropoiesis
C. removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood
D. storage of platelets

C. removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood. The bone marrow lacks mature macrophages. Macrophages are essential in the destruction of red blood cells in the spleen.

Which of the following is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?

A. lymph nodes
B. blood vessels
C. lymphatic vessels
D. lymph

B. blood vessels

Lymphangitis is caused by ______.
A. an infection
B. inflammation of the vasa vasorum
C. increased formation of interstitial fluid from blood flowing through the congested vasa vasorum
D. All of the listed responses are correct.

A. an infection The suffix -itis indicates an infection of the tissue or structure within the root word. In this case, it is an infection of the lymph vessels.

[T/F] The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.

TRUE

[T/F] Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins.

TRUE

[T/F] Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries.

TRUE

[T/F] Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system.

TRUE

[T/F] About 3 liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph.

TRUE

[T/F] Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics.

TRUE

[T/F] When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells.

TRUE

[T/F] The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs.

FALSE

Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

A. lumbar trunk
B. cisterna chyli
C. thoracic duct
D. right lymphatic duct

D. right lymphatic duct

The lymphatic capillaries are ________.

A. as permeable as blood capillaries
B. more permeable than blood capillaries
C. completely impermeable
D. less permeable than blood capillaries

B. more permeable than blood capillaries

Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

A. Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling.
B. Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins.
C. Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits.
D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?

A. water
B. red blood cells
C. ions
D. plasma proteins

B. red blood cells

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

A. carrying out immune responses
B. draining excess interstitial fluid
C. transporting respiratory gases
D. transporting dietary fats

C. transporting respiratory gases

[T/F] Lymph capillary permeability is due to minivalves and protein filaments.

TRUE

[T/F] Like blood, lymph flows both to and from the heart.

FALSE

Lymph transport involves all but which of the following?

A. lymph capillary minivalve action
B. milking action of active muscle fibers
C. thorax pressure changes during breathing
D. smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

D. smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

Which of the following is not a part of the lymphatic system?

A. lymphatic vessels
B. erythrocytes
C. lymph nodes
D. lymph

B. erythrocytes

When the lymphatic structures of a limb are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

A. increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal in the limb to the blockage
B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb
C. abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region
D. shrinkage of tissues distal in the limb to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph

B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb

Lymph capillaries are absent in all except which of the following?

A. bone marrow
B. CNS
C. digestive organs
D. bones and teeth

C. digestive organs

Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.

A. cervical region
B. lower extremities
C. axillary region
D. inguinal region

B. lower extremities

Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?

A. skeletal muscle contraction
B. valves in lymph vessel walls
C. breathing
D. capillary smooth muscle contraction

D. capillary smooth muscle contraction

Lymphatic collecting vessels are most closely associated with __________.

A. bone marrow
B. arterioles
C. the heart
D. capillary beds

D. capillary beds

Which of the following statements is true regarding veins versus lymphatic collecting vessels?

A. Veins and lymphatic vessels have a different number of tunics.
B. Veins tend to form more branches (anastamoses) than do lymphatic vessels.
C. Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels.
D. Veins have thinner walls than do lymphatic vessels.

C. Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels. Veins and lymphatic collecting vessels both have valves, but lymphatic vessels have more valves than do veins. Veins also have specialized endothelial flap valves, which allow them to more readily collect fluid from the interstitial space.

Lymphatic vessels __________.

A. supply nutrients to tissues
B. deliver oxygen to tissues
C. return tissue fluid to the bloodstream
D. collect blood from tissues

C. return tissue fluid to the bloodstream Lymphatic vessels have a role in transporting tissue fluid, leaked proteins, and absorbed fats to the blood. They do not deliver nutrients nor gases to the tissues; that is the role of blood vessels.

Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. These cells form a unique structural modification that increases their permeability that is known as the __________.

A. chyle
B. lacteals
C. lymph nodes
D. minivalves

D. minivalves

Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

A. anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers
B. inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries
C. increasing pressure in the interstitial space
D. increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

D. increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

To what organ do the lymphatic vessels return protein-rich escaped fluids to rejoin circulation?

