Ch34

1) Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as
A) the digestive system's opening.
B) suspension-feeding devices.
C) components of the jaw.
D) gill slits for respiration.
E) portions of the inner ear.

B

2) Which of the following statements would be least acceptable to most zoologists?
A) The extant lancelets are contemporaries, not ancestors, of vertebrates.
B) The first fossils resembling lancelets appeared in the fossil record around 530 million years ago.
C) Recent work in molecular systematics supports the hypothesis that lancelets are the most recent common ancestor of all vertebrates.
D) The extant lancelets are the immediate ancestors of the fishes.
E) Lancelets display the same method of swimming as do fishes.

D

3) Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?
A) lancelets
B) adult tunicates
C) amphibians
D) reptiles
E) chondrichthyans

A

4) A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics: external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?
A) legs
B) no jaws
C) an amniotic egg
D) endothermy

B

5) How many of the following statements about craniates is (are) correct?
1. Craniates are more highly cephalized than are noncraniates.
2. Craniates' genomic evolution includes duplication of clusters of genes that code for transcription factors.
3. The craniate clade is synonymous with the vertebrate clade.
4. Pharyngeal slits that play important roles in gas exchange originated in craniates.
5. The two-chambered heart originated with the early craniates.
A) one of these
B) two of these
C) three of these
D) four of these
E) five of these

D

6) What do all craniates have that earlier chordates did not have?
A) brain
B) vertebrae
C) cartilaginous pipe surrounding notochord
D) partial or complete skull
E) bone

D

7) Lampreys differ from hagfishes in
A) lacking jaws.
B) having a cranium.
C) having pharyngeal clefts that develop into pharyngeal slits.
D) having a notochord throughout life.
E) having a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage.

E

8) The feeding mode of the extinct conodonts was
A) herbivory.
B) suspension feeding.
C) predation.
D) filter feeding.
E) absorptive feeding.

C

9) The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?
A) reproduction
B) feeding
C) locomotion
D) defense
E) respiration

B

10) A team of researchers has developed a poison that has proven effective against lamprey larvae in freshwater cultures. The poison is ingested and causes paralysis by detaching segmental muscles from the skeletal elements. The team wants to test the poison's effectiveness in streams feeding Lake Michigan, but one critic worries about potential effects on lancelets, which are similar to lampreys in many ways. Why is this concern misplaced?
A) A chemical poisonous to lampreys could not also be toxic to organisms as ancestral as lancelets.
B) Lamprey larvae and lancelets have very different feeding mechanisms.
C) Lancelets do not have segmental muscles.
D) Lancelets live only in saltwater environments.
E) Lancelets and lamprey larvae eat different kinds of food.

D

11) The lamprey species whose larvae live in freshwater streams, but whose adults live most of their lives in seawater, are similar in this respect to certain species of
A) chondrichthyans.
B) actinopterygians.
C) lungfishes.
D) coelacanths.
E) hagfishes.

B

12) Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?
A) lampreys
B) chondrichthyans
C) ray-finned fishes
D) lungfishes
E) placoderms

B

13) Which of these might have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans?
A) a mineralized, bony skeleton
B) opercula
C) bony fin rays
D) a spiral valve intestine
E) a swim bladder

A

14) To which of the following are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?
A) osteichthyan scales
B) reptilian scales
C) mammalian scales
D) bird scales
E) chondrichthyan teeth

E

15) Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?
A) The skin is typically covered by flattened bony scales.
B) They are equally able to exchange gases with the environment while stationary.
C) They are highly maneuverable due to their flexibility.
D) They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.
E) A swim bladder helps control buoyancy.

D

16) Which group's members have had both lungs and gills during their adult lives?
A) sharks, skates, and rays
B) lungfishes
C) lancelets
D) amphibians
E) ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs

B

17) There is evidence that ray-finned fishes evolved
A) in response to a crisis that wiped out the chondrichthyans.
B) directly from lampreys and hagfish.
C) early in the Cambrian period.
D) directly from lancelets.
E) the swim bladder from a lung.

E

18) The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes
A) was probably modified from simple lungs of chondrichthyans.
B) developed into lungs in saltwater fishes.
C) first appeared in sharks.
D) provides for regulation of buoyancy.
E) Two of the options listed are correct.

D

19) Which of the following belongs to the lobe-fin clade?
A) chondrichthyans
B) ray-finned fishes
C) lampreys
D) hagfishes
E) tetrapods

E

20) Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
1. lobe-fins
2. amphibians
3. gnathostomes
4. osteichthyans
5. tetrapods
A) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
B) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1
C) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1
D) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2
E) 3, 4, 5, 1, 2

D

21) A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was
A) the appearance of jaws.
B) the appearance of bony vertebrae.
C) feet with digits.
D) the mineralization of the endoskeleton.
E) the amniotic egg.

C

22) What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?
A) They should show evidence of internal fertilization.
B) They should show evidence of having produced shelled eggs.
C) They should indicate limited adaptation to life on land.
D) They should be transitional forms with the fossils of chondrichthyans that lived at the same time.
E) They should feature the earliest indications of the appearance of jaws.

C

23) Which of these are amniotes?
A) amphibians
B) fishes
C) egg-laying mammals
D) placental mammals
E) More than one of these is correct.

E

24) Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?
A) It has a shell that increases gas exchange.
B) It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
C) It prolongs embryonic development.
D) It provides insulation to conserve heat.
E) It permits internal fertilization to be replaced by external fertilization.

B

25) Which era is known as the "age of reptiles"?
A) Cenozoic
B) Mesozoic
C) Paleozoic
D) Devonian
E) Cambrian

B

26) Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?
A) the shelled, amniotic egg
B) the ability to maintain a constant body temperature
C) two pairs of appendages
D) bony scales
E) a four-chambered heart

A

27) Which of the following is characteristic of most extant reptiles and most extant mammals?
A) ectothermy
B) diaphragm
C) shelled eggs
D) keratinized skin
E) conical teeth that are relatively uniform in size

D

28) At the end of which era did most dinosaurs and pterosaurs become extinct?
A) Cretaceous
B) Permian
C) Devonian
D) Ordovician
E) Triassic

A

29) Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?
A) lizards
B) crocodiles
C) snakes
D) birds
E) tuataras

D

30) Examination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reveals that, in common with extant birds, it had
A) a long tail containing vertebrae.
B) feathers.
C) teeth.
D) Three of the options listed are correct.
E) Two of the options listed are correct.

B

31) Why is the discovery of the fossil Archaeopteryx significant? It supports the
A) phylogenetic relatedness of birds and reptiles.
B) contention that birds are much older than we originally thought.
C) claim that some dinosaurs had feathers well before birds had evolved.
D) idea that the first birds were ratites.
E) hypothesis that the earliest birds were ectothermic.

