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As president, Andrew Jackson favored

a limited federal government and the establishment of a federal Indian policy to remove the Indians

The election of 1828 differed from earlier elections in its emphasis on issues related to scandal and character partly because

John Quincy Adams was associated with the "corrupt bargain" of 1824

Because of their distrust of the economic elite, Andrew Jackson and many of his followers wanted to

end government support for business, thereby encouraging individual liberties and economic opportunities

The market revolution experienced by Americans after the War of 1812

brought increasing numbers of people out of old patterns of rural self-sufficiency into the wider realm of national market relations

One of the precipitating causes of the panic! of 1837 was

that the Bank of England began call in loans made to American merchants

Relatively few white Northerners got involved in the campaign to eradicate slavery because

even though they may have viewed slavery as counterproductive or immoral, they tended to be racists

Van Buren pushed for an independent treasury system, funded by government deposits, which would

deal only in hard money

Employees of early textile mills in New England were

mainly young women who left rural farms and flocked to factory towns in the hope of gaining more autonomy

By 1845, the American Temperance Union and other temperance advocates

had succeeded in decreasing alcohol consumption in the United States

One of the most radical reform movements of the 1830s was the

effort to abolish slavery

Funding for transportation improvements in America between 1815 and 1840 came mostly from

private and state funding

The doctrine of nullification outlined by John C. Calhoun in response to the Tariff of Abominations argued that

the Union was a voluntary confederation of states that had yielded only some fo their power to the federal government, and when Congress overstepped its powers, states had the right to nullify Congress’ acts

A hallmark of the Jacksonian era was

a faith that people and societies can shape their own destinies.

The Second Great Awakening

brought forth an outpouring of evangelical religious fervor that offered salvation to the less than perfect

The nationally circulated Advocate of Moral Reform was a

newspaper published by women that took men to task for the sexual sin of frequenting prostitutes and perpetuating prostitution.

The most horrifying hazard faced by people traveling on steamboats in the early nineteenth century was

being injured or killed by the frequent boiler explosions.

Newspapers became crucial to party politics in Jacksonian America because:

Many newspapers were under the control of a particular political party and actively pushed that party’s agenda

the first railroad lines in the united states were

generally short and not yet an efficient distribution system for goods

Andrew Jackson set an important political precedent when he selected his cabinet by

excluding members of political factions that were not loyal to him

Steamboats had a detrimental effect on the environment because they

led to deforestation and air pollution

The infamous Trail of Tears was

a 1,200-mile forced march by Cherokees who were expelled from their land

After 1815, the idea of separate spheres and separate duties for men and women was strengthened by the fact that

men’s work was newly disconnected from the home and increasingly brought cash to the household

Black Hawk’s resistance to removal from Illinois led to

his capture and the massacre of some 400 of his people

in the presidential election of 1836, three whig candidates to run in his place

because each candidate had a solid popular regional base but none had the support of all regions

Lawyers of the 1820s and 1830s created the legal foundation for an economy that gave priority to

ambitious individuals interested in maximizing their own wealth.

Alcohol consumption in America in the decades up to 1830 was

widespread, rising, and often tended toward abusive amounts

In the 1820s and 1830s, shoe binding, an important component of shoe manufacturing, was

comparatively low-paying work performed by women at home.

Angelina Grimké, Sarah Grimké, and Maria Stewart, women lecturers who conveyed a powerful antislavery message, encountered hostility in the North because

they affronted a rigid cultural norm by speaking in public and presuming to instruct men

As a result of his lopsided win in the election of 1832, Andrew Jackson tried to

destroy the Bank of the United States before its charter expired, a process he began by removing federal deposits from the bank and depositing them in Democratic-leaning banks throughout the country

Between 1828 and 1836, the second American party system took shape; it

was, by 1836, a fully functioning, national, two-party political system

High rates of voter participation continued into the 1840s and 1850s because

politics remained the arena where different choices about economic development and social change were contested

A positive effect of the economic turmoil of Jackson’s second administration was that from 1835 to 1837, for the first and only time in U.S. history

the government had a surplus of money

The spread of public schools in the 1820s and 1830s made education more accessible to students and affected teaching by

initiating a shift toward hiring women as cheap instructors.

Canals were an important innovation in the early nineteenth century because

they allowed cheaper transport by virtue of greatly increased loads

In 1830, President Jackson convinced Congress to pass legislation that

forced Native Americans to relocate west of the Mississippi and opened up about 100 million acres of land for white settlers

In large measure, the panic! of 1819 occurred as a result of

a contraction of the money supply and plummeting prices of commodities

In the economy of Jacksonian America, bankers

all of the above

Henry Clay wanted to force the issue of the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States before the presidential election of 1832 because he hoped to

force Andrew Jackson into an unpopular veto on the issue in order to secure support for Clay as president

A compelling reason underlying South Carolina’s argument for nullification in 1828 was that

a Northern-dominated federal government might decide to end slavery, which would threaten the very foundation of the South’s economic system

In Advice to American Women, Mrs. A. J. Graves represented the new ideas about gender relations in Jacksonian America in her support for the concept of

separate spheres for men and women, based on the middle-class notion that women had a unique contribution to make in the home as more men ventured into the competitive world of market relations

For workers in early Massachusetts factories, wages were

low because workers were easily replaced.

A typical pattern for boys not remaining on the farm in the 1820s and 1830s was to

Leave school at the age of 14 and become either an apprentice in a trade or an entry-level clerk

After 1828, political leaders considered the development of political parties to be:

An effective way to encourage vote loyalty that transcended specific candidates and elections

In support of the doctrine of nullification, South Carolina’s leader pointed to

the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798

An important transition in American politics took place during the Jacksonian era as

different campaigning tactics and increasingly democratic rhetoric made it necessary for candidates to appeal to common people

In Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Supreme Court ruled that the

Cherokees in Georgia existed as "a distinct community, occupying its own territory, in which the laws of Georgia can have no force."

In 1831, William Lloyd Garrison launched

the Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper advocating an immediate end to slavery.

The leading exemplar of the Second Great Awakening, Charles Grandison Finney, insisted that

Americans "vote in the Lord Jesus Christ as the governor of the universe."

One of the key elements in the political landscape of Jacksonian America was the upsurge of universal white male suffrage,

as most states abolished property qualifications for voting.

From 1800 to 1820, church membership in the US


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