A. lymph nodes
B. heart
C. thymus
D. spleen

B. heart

What do collecting lymphatic vessels NOT share in common with veins of the cardiovascular system?

A. fluids transported toward the heart
B. three tunics or layers
C. thickness of the walls
D. presence of valves

C. thickness of the walls

What is the main function of the lymphatic system?

A. The lymphatic system pumps and transports blood throughout the body.
B. The lymphatic system makes blood cells through a process known as hematopoiesis.
C. The lymphatic system regulates blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism.
D. The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

D. The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

Which of the following lacks lymph capillaries?

A. bones and teeth
B. small intestine
C. skin
D. loose connective tissues

A. bones and teeth

Lymph from the right leg ultimately is delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?

A. right lymphatic duct
B. jugular trunk
C. subclavian trunk
D. thoracic duct

D. thoracic duct

Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?

A. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax
B. digestive organs and lower limbs
C. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax, and the right lower limb
D. left upper limb, left side of the head and thorax, and both lower limbs

A. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax

What is the name of the enlarged sac to which the lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk returns lymph?

A. thoracic duct
B. lacteals
C. cisterna chyli
D. right lymphatic duct

C. cisterna chyli

Which of the following returns lymph to the right lymphatic duct?

A. left arm
B. right side of the head
C. left side of the head
D. cisterna chyli

B. right side of the head

Which of the following delivers lymph into the junction of the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein?

A. subclavian trunk
B. jugular trunk
C. thoracic duct
D. cisterna chyli

C. thoracic duct

[T/F] Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue.

TRUE

[T/F] Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body.

TRUE

[T/F] The simplest lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes.

FALSE

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

A. T lymphocytes
B. plasma cells
C. medullary cords
D. lymph nodes

B. plasma cells

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.

A. T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue.
B. The two main types are T cells and macrophages.
C. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
D. T cells are the precursors of B cells.

C. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

A. Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
B. T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances.
C. Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood.
D. Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently.

A. Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?

A. furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
B. house and provide a proliferation site for neutrophils
C. house and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes
D. A and C

D. Both A and C

Which of the following lymphoid cells secrete antibodies?

A. dendritic cells
B. macrophages
C. T lymphocytes
D. plasma cells

D. plasma cells

Antibodies are produced by __________.

A. dendritic cells
B. plasma cells
C. reticular cells
D. macrophages

B. plasma cells

What type of tissue is commonly found in all lymphoid organs and tissues (except the thymus)?

A. reticular connective tissue
B. elastic connective tissue
C. elastic cartilage connective tissue
D. areolar connective tissue

A. reticular connective tissue

What is the role of the B lymphocytes (B cells) in lymphoid tissue?

A. capture antigens and bring them back to the lymph nodes
B. phagocytize foreign substances
C. manage the immune response
D. produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies

D. produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies

What is the role of dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue?

A. manage the immune response
B. capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes
C. phagocytize foreign substances
D. help activate T cells

B. capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes

What is a bubo?

A. an infected Peyer’s patch
B. a wall in a lymph node
C. an infected lymph node
D. a lobe of the spleen

C. an infected lymph node

Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?

A. act as lymph filters and activate the immune system
B. produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid
C. produce lymphoid cells and granular WBCs
D. serve as antigen surveillance areas

B. produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid

While passing through a village on safari you notice a man with one enormous leg and one normal-sized leg. What is the most likely reason for the increased size of the swollen leg?

A. The man has cancer that is blocking his lymph vessels, causing edema.
B. The man had mononucleosis, which is a viral disease that causes swelling of the lymph nodes and localized edema.
C. The man had surgery on his leg, which removed the local lymph vessels and lymph nodes, causing edema.
D. The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

D. The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

Why might lymphedema occur as a complication after a radical mastectomy, in which lymph nodes have been removed?

A. Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.
B. Lymphedema will not occur, as the blood vessels will carry away the excess accumulated fluid in the area.
C. Lymphedema will not occur: the lymph vessels will still be able to transport the lymph away from the area without the lymph nodes being present.
D. Removal of any lymph nodes results in systemic edema, as lymph is not returned to the circulatory system.

A. Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.

[T/F] There are more efferent lymphatic vessels leaving a lymph node than there are afferent vessels entering a lymph node.

FALSE

Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.

A. lymph follicles
B. lymphatics
C. lacteals
D. lymph nodes

D. lymph nodes

Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.

A. the cortical sinus
B. the subcapsular sinus
C. afferent lymphatic vessels
D. efferent lymphatic vessels

D. efferent lymphatic vessels

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid tissue/organ?

A. spleen
B. bone marrow
C. Peyer’s patches
D. tonsils

B. bone marrow

Where are the three large clusters of superficial lymph nodes?

A. cervical, acromial, and mammary regions
B. lumbar, inguinal, and femoral regions
C. axillary, brachial, and subclavian regions
D. cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

D. cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

The filtration of lymph and immune system activation are the two basic functions of the __________.

A. spleen
B. tonsils
C. lymph nodes
D. Peyer’s patches

C. lymph nodes

Lymph nodes are surrounded by a capsule from which connective tissue strands extend inward to divide the node into compartments. What is the name of these strands?

A. hilum
B. trabeculae
C. lymph sinuses
D. medullary cords

B. trabeculae

What region of the lymph node contains densely packed follicles with dividing B cells?

A. capsule
B. cortex
C. medulla
D. trabeculae

B. cortex

[T/F] Peyer’s patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine.

FALSE

[T/F] If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself.

TRUE

[T/F] The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response.

FALSE

Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?

A. Peyer’s patches of the intestine
B. spleen
C. tonsils
D. pancreas

D. pancreas

The thymus is most active during ________.

A. middle age
B. childhood
C. fetal development
D. old age

B. childhood

Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?

A. macrophages
B. basophils
C. monocytes
D. lymphocytes

D. lymphocytes

Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.

A. storage of iron
B. removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood
C. storage of blood platelets
D. forming crypts that trap bacteria

D. forming crypts that trap bacteria

Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.

A. appendix
B. thymus
C. Peyer’s patch
D. tonsil

D. tonsil

Peyer’s patches are found in the ________.

A. duodenum of the small intestine
B. large intestine
C. ileum of the small intestine
D. jejunum of the small intestine

C. ileum of the small intestine

The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:

A. produce hormones
B. have lymphocytes
C. have a cortex and medulla
D. directly fight antigens

D. directly fight antigens

Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.

A. palatine tonsils
B. lingual tonsils
C. Peyer’s patches
D. islets of Langerhans

D. islets of Langerhans

[T/F] In the spleen, red pulp is involved in the immune functions and white pulp is involved in disposing of worn-out RBCs.

FALSE

Which of the following statements regarding the thymus is not true?

A. It functions strictly in T lymphocyte maturation.
B. It has follicles similar to those in the spleen.
C. It does not fight antigens.
D. Its stroma consists of epithelial tissue.

B. It has follicles similar to those in the spleen.

Which of the following does not contain a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?

A. Peyer’s patch
B. tonsil
C. thymus
D. appendix

C. thymus

Of the following lymphoid organs, which is (are) structurally simplest and lack(s) a complete capsule?

A. tonsils
B. lymph nodes
C. thymus gland
D. spleen

A. tonsils Tonsils lack a complete capsule. The epithelium overlying tonsils invaginates deeply into their interior to form crypts where bacteria and particulate matter are trapped to be destroyed in the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils.

Where are Peyer’s patches located?

A. proximal portion of the small intestine
B. distal portion of the small intestine
C. appendix
D. large intestine

B. distal portion of the small intestine

The __________ is (are) the most likely to become infected.

A. tubal tonsil
B. lingual tonsil
C. palatine tonsils
D. pharyngeal tonsil

C. palatine tonsils

Peyer’s patches are located __________.

A. in the liver
B. in the spleen
C. in the wall of the colon
D. in the wall of the small intestine

D. in the wall of the small intestine

The first lymphoid organ(s) to appear during fetal development is (are) the __________.