A

32) During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?
1. amniotic egg
2. paired fins
3. jaws
4. swim bladder
5. four-chambered heart
A) 2, 3, 4, 1, 5
B) 3, 2, 4, 1, 5
C) 3, 2, 1, 4, 5
D) 2, 1, 4, 3, 5
E) 2, 4, 3, 1, 5

A

33) Among extant vertebrates, a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in
A) birds.
B) monotremes.
C) marsupials.
D) placentals.
E) Three of the options listed are correct.

E

34) Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?
A) Look for the presence of milk-producing glands.
B) Look for the mammalian characteristics of a four-chambered heart and a diaphragm.
C) Because mammals are eutherians, look for evidence of a placenta.
D) Use molecular analysis to look for the protein keratin.
E) Examine the teeth.

E

35) Which of the following represents the strongest evidence that two of the three middle ear bones of mammals are homologous to certain reptilian jawbones?
A) They are similar in size to the reptilian jawbones.
B) They are similar in shape to the reptilian jawbones.
C) The mammalian jaw has fewer bones than does the reptilian jaw.
D) These bones can be observed to move from the developing jaw to the developing middle ear in mammalian embryos.
E) Mammals can hear better than reptiles.

D

36) Female birds lay their eggs, thereby facilitating flight by reducing weight. Which "strategy" seems most likely for female bats to use to achieve the same goal?
A) lay shelled eggs
B) limit litters to a single embryo
C) refrain from flying throughout pregnancy (about 6 weeks long)
D) give birth to underdeveloped young, and subsequently carry them in a pouch that has teats
E) feed multiple embryos internally using placentas

B

37) In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?
A) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and mammals
B) amphibians, mammals, and reptiles
C) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and reptiles
D) reptiles and mammals
E) reptiles and amphibians

D

38) Their scales most closely resemble teeth in both structure and origin.
A) amphibians
B) nonbird reptiles
C) chondrichthyans
D) mammals
E) osteichthyans

C

39) Internal fertilization, leathery amniotic egg, and skin that resists drying are characteristics of
A) amphibians.
B) nonbird reptiles.
C) chondrichthyans.
D) mammals.
E) birds.

B

40) Which of the following are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates?
A) ray-finned fishes
B) birds
C) amphibians
D) nonbird reptiles
E) mammals

A

41) What is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes extant birds from other extant vertebrates?
A) endothermy
B) feathers
C) an amniotic egg
D) flight
E) a four-chambered heart

B

42) Arrange the following taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
1. apes
2. hominins
3. Homo
4 anthropoids
5. primates
A) 5, 1, 4, 2, 3
B) 5, 4, 1, 2, 3
C) 5, 4, 2, 1, 3
D) 5, 2, 1, 4, 3
E) 5, 2, 4, 1, 3

B

43) Which of these traits is most strongly associated with the adoption of bipedalism?
A) fingerprints
B) enhanced depth perception
C) shortened hind limbs
D) opposable big toe
E) repositioning of foramen magnum

E

44) Which of the following statements about human evolution is correct?
A) Modern humans are the only human species to have evolved on Earth.
B) Human ancestors were virtually identical to extant chimpanzees.
C) Human evolution has occurred within an unbranched lineage.
D) The upright posture and enlarged brain of humans evolved simultaneously.
E) Fossil evidence indicates that early anthropoids were arboreal and cat-sized.

E

45) Which of the following are considered apes?
A) lorises
B) New World monkeys
C) Old World monkeys
D) orangutans
E) tarsiers

D

46) Which of these species was the first to have been adapted for long-distance bipedalism?
A) Australopithecus garhi
B) H. erectus
C) H. ergaster
D) H. habilis
E) H. sapiens

C

47) Which of these species was apparently the first to craft stone tools?
A) Australopithecus garhi
B) H. erectus
C) H. ergaster
D) H. habilis
E) H. sapiens

A

48) Which of these species was the first to have some members migrate out of Africa?
A) Australopithecus garhi
B) H. erectus
C) H. ergaster
D) H. habilis
E) H. sapiens

B

49) Which of these species is currently thought to have coexisted (at the same time and places) with H. neanderthalensis?
A) H. erectus
B) H. ergaster
C) H. habilis
D) H. sapiens

D

50) Which of these species had members who moved out of Africa?
A) H. erectus
B) H. ergaster
C) H. habilis
D) H. sapiens
E) both H. sapiens and H. erectus

E

51) With which of the following statements would a biologist be most inclined to agree?
A) Humans and apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor.
B) Humans evolved directly from Old World monkeys.
C) Humans represent the pinnacle of evolution and have escaped from being affected by natural selection.
D) Humans evolved from chimpanzees.
E) Humans and apes are the result of disruptive selection in a species of chimpanzee.

A

52) Which of these statements about human evolution is correct?
A) The ancestors of Homo sapiens were chimpanzees.
B) Human evolution has proceeded in an orderly fashion from an ancestral anthropoid to Homo sapiens.
C) The evolution of upright posture and enlarged brain occurred simultaneously.
D) Different species of the genus Homo have coexisted at various times throughout hominin evolution.
E) Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that modern humans are genetically very similar to Neanderthals.

D

53) The oldest fossil remains of Homo sapiens found so far date from about
A) 6 million years ago.
B) 1.6 million years ago.
C) 195,000 years ago.
D) 60,000 years ago.
E) 16,000 years ago.

C

54) Which of the following statements is correct in regard to Homo erectus?
A) Their fossils are not limited to Africa.
B) On average, H. erectus had a smaller brain than H. habilis.
C) H. erectus had a level of sexual dimorphism less than that of modern humans.
D) H. erectus was not known to use tools.
E) H. erectus evolved before H. habilis.

A

55) Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have foramina magna centrally positioned in the base of the cranium?
A) hominoids
B) Homo
C) anthropoids
D) hominins
E) primates

D

56) Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fully opposable thumbs?
A) apes
B) Homo
C) anthropoids
D) hominins
E) primates

C

57) Which of the following is the most specific group that includes both the Old World monkeys and the New World monkeys?
A) apes
B) Homo
C) anthropoids
D) hominins
E) primates

C

58) At least one of these has been found in all species of eumetazoan animals studied thus far.
A) Hox
B) Dlx
C) Otx
D) FOXP2
E) more than one of these

A

59) Which of the following is a cluster of genes coding for transcription factors involved in the evolution of innovations in early vertebrate nervous systems and vertebrae?
A) Hox
B) Dlx
C) Otx
D) FOXP2
E) more than one of these

B

60) The presence of a swim bladder allows the typical ray-finned fish to stop swimming and still
A) effectively circulate its blood.
B) be highly maneuverable.
C) use its lateral line system.
D) use its swim bladder as a respiratory organ.
E) not sink.

