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Mills believed that centralized power in the hands of a few ____________ democracy.


One of the best ways to reduce the number of children born (according to Sachs) is to:

provide family planning

The effect of globalization has been to bifurcate labor into:

high skilled and low skilled.

Thomas Malthus had a positive view of inequality. He defended disease, slavery, and child murder. Why?

He felt this would allow the population to thin itself out naturally.

The process in India whereby an entire caste can leapfrog over another and obtain a higher position in the hierarchy is called:


Pareto believed in a society in which status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability, called:


From Malthus’s perspective, what keeps the population in check?


Although Indian castes historically have been ____________, increasing rates of ____________ have made classifying children more difficult.

endogamous; exogamy

Which standard of equality is most concerned with the distribution of resources?

equality of outcome

____________ social mobility refers to a group or an individual transitioning from one social status to another that is situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder.


Hegel felt that the relationship between slave and master was dialectic. This means that:

each is dependent on the other.

Hegel argued that notions of inequality are constantly evolving in a larger historical arc and will eventually lead to:


Sociologists often describe an individual’s position in a stratified social order that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth, and education. Sociologists call this:

socioeconomic status

Opponents of the estate tax argue that taxing accumulated wealth:

discourages would-be entrepreneurs from taking risk.

What term refers to a two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways like a conversation between two people (such as master-slave)?


The prestige of a person’s first job out of school factors into his or her position on the ____________ model.


The examination of how race and ethnicity affect income is really an examination of:


According to the German philosopher Hegel, the master-slave relationship is one of mutual:


When more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility in the hope that the others will pull the extra weight. This is referred to as:

the free rider problem

Let’s say you are best at building with your hands and you become a carpenter working for a local building contractor. A friend of yours is very good at programming computers, so he or she works at IBM. Yet another friend excels at science, so he or she goes to medical school and becomes a physician. Each of you is paid the exact same salary and each of you lives in the same neighborhood and drives the same type of car. What standard of equality would this be an
example of?

equality of outcome

Historically, Marx’s capitalist class was made up of members of the:

upper class

In political speeches about the poor, those who are believed to deserve our assistance are termed the:

working poor

According to the "Relative Social Prestige of Selected U.S. Occupations" table (Table 7.1 in your text), which blue-collar occupation has the highest prestige score?

police officer

Business managers are examples of what concept?


Under what system is your societal position related to your position in the economic market?


Typically, one moves vertically (up or down) the social ladder. If factories are moving from the United States to Mexico and that is causing major job losses in the United States, one would say that downward mobility is due to:

structural mobility

Which term refers to everything you own minus debts (such as a mortgage on your home and credit card debt)?


Opponents of the estate tax have consistently portrayed ____________ as its undeserving victims, although it only affects a small number of such individuals.


Rousseau believed that the source of all social ills was:

private property.

What is another term for the nonworking poor?


Trade of goods and services across national boundaries, as well as the mobility of businesses and labor through immigration, is called:


Ferguson and Millar saw social developments resulting from the establishment of private property as representing a huge improvement in society because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and:


The government’s definition of poverty for a family of four (as of 2011) is a total yearly salary of just under:


Which group exploits the working class by taking more of the value of the work of laborers than they repay in wages?


A system in which advancement is based on individual achievement or ability is referred to as:


A type of stratification that is based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and in which there is little to no individual mobility within the strata is the:

caste system.

The game of Monopoly follows the rules of what standard of equality?

equality of opportunity

What is the fastest-growing job market for people with only a high school education?

food preparation

C. Wright Mills argues that there are three major institutions in the United States today that have the power to make decisions for the masses. Which one of the following is NOT one of these?


You are dependent on your professor for your grade. Your professor, in turn, is dependent on you for his or her job. Hegel would call this a(n):

dialectic relationship.

The U.S. estate tax is sometimes called the ____________ tax.


What group sells its labor to the bourgeoisie in order to receive wages?


Mills argues that there are three major institutional forces in modern American society in which the power of decision making has be

social order

Pareto argues that societies based on strict military, religious, and aristocratic stratification tend to collapse; in other words, history is:

a graveyard of aristocracies.

The movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society is called ____________ mobility.


What is the primary source of income for the upper class?

returns on investments

Proponents of the estate tax assert that the tax:

provides an important source of government revenue.

Professionals, small business owners, and craftsmen are referred to as:

petit bourgeoisie.

Sometimes individuals seek to assert or increase their status, not just through occupation but also through:

living in gated communities.

C. Wright Mills had a negative view of the elite-mass dichotomy. His viewpoint fits into what paradigm?


An example of horizontal social mobility is a(n):

secretary changing firms but retaining his or her occupational status.

Each society has a type of social stratification. How does the United States ideologically justify its type of stratification system?

A person is in complete control over the class he or she is in. Hard work (or lack of it) determines class.

A subsystem of stratification that Mills mentions is the outer fringes of the power elite. These are:

individuals who count in the decisions that affect all of us, but who don’t actually make those decisions.

According to Rousseau, there are two forms of inequality: ____________, or natural, and ____________, or political.

physical; social

Elliot Essman asserts that America is a(n) ____________ because the very wealthy do not have much impact on the country in general.

middle-class nation

Thomas Malthus believed that the human population grows ____________, but the ability to produce food increases ____________.

geometrically; arithmetically

A stratification system with a governing elite—that is, few leaders who broadly hold the power in society—is called a(n) ____________ system.

elite-mass dichotomy

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