A. thymus
B. appendix
C. tonsils
D. lymph nodes

A. thymus Although the thymus is the first lymphoid organ to appear in the developing fetus, only the tonsils and the spleen are well developed by birth.

[T/F] Lymph arrives to the lymph nodes via efferent lymphatic vessels.

FALSE

Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

A. splenic cords
B. red pulp
C. white pulp
D. splenic sinusoids

C. white pulp

Where are worn-out erythrocytes found in the spleen?

A. red pulp
B. splenic cords
C. capsule
D. white pulp

A. red pulp

Where is the spleen located?

A. inferior neck and extending into the superior thorax, partially overlying the heart deep to the sternum
B. clusters of lymphoid follicles located in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestines
C. left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach
D. forming a ring of lymphoid tissue around the entrance to the pharynx (throat)

C. left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach

Where is the lingual tonsil located?

A. base of the tongue
B. posterior wall of the nasopharynx
C. surrounding the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx
D. either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity

A. base of the tongue

Tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsil. What is missing from the tonsil that allows for the presence of tonsillar crypts?

A. lymphocytes
B. lymphoid follicles
C. capsule
D. germinal centers

C. capsule

Which tonsil is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx and is referred to as the adenoids if it is enlarged?

A. tubal tonsils
B. palatine tonsils
C. pharyngeal tonsil
D. lingual tonsil

C. pharyngeal tonsil

[T/F] All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth.

FALSE

A sentinel node is ________.

A. the first node at the junction of all the lumbar trunks
B. a lymph node found in the intestinal lamina propria
C. the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
D. a small node in the spleen

C. the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

[T/F] The thymus functions strictly in maturation of T cells.

TRUE The thymus is prominent in newborns and it continues to increase in size until the child is about a year old. After puberty, the thymus begins to diminish in size. Unlike the other lymphoid tissues/organs, the thymus does not directly combat foreign antigens. Rather, the exclusive role of the thymus is to foster T cell maturation (not B cell maturation). Structurally, the thymus is the only lymphoid tissue/organ that lacks reticular fibers.

Lymphedema may be treated by all EXCEPT which of the following?

bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area

Lymphatic collecting vessels are most closely associated with __________.

capillary beds

Lymphatic vessels __________.

return tissue fluid to the bloodstream

Lymph arrives to the lymph nodes via efferent lymphatic vessels. (T/F)

False

The thymus functions strictly in maturation of T cells. (T/F)

True

The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream. (T/F)

True

When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells. (T/F)

True

Lymph capillary permeability is due to minivalves and protein filaments. (T/F)

True

Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body. (T/F)

True

There are more efferent lymphatic vessels leaving a lymph node than there are afferent vessels entering a lymph node. (T/F)

False

The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response. (T/F)

False

In the spleen, red pulp is involved in the immune functions and white pulp is involved in disposing of worn-out RBCs. (T/F)

False

The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the blood stream. (T/F)

True

Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body. (T/F)

True

All lymphoid organs are well developed before birth. (T/F)

False

All lymphatic organs are composed of epithelial tissue. (T/F)

False

The simplest lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes. (T/F)

False

The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________. A) islets of Langerhans
B) Peyer’s patches
C) rugae
D) villi

B) Peyer’s patches

Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________. A) the pumping action of the heart
B) skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
C) contraction of the vessels themselves
D) two-way valves

B) skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement

The thymus is most active during _____.
A) fetal development
B) childhood
C) middle age
D) old age

B) childhood

What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?
A) The size of the thymus increases continuously from birth to death.
B) The size of the thymus decreases continuously from birth to death.
C) The thymus is not affected by age.
D) The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.

D) The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.
A) Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently.
B) Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood.
C) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
D) T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances.

C) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

Which of the following is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue? A) tonsil
B) thymus
C) Peyer’s patch
D) appendix

B) thymus

Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow? A) skeletal muscle contraction
B) breathing
C) valves in lymph vessel walls
D) smooth muscle contraction

D) smooth muscle contraction

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.

A) lingual tonsils
B) palatine tonsils
C) pharyngeal tonsils
D) Peyer’s tonsils

A) lingual tonsils

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