E

61) Rank the following fish, from most to least, in terms of the amount of energy it must use to maintain its position (depth) in the water column over the long term.
1. physoclistus fish
2. physostomus fish
3. chondrichthyan fish
A) 1, 2, 3
B) 2, 3, 1
C) 2, 1, 3
D) 3, 1, 2
E) 3, 2, 1

E

62) If a physoclistus fish removes gas from its swim bladder, this fish's density cannot actually change until that gas arrives at the
A) mouth.
B) gills.
C) skin.
D) heart.
E) anus.

B

63) Which shark structure is most analogous to a swim bladder full of gas?
A) its lateral line system
B) its spiral valve
C) its liver
D) its dead-end nostrils
E) its gills

C

64) When a shark stops swimming, it does which of the following?
1. sinks
2. quickly dies
3. oxygenates its blood less effectively
A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) 3 only
D) 1 and 3
E) 1, 2, and 3

D

65) We should expect the inner wall of the swim bladder to be lined with tissue that is derived from
A) ectoderm.
B) endoderm.
C) mesoderm.
D) mesoglea.
E) neurectoderm.

B

66) Regarding its position in the water column, the same thing that happens to a shark when it stops swimming also happens to a
A) physostomus fish when it gulps air.
B) physoclistus fish when it moves gas from the blood into the water.
C) physoclistus fish when it moves gas from the swim bladder into the blood.
D) physoclistus fish when it moves gas from the blood into the swim bladder.

B

67) In coelacanths, a swim bladder is present, but the swim bladder is full of adipose tissue (fat), which is there on a fairly permanent basis. If such a swim bladder is used by coelacanths to affect buoyancy, then it does so in much the same way as does the
A) liver of a shark.
B) physoclistus swim bladder.
C) physostomus swim bladder.
D) lung of a lungfish.

A

69) If a ray-finned fish is to both hover (remain stationary) in the water column and ventilate its gills effectively, then what other structure besides its swim bladder will it use?
A) its heart
B) its pectoral fins
C) its lateral line system
D) its caudal (tail) fin
E) its opercula

E

70) Which graph below best represents the way that density changes over time in a physoclistus fish and in a physostomus fish, respectively?
A) A and B
B) B and A
C) B and C
D) C and B
E) D and B

D

71) At 5, 10, and 15 hours in the graph below, which of the following statements should be true?
A) This fish is in the process of adding gas to its swim bladder.
B) This fish is in the process of removing gas from its swim bladder.
C) This fish has a swim bladder that is relatively full of gas.
D) This fish has a swim bladder that contains relatively little gas.

D

72) Which number represents the birds?
A) 3
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8
E) 10, if it were at the end of a branch emerging from the dinosaurs

E

73) Which pair of numbers represents extinct reptiles that had returned to an aquatic life?
A) 1 and 2
B) 3 and 4
C) 5 and 7
D) 6 and 8
E) 7 and 9

A

74) If circle 3 includes all of the extant reptiles that are ectotherms, then what do circles 4 and 6 represent?
A) crocodiles and birds
B) turtles and birds
C) ratites and carinates
D) mammals and birds
E) There is not enough information to say.

E

75) Which number represents the closest relative to the parareptiles?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 9
E) It is not possible to say.

D

76) Which of these numbers represents ectotherms that were able to fly?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 7
D) 8
E) It is not possible to say.

C

77) Whose DNA would have had the most sequence homologies with amphibian DNA?
A) 5
B) 6
C) 7
D) 8
E) 9

E

78) In order for the four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals to be homologous, which other organisms would have to have had four-chambered hearts?
A) dinosaurs
B) thecodonts
C) plesiosaurs
D) synapsids
E) stem reptiles

E

79) The organisms represented by number 8 are
A) birds.
B) mammals.
C) nonbird, terrestrial reptiles.
D) aquatic reptiles.
E) all mammals except humans.

B

80) Which feature excludes the organism from possibly being a leech?
A) elongated shape
B) lack of scales
C) lack of external segmentation
D) round mouth
E) anterior sucker

C

81) Terry detaches the snakelike organism from the fish and uses a knife to cut off its head. In doing so, its brain slides out onto the deck of the boat. Terry peers into the cut end of the head and notices that the brain had lain in a sort of panlike structure that only partially surrounded the brain. What is the structure Terry is observing, and what is it made of?
A) skull, made of bone
B) cranium, made of bone
C) cranium, made of cartilage
D) vertebral column, made of bone
E) vertebral column, made of cartilage

C

82) Terry takes the body of the snakelike organism and slices it open along its dorsal side. If it is a hagfish, what should Terry see?
A) a well-developed series of bony vertebrae surrounding the spinal cord
B) a well-developed series of cartilaginous vertebrae surrounding the spinal cord
C) a tube of cartilage (surrounding the notochord) with dorsal projections on both sides of the spinal cord
D) a notochord, located underneath the spinal cord

D

83) The snakelike organism turned out to be a hagfish. Consequently, why should Terry throw the fish to which the hagfish was attached overboard, rather than having it for dinner?
A) It has mucus on its skin.
B) If it had an ectoparasite, then it must also have endoparasites.
C) The bite of the hagfish introduces paralytic neurotoxins, which Terry wants to avoid.
D) It was already sick or dying; otherwise, the hagfish would probably not have attacked it.

D

84) Having caught and handled a hagfish, what will Terry's shipmates most likely require Terry to do before returning to further fishing?
A) Wash his hands and then don gloves to prevent the spread of harmful microbes that live only on hagfish skin.
B) Clean the bucketsful of hagfish slime from the deck of the boat.
C) Dispose of the fishing tackle that had been poisoned by coming into contact with the hagfish.
D) Cut up the remaining hagfish and share pieces of this highly sought-after baitfish.

B

85) Terry saved some of the tooth-like objects within the hagfish's round mouth to analyze their composition in his mentor's biochemistry research lab. Terry will find that they are composed of the same protein found in tetrapod
A) skin.
B) teeth.
C) bones.
D) cartilage.
E) muscles.

A

86) The class decided to humanely euthanize the organism and subsequently dissect it. Having decided that it was probably not a reptile, two of their original hypotheses regarding its identity remained. Which of the following, if observed, should help them arrive at a conclusive answer?
A) presence of a closed circulatory system
B) presence of moist, highly vascularized skin
C) presence of lungs
D) presence of a nerve cord
E) presence of a digestive system with two openings

C

87) The organism was found to have two lungs, but the left lung was much smaller than the right lung. Kelly added that the herpetology instructor had said that in most snakes, the same condition exists. If the size difference between the lungs in this organism is not a shared ancestral characteristic with its occurrence in snakes, then its existence in this organism is explained as which of the following?
1. a result of convergent evolution
2. an example of homologous structures
3. a similar adaptation to a shared lifestyle or body plan
4. a result of having identical Hox genes
5. a homoplasy
A) 3 only
B) 1 and 5
C) 1, 3, and 5
D) 2, 3, and 5
E) 3, 4, and 5

C

88) The adaptation of the body shape of snakes has resulted in one of their lungs becoming vestigial. Another adaptation (to a fossorial lifestyle) is snakes' absence of limbs. If the "mystery organism" has also become adapted to a fossorial lifestyle, though its ancestors moved about on the surface, then which structures should one expect to find upon dissecting the organism?
1. reduced or absent pelvic and/or pectoral girdles
2. metanephridia
3. hydrostatic skeleton
A) 1 only
B) 1 and 2
C) 1 and 3
D) 2 and 3
E) 1, 2, and 3

A

89) Which one of these, if found, should clear up any remaining doubt as to the identity of the organism?
A) vestigial pelvic girdle
B) blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood from both the skin and the functional lung to the heart
C) closed circulatory system
D) ability to produce toxins from glands located on the skin, or that empty into the mouth
E) two-chambered heart

B

90) If the inner lining of the air sacs is neither thin nor highly vascularized, then what can be inferred about the air sacs?
A) They must not belong to the respiratory system.
B) They cannot be derived from endoderm.
C) They cannot be sites of gas exchange between air and blood.
D) They must obtain nutrition from some source other than the bloodstream.
E) They cannot effectively moisturize the air before it reaches the lungs.

C

91) Some bird bones are hollow rather than honeycombed. The hollow bones mostly contain air sacs. The replacement of bone marrow with air sacs is properly understood as an adaptation to
A) reduce the weight of the bird.
B) facilitate flight.
C) eliminate the functions that marrow performs.
D) All three of the options listed are correct.
E) Only two of the options listed are correct.

E

92) Birds generate a lot of heat, especially during flight. Yet the adipose tissue under their skin and the feathers atop their skin make it difficult to eliminate excess heat across the skin. Which of the following alternatives can absorb body heat and eliminate it from the bird most effectively?
A) air in the air sacs
B) lymph in the lymphatic vessels
C) blood in the vessels
D) blood in the heart
E) urine in the bladder

A

93) If Archaeopteryx had air sacs, then which of its features would have had the opposite effect on enabling Archaeopteryx to fly long distances from that provided by air sacs?
1. teeth
2. contour feathers
3. wing claws
4. long tail with many vertebrae
A) 1 and 2
B) 1 and 4
C) 2 and 3
D) 1, 2, and 4
E) 1, 3, and 4

E

94) Which feature of some carinates has the same effect on weight as the presence of air sacs?
A) presence of a large, heavily keratinized beak
B) absence of a urinary bladder
C) presence of a carina (keel)
D) number of chambers in the heart
E) presence of large pectoral muscles

B

95) The movement of air along parabronchi is most similar to the movement of
A) air in the lungs of other amniotes.
B) food/waste in a gastrovascular cavity.
C) food/waste in a digestive system with separate mouth and anus.
D) the frog tongue during feeding.
E) air in lungs of terrestrial amphibians.

C

96) Which type of bird is most likely to need air sacs to reduce its weight?
A) birds that migrate long distances
B) waterfowl that float on water, but do not dive
C) birds that spend much of their time underwater
D) ratites

A

97) The one-way flow of air along parabronchi makes what type of exchange mechanism possible, at least theoretically?
A) the same as that occurring in fish gills
B) the same as that occurring in insect tracheae
C) the same as that occurring in mammalian lungs
D) the same as that occurring in echinoderm skin gills

A

98) The Gd mat on the fur of the bats should be expected to consist of
A) hyphae.
B) haustoria.
C) arbuscules.
D) yeasts.
E) basidia.

A

99) Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the growth of this fungus?
A) southward migration during the winter
B) communal roosting in tightly packed clusters during hibernation
C) reliance on fat reserves for calories during hibernation
D) much-reduced metabolic rate during hibernation
E) hibernating in parts of the cave that are farthest away from the mouth of the cave

D

100) Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of abnormal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the growth of this fungus?
A) shifting roosting location to the mouth of the cave during winter
B) searching for food during winter
C) searching for food during the day
D) All three of the options listed are correct.
E) Only two of the options listed are correct.

D

101) Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the spread of this fungus to uninfected bats?
A) southward migration during the winter
B) communal roosting in tightly packed clusters during hibernation
C) reliance on fat reserves for calories during hibernation
D) much-reduced metabolic rate during hibernation
E) hibernating in parts of the cave that are farthest away from the mouth of the cave

B

102) Almost all North American bats are insectivores, with one notable exception being a bat that bites and then laps blood from the wound. The blood-lapping bats are limited to the warm, southwestern United States. Thus, if WNS continues to decimate bat populations in the United States and Canada, then we can expect
A) livestock bites from vampire bats to increase in frequency.
B) plant diseases that are spread by insects to increase in frequency.
C) plant diseases directly caused by insect feeding to increase in frequency.
D) human and livestock diseases that are spread by insects to increase in frequency.
E) all but one of these are correct.

E

103) Which feature(s) allow(s) hibernating bats to conserve heat without using calories?
A) shivering
B) fur
C) fat layer below the skin
D) All three of the options listed are correct.
E) Two of the options listed are correct.

E

104) Vertebrates and tunicates share
A) jaws adapted for feeding.
B) a high degree of cephalization.
C) the formation of structures from the neural crest.
D) an endoskeleton that includes a skull.
E) a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.

E

105) Some animals that lived 530 million years ago resembled lancelets but had a brain and a skull. These animals may represent
A) the first chordates.
B) a "missing link" between urochordates and cephalochordates.
C) early craniates.
D) marsupials.
E) nontetrapod gnathostomes.

C

106) Which of the following could be considered the most recent common ancestor of living tetrapods?
A) a sturdy-finned, shallow-water lobe-fin whose appendages had skeletal supports similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates
B) an armored, jawed placoderm with two pairs of appendages
C) an early ray-finned fish that developed bony skeletal supports in its paired fins
D) a salamander that had legs supported by a bony skeleton but moved with the side-to-side bending typical of fishes
E) an early terrestrial caecilian whose legless condition had evolved secondarily

A

107) Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
A) lack nipples.
B) have some embryonic development outside the uterus.
C) lay eggs.
D) are found in Australia and Africa.
E) include only insectivores and herbivores.

B

108) Which clade does not include humans?
A) synapsids
B) lobe-fins
C) diapsids
D) craniates
E) osteichthyans

C

109) As hominins diverged from other primates, which of the following appeared first?
A) reduced jawbones
B) language
C) bipedal locomotion
D) the making of stone tools
E) an enlarged brain

C

68) Which graph properly depicts the relationship between the amount of gas in the swim bladder and the density of the fish?

C

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Ch34

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1) Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as
A) the digestive system’s opening.
B) suspension-feeding devices.
C) components of the jaw.
D) gill slits for respiration.
E) portions of the inner ear.

B

2) Which of the following statements would be least acceptable to most zoologists?
A) The extant lancelets are contemporaries, not ancestors, of vertebrates.
B) The first fossils resembling lancelets appeared in the fossil record around 530 million years ago.
C) Recent work in molecular systematics supports the hypothesis that lancelets are the most recent common ancestor of all vertebrates.
D) The extant lancelets are the immediate ancestors of the fishes.
E) Lancelets display the same method of swimming as do fishes.

D

3) Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?
A) lancelets
B) adult tunicates
C) amphibians
D) reptiles
E) chondrichthyans

A

4) A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics: external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?
A) legs
B) no jaws
C) an amniotic egg
D) endothermy

B

5) How many of the following statements about craniates is (are) correct?
1. Craniates are more highly cephalized than are noncraniates.
2. Craniates’ genomic evolution includes duplication of clusters of genes that code for transcription factors.
3. The craniate clade is synonymous with the vertebrate clade.
4. Pharyngeal slits that play important roles in gas exchange originated in craniates.
5. The two-chambered heart originated with the early craniates.
A) one of these
B) two of these
C) three of these
D) four of these
E) five of these

D

6) What do all craniates have that earlier chordates did not have?
A) brain
B) vertebrae
C) cartilaginous pipe surrounding notochord
D) partial or complete skull
E) bone

D

7) Lampreys differ from hagfishes in
A) lacking jaws.
B) having a cranium.
C) having pharyngeal clefts that develop into pharyngeal slits.
D) having a notochord throughout life.
E) having a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage.

E

8) The feeding mode of the extinct conodonts was
A) herbivory.
B) suspension feeding.
C) predation.
D) filter feeding.
E) absorptive feeding.

C

9) The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?
A) reproduction
B) feeding
C) locomotion
D) defense
E) respiration

B

10) A team of researchers has developed a poison that has proven effective against lamprey larvae in freshwater cultures. The poison is ingested and causes paralysis by detaching segmental muscles from the skeletal elements. The team wants to test the poison’s effectiveness in streams feeding Lake Michigan, but one critic worries about potential effects on lancelets, which are similar to lampreys in many ways. Why is this concern misplaced?
A) A chemical poisonous to lampreys could not also be toxic to organisms as ancestral as lancelets.
B) Lamprey larvae and lancelets have very different feeding mechanisms.
C) Lancelets do not have segmental muscles.
D) Lancelets live only in saltwater environments.
E) Lancelets and lamprey larvae eat different kinds of food.

D

11) The lamprey species whose larvae live in freshwater streams, but whose adults live most of their lives in seawater, are similar in this respect to certain species of
A) chondrichthyans.
B) actinopterygians.
C) lungfishes.
D) coelacanths.
E) hagfishes.

B

12) Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?
A) lampreys
B) chondrichthyans
C) ray-finned fishes
D) lungfishes
E) placoderms

B

13) Which of these might have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans?
A) a mineralized, bony skeleton
B) opercula
C) bony fin rays
D) a spiral valve intestine
E) a swim bladder

A

14) To which of the following are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?
A) osteichthyan scales
B) reptilian scales
C) mammalian scales
D) bird scales
E) chondrichthyan teeth

E

15) Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?
A) The skin is typically covered by flattened bony scales.
B) They are equally able to exchange gases with the environment while stationary.
C) They are highly maneuverable due to their flexibility.
D) They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.
E) A swim bladder helps control buoyancy.

D

16) Which group’s members have had both lungs and gills during their adult lives?
A) sharks, skates, and rays
B) lungfishes
C) lancelets
D) amphibians
E) ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs

B

17) There is evidence that ray-finned fishes evolved
A) in response to a crisis that wiped out the chondrichthyans.
B) directly from lampreys and hagfish.
C) early in the Cambrian period.
D) directly from lancelets.
E) the swim bladder from a lung.

E

18) The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes
A) was probably modified from simple lungs of chondrichthyans.
B) developed into lungs in saltwater fishes.
C) first appeared in sharks.
D) provides for regulation of buoyancy.
E) Two of the options listed are correct.

D

19) Which of the following belongs to the lobe-fin clade?
A) chondrichthyans
B) ray-finned fishes
C) lampreys
D) hagfishes
E) tetrapods

E

20) Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
1. lobe-fins
2. amphibians
3. gnathostomes
4. osteichthyans
5. tetrapods
A) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
B) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1
C) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1
D) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2
E) 3, 4, 5, 1, 2

D

21) A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was
A) the appearance of jaws.
B) the appearance of bony vertebrae.
C) feet with digits.
D) the mineralization of the endoskeleton.
E) the amniotic egg.

C

22) What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?
A) They should show evidence of internal fertilization.
B) They should show evidence of having produced shelled eggs.
C) They should indicate limited adaptation to life on land.
D) They should be transitional forms with the fossils of chondrichthyans that lived at the same time.
E) They should feature the earliest indications of the appearance of jaws.

C

23) Which of these are amniotes?
A) amphibians
B) fishes
C) egg-laying mammals
D) placental mammals
E) More than one of these is correct.

E

24) Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?
A) It has a shell that increases gas exchange.
B) It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
C) It prolongs embryonic development.
D) It provides insulation to conserve heat.
E) It permits internal fertilization to be replaced by external fertilization.

B

25) Which era is known as the "age of reptiles"?
A) Cenozoic
B) Mesozoic
C) Paleozoic
D) Devonian
E) Cambrian

B

26) Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?
A) the shelled, amniotic egg
B) the ability to maintain a constant body temperature
C) two pairs of appendages
D) bony scales
E) a four-chambered heart

A

27) Which of the following is characteristic of most extant reptiles and most extant mammals?
A) ectothermy
B) diaphragm
C) shelled eggs
D) keratinized skin
E) conical teeth that are relatively uniform in size

D

28) At the end of which era did most dinosaurs and pterosaurs become extinct?
A) Cretaceous
B) Permian
C) Devonian
D) Ordovician
E) Triassic

A

29) Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?
A) lizards
B) crocodiles
C) snakes
D) birds
E) tuataras

D

30) Examination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reveals that, in common with extant birds, it had
A) a long tail containing vertebrae.
B) feathers.
C) teeth.
D) Three of the options listed are correct.
E) Two of the options listed are correct.

B

31) Why is the discovery of the fossil Archaeopteryx significant? It supports the
A) phylogenetic relatedness of birds and reptiles.
B) contention that birds are much older than we originally thought.
C) claim that some dinosaurs had feathers well before birds had evolved.
D) idea that the first birds were ratites.
E) hypothesis that the earliest birds were ectothermic.

A

32) During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?
1. amniotic egg
2. paired fins
3. jaws
4. swim bladder
5. four-chambered heart
A) 2, 3, 4, 1, 5
B) 3, 2, 4, 1, 5
C) 3, 2, 1, 4, 5
D) 2, 1, 4, 3, 5
E) 2, 4, 3, 1, 5

A

33) Among extant vertebrates, a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in
A) birds.
B) monotremes.
C) marsupials.
D) placentals.
E) Three of the options listed are correct.

E

34) Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?
A) Look for the presence of milk-producing glands.
B) Look for the mammalian characteristics of a four-chambered heart and a diaphragm.
C) Because mammals are eutherians, look for evidence of a placenta.
D) Use molecular analysis to look for the protein keratin.
E) Examine the teeth.

E

35) Which of the following represents the strongest evidence that two of the three middle ear bones of mammals are homologous to certain reptilian jawbones?
A) They are similar in size to the reptilian jawbones.
B) They are similar in shape to the reptilian jawbones.
C) The mammalian jaw has fewer bones than does the reptilian jaw.
D) These bones can be observed to move from the developing jaw to the developing middle ear in mammalian embryos.
E) Mammals can hear better than reptiles.

D

36) Female birds lay their eggs, thereby facilitating flight by reducing weight. Which "strategy" seems most likely for female bats to use to achieve the same goal?
A) lay shelled eggs
B) limit litters to a single embryo
C) refrain from flying throughout pregnancy (about 6 weeks long)
D) give birth to underdeveloped young, and subsequently carry them in a pouch that has teats
E) feed multiple embryos internally using placentas

B

37) In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?
A) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and mammals
B) amphibians, mammals, and reptiles
C) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and reptiles
D) reptiles and mammals
E) reptiles and amphibians

D

38) Their scales most closely resemble teeth in both structure and origin.
A) amphibians
B) nonbird reptiles
C) chondrichthyans
D) mammals
E) osteichthyans

C

39) Internal fertilization, leathery amniotic egg, and skin that resists drying are characteristics of
A) amphibians.
B) nonbird reptiles.
C) chondrichthyans.
D) mammals.
E) birds.

B

40) Which of the following are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates?
A) ray-finned fishes
B) birds
C) amphibians
D) nonbird reptiles
E) mammals

A

41) What is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes extant birds from other extant vertebrates?
A) endothermy
B) feathers
C) an amniotic egg
D) flight
E) a four-chambered heart

B

42) Arrange the following taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
1. apes
2. hominins
3. Homo
4 anthropoids
5. primates
A) 5, 1, 4, 2, 3
B) 5, 4, 1, 2, 3
C) 5, 4, 2, 1, 3
D) 5, 2, 1, 4, 3
E) 5, 2, 4, 1, 3

B

43) Which of these traits is most strongly associated with the adoption of bipedalism?
A) fingerprints
B) enhanced depth perception
C) shortened hind limbs
D) opposable big toe
E) repositioning of foramen magnum

E

44) Which of the following statements about human evolution is correct?
A) Modern humans are the only human species to have evolved on Earth.
B) Human ancestors were virtually identical to extant chimpanzees.
C) Human evolution has occurred within an unbranched lineage.
D) The upright posture and enlarged brain of humans evolved simultaneously.
E) Fossil evidence indicates that early anthropoids were arboreal and cat-sized.

E

45) Which of the following are considered apes?
A) lorises
B) New World monkeys
C) Old World monkeys
D) orangutans
E) tarsiers

D

46) Which of these species was the first to have been adapted for long-distance bipedalism?
A) Australopithecus garhi
B) H. erectus
C) H. ergaster
D) H. habilis
E) H. sapiens

C

47) Which of these species was apparently the first to craft stone tools?
A) Australopithecus garhi
B) H. erectus
C) H. ergaster
D) H. habilis
E) H. sapiens

A

48) Which of these species was the first to have some members migrate out of Africa?
A) Australopithecus garhi
B) H. erectus
C) H. ergaster
D) H. habilis
E) H. sapiens

B

49) Which of these species is currently thought to have coexisted (at the same time and places) with H. neanderthalensis?
A) H. erectus
B) H. ergaster
C) H. habilis
D) H. sapiens

D

50) Which of these species had members who moved out of Africa?
A) H. erectus
B) H. ergaster
C) H. habilis
D) H. sapiens
E) both H. sapiens and H. erectus

E

51) With which of the following statements would a biologist be most inclined to agree?
A) Humans and apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor.
B) Humans evolved directly from Old World monkeys.
C) Humans represent the pinnacle of evolution and have escaped from being affected by natural selection.
D) Humans evolved from chimpanzees.
E) Humans and apes are the result of disruptive selection in a species of chimpanzee.

A

52) Which of these statements about human evolution is correct?
A) The ancestors of Homo sapiens were chimpanzees.
B) Human evolution has proceeded in an orderly fashion from an ancestral anthropoid to Homo sapiens.
C) The evolution of upright posture and enlarged brain occurred simultaneously.
D) Different species of the genus Homo have coexisted at various times throughout hominin evolution.
E) Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that modern humans are genetically very similar to Neanderthals.

D

53) The oldest fossil remains of Homo sapiens found so far date from about
A) 6 million years ago.
B) 1.6 million years ago.
C) 195,000 years ago.
D) 60,000 years ago.
E) 16,000 years ago.

C

54) Which of the following statements is correct in regard to Homo erectus?
A) Their fossils are not limited to Africa.
B) On average, H. erectus had a smaller brain than H. habilis.
C) H. erectus had a level of sexual dimorphism less than that of modern humans.
D) H. erectus was not known to use tools.
E) H. erectus evolved before H. habilis.

A

55) Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have foramina magna centrally positioned in the base of the cranium?
A) hominoids
B) Homo
C) anthropoids
D) hominins
E) primates

D

56) Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fully opposable thumbs?
A) apes
B) Homo
C) anthropoids
D) hominins
E) primates

C

57) Which of the following is the most specific group that includes both the Old World monkeys and the New World monkeys?
A) apes
B) Homo
C) anthropoids
D) hominins
E) primates

C

58) At least one of these has been found in all species of eumetazoan animals studied thus far.
A) Hox
B) Dlx
C) Otx
D) FOXP2
E) more than one of these

A

59) Which of the following is a cluster of genes coding for transcription factors involved in the evolution of innovations in early vertebrate nervous systems and vertebrae?
A) Hox
B) Dlx
C) Otx
D) FOXP2
E) more than one of these

B

60) The presence of a swim bladder allows the typical ray-finned fish to stop swimming and still
A) effectively circulate its blood.
B) be highly maneuverable.
C) use its lateral line system.
D) use its swim bladder as a respiratory organ.
E) not sink.

E

61) Rank the following fish, from most to least, in terms of the amount of energy it must use to maintain its position (depth) in the water column over the long term.
1. physoclistus fish
2. physostomus fish
3. chondrichthyan fish
A) 1, 2, 3
B) 2, 3, 1
C) 2, 1, 3
D) 3, 1, 2
E) 3, 2, 1

E

62) If a physoclistus fish removes gas from its swim bladder, this fish’s density cannot actually change until that gas arrives at the
A) mouth.
B) gills.
C) skin.
D) heart.
E) anus.

B

63) Which shark structure is most analogous to a swim bladder full of gas?
A) its lateral line system
B) its spiral valve
C) its liver
D) its dead-end nostrils
E) its gills

C

64) When a shark stops swimming, it does which of the following?
1. sinks
2. quickly dies
3. oxygenates its blood less effectively
A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) 3 only
D) 1 and 3
E) 1, 2, and 3

D

65) We should expect the inner wall of the swim bladder to be lined with tissue that is derived from
A) ectoderm.
B) endoderm.
C) mesoderm.
D) mesoglea.
E) neurectoderm.

B

66) Regarding its position in the water column, the same thing that happens to a shark when it stops swimming also happens to a
A) physostomus fish when it gulps air.
B) physoclistus fish when it moves gas from the blood into the water.
C) physoclistus fish when it moves gas from the swim bladder into the blood.
D) physoclistus fish when it moves gas from the blood into the swim bladder.

B

67) In coelacanths, a swim bladder is present, but the swim bladder is full of adipose tissue (fat), which is there on a fairly permanent basis. If such a swim bladder is used by coelacanths to affect buoyancy, then it does so in much the same way as does the
A) liver of a shark.
B) physoclistus swim bladder.
C) physostomus swim bladder.
D) lung of a lungfish.

A

69) If a ray-finned fish is to both hover (remain stationary) in the water column and ventilate its gills effectively, then what other structure besides its swim bladder will it use?
A) its heart
B) its pectoral fins
C) its lateral line system
D) its caudal (tail) fin
E) its opercula

E

70) Which graph below best represents the way that density changes over time in a physoclistus fish and in a physostomus fish, respectively?
A) A and B
B) B and A
C) B and C
D) C and B
E) D and B

D

71) At 5, 10, and 15 hours in the graph below, which of the following statements should be true?
A) This fish is in the process of adding gas to its swim bladder.
B) This fish is in the process of removing gas from its swim bladder.
C) This fish has a swim bladder that is relatively full of gas.
D) This fish has a swim bladder that contains relatively little gas.

D

72) Which number represents the birds?
A) 3
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8
E) 10, if it were at the end of a branch emerging from the dinosaurs

E

73) Which pair of numbers represents extinct reptiles that had returned to an aquatic life?
A) 1 and 2
B) 3 and 4
C) 5 and 7
D) 6 and 8
E) 7 and 9

A

74) If circle 3 includes all of the extant reptiles that are ectotherms, then what do circles 4 and 6 represent?
A) crocodiles and birds
B) turtles and birds
C) ratites and carinates
D) mammals and birds
E) There is not enough information to say.

E

75) Which number represents the closest relative to the parareptiles?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 9
E) It is not possible to say.

D

76) Which of these numbers represents ectotherms that were able to fly?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 7
D) 8
E) It is not possible to say.

C

77) Whose DNA would have had the most sequence homologies with amphibian DNA?
A) 5
B) 6
C) 7
D) 8
E) 9

E

78) In order for the four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals to be homologous, which other organisms would have to have had four-chambered hearts?
A) dinosaurs
B) thecodonts
C) plesiosaurs
D) synapsids
E) stem reptiles

E

79) The organisms represented by number 8 are
A) birds.
B) mammals.
C) nonbird, terrestrial reptiles.
D) aquatic reptiles.
E) all mammals except humans.

B

80) Which feature excludes the organism from possibly being a leech?
A) elongated shape
B) lack of scales
C) lack of external segmentation
D) round mouth
E) anterior sucker

C

81) Terry detaches the snakelike organism from the fish and uses a knife to cut off its head. In doing so, its brain slides out onto the deck of the boat. Terry peers into the cut end of the head and notices that the brain had lain in a sort of panlike structure that only partially surrounded the brain. What is the structure Terry is observing, and what is it made of?
A) skull, made of bone
B) cranium, made of bone
C) cranium, made of cartilage
D) vertebral column, made of bone
E) vertebral column, made of cartilage

C

82) Terry takes the body of the snakelike organism and slices it open along its dorsal side. If it is a hagfish, what should Terry see?
A) a well-developed series of bony vertebrae surrounding the spinal cord
B) a well-developed series of cartilaginous vertebrae surrounding the spinal cord
C) a tube of cartilage (surrounding the notochord) with dorsal projections on both sides of the spinal cord
D) a notochord, located underneath the spinal cord

D

83) The snakelike organism turned out to be a hagfish. Consequently, why should Terry throw the fish to which the hagfish was attached overboard, rather than having it for dinner?
A) It has mucus on its skin.
B) If it had an ectoparasite, then it must also have endoparasites.
C) The bite of the hagfish introduces paralytic neurotoxins, which Terry wants to avoid.
D) It was already sick or dying; otherwise, the hagfish would probably not have attacked it.

D

84) Having caught and handled a hagfish, what will Terry’s shipmates most likely require Terry to do before returning to further fishing?
A) Wash his hands and then don gloves to prevent the spread of harmful microbes that live only on hagfish skin.
B) Clean the bucketsful of hagfish slime from the deck of the boat.
C) Dispose of the fishing tackle that had been poisoned by coming into contact with the hagfish.
D) Cut up the remaining hagfish and share pieces of this highly sought-after baitfish.

B

85) Terry saved some of the tooth-like objects within the hagfish’s round mouth to analyze their composition in his mentor’s biochemistry research lab. Terry will find that they are composed of the same protein found in tetrapod
A) skin.
B) teeth.
C) bones.
D) cartilage.
E) muscles.

A

86) The class decided to humanely euthanize the organism and subsequently dissect it. Having decided that it was probably not a reptile, two of their original hypotheses regarding its identity remained. Which of the following, if observed, should help them arrive at a conclusive answer?
A) presence of a closed circulatory system
B) presence of moist, highly vascularized skin
C) presence of lungs
D) presence of a nerve cord
E) presence of a digestive system with two openings

C

87) The organism was found to have two lungs, but the left lung was much smaller than the right lung. Kelly added that the herpetology instructor had said that in most snakes, the same condition exists. If the size difference between the lungs in this organism is not a shared ancestral characteristic with its occurrence in snakes, then its existence in this organism is explained as which of the following?
1. a result of convergent evolution
2. an example of homologous structures
3. a similar adaptation to a shared lifestyle or body plan
4. a result of having identical Hox genes
5. a homoplasy
A) 3 only
B) 1 and 5
C) 1, 3, and 5
D) 2, 3, and 5
E) 3, 4, and 5

C

88) The adaptation of the body shape of snakes has resulted in one of their lungs becoming vestigial. Another adaptation (to a fossorial lifestyle) is snakes’ absence of limbs. If the "mystery organism" has also become adapted to a fossorial lifestyle, though its ancestors moved about on the surface, then which structures should one expect to find upon dissecting the organism?
1. reduced or absent pelvic and/or pectoral girdles
2. metanephridia
3. hydrostatic skeleton
A) 1 only
B) 1 and 2
C) 1 and 3
D) 2 and 3
E) 1, 2, and 3

A

89) Which one of these, if found, should clear up any remaining doubt as to the identity of the organism?
A) vestigial pelvic girdle
B) blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood from both the skin and the functional lung to the heart
C) closed circulatory system
D) ability to produce toxins from glands located on the skin, or that empty into the mouth
E) two-chambered heart

B

90) If the inner lining of the air sacs is neither thin nor highly vascularized, then what can be inferred about the air sacs?
A) They must not belong to the respiratory system.
B) They cannot be derived from endoderm.
C) They cannot be sites of gas exchange between air and blood.
D) They must obtain nutrition from some source other than the bloodstream.
E) They cannot effectively moisturize the air before it reaches the lungs.

C

91) Some bird bones are hollow rather than honeycombed. The hollow bones mostly contain air sacs. The replacement of bone marrow with air sacs is properly understood as an adaptation to
A) reduce the weight of the bird.
B) facilitate flight.
C) eliminate the functions that marrow performs.
D) All three of the options listed are correct.
E) Only two of the options listed are correct.

E

92) Birds generate a lot of heat, especially during flight. Yet the adipose tissue under their skin and the feathers atop their skin make it difficult to eliminate excess heat across the skin. Which of the following alternatives can absorb body heat and eliminate it from the bird most effectively?
A) air in the air sacs
B) lymph in the lymphatic vessels
C) blood in the vessels
D) blood in the heart
E) urine in the bladder

A

93) If Archaeopteryx had air sacs, then which of its features would have had the opposite effect on enabling Archaeopteryx to fly long distances from that provided by air sacs?
1. teeth
2. contour feathers
3. wing claws
4. long tail with many vertebrae
A) 1 and 2
B) 1 and 4
C) 2 and 3
D) 1, 2, and 4
E) 1, 3, and 4

E

94) Which feature of some carinates has the same effect on weight as the presence of air sacs?
A) presence of a large, heavily keratinized beak
B) absence of a urinary bladder
C) presence of a carina (keel)
D) number of chambers in the heart
E) presence of large pectoral muscles

B

95) The movement of air along parabronchi is most similar to the movement of
A) air in the lungs of other amniotes.
B) food/waste in a gastrovascular cavity.
C) food/waste in a digestive system with separate mouth and anus.
D) the frog tongue during feeding.
E) air in lungs of terrestrial amphibians.

C

96) Which type of bird is most likely to need air sacs to reduce its weight?
A) birds that migrate long distances
B) waterfowl that float on water, but do not dive
C) birds that spend much of their time underwater
D) ratites

A

97) The one-way flow of air along parabronchi makes what type of exchange mechanism possible, at least theoretically?
A) the same as that occurring in fish gills
B) the same as that occurring in insect tracheae
C) the same as that occurring in mammalian lungs
D) the same as that occurring in echinoderm skin gills

A

98) The Gd mat on the fur of the bats should be expected to consist of
A) hyphae.
B) haustoria.
C) arbuscules.
D) yeasts.
E) basidia.

A

99) Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the growth of this fungus?
A) southward migration during the winter
B) communal roosting in tightly packed clusters during hibernation
C) reliance on fat reserves for calories during hibernation
D) much-reduced metabolic rate during hibernation
E) hibernating in parts of the cave that are farthest away from the mouth of the cave

D

100) Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of abnormal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the growth of this fungus?
A) shifting roosting location to the mouth of the cave during winter
B) searching for food during winter
C) searching for food during the day
D) All three of the options listed are correct.
E) Only two of the options listed are correct.

D

101) Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the spread of this fungus to uninfected bats?
A) southward migration during the winter
B) communal roosting in tightly packed clusters during hibernation
C) reliance on fat reserves for calories during hibernation
D) much-reduced metabolic rate during hibernation
E) hibernating in parts of the cave that are farthest away from the mouth of the cave

B

102) Almost all North American bats are insectivores, with one notable exception being a bat that bites and then laps blood from the wound. The blood-lapping bats are limited to the warm, southwestern United States. Thus, if WNS continues to decimate bat populations in the United States and Canada, then we can expect
A) livestock bites from vampire bats to increase in frequency.
B) plant diseases that are spread by insects to increase in frequency.
C) plant diseases directly caused by insect feeding to increase in frequency.
D) human and livestock diseases that are spread by insects to increase in frequency.
E) all but one of these are correct.

E

103) Which feature(s) allow(s) hibernating bats to conserve heat without using calories?
A) shivering
B) fur
C) fat layer below the skin
D) All three of the options listed are correct.
E) Two of the options listed are correct.

E

104) Vertebrates and tunicates share
A) jaws adapted for feeding.
B) a high degree of cephalization.
C) the formation of structures from the neural crest.
D) an endoskeleton that includes a skull.
E) a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.

E

105) Some animals that lived 530 million years ago resembled lancelets but had a brain and a skull. These animals may represent
A) the first chordates.
B) a "missing link" between urochordates and cephalochordates.
C) early craniates.
D) marsupials.
E) nontetrapod gnathostomes.

C

106) Which of the following could be considered the most recent common ancestor of living tetrapods?
A) a sturdy-finned, shallow-water lobe-fin whose appendages had skeletal supports similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates
B) an armored, jawed placoderm with two pairs of appendages
C) an early ray-finned fish that developed bony skeletal supports in its paired fins
D) a salamander that had legs supported by a bony skeleton but moved with the side-to-side bending typical of fishes
E) an early terrestrial caecilian whose legless condition had evolved secondarily

A

107) Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
A) lack nipples.
B) have some embryonic development outside the uterus.
C) lay eggs.
D) are found in Australia and Africa.
E) include only insectivores and herbivores.

B

108) Which clade does not include humans?
A) synapsids
B) lobe-fins
C) diapsids
D) craniates
E) osteichthyans

C

109) As hominins diverged from other primates, which of the following appeared first?
A) reduced jawbones
B) language
C) bipedal locomotion
D) the making of stone tools
E) an enlarged brain

C

68) Which graph properly depicts the relationship between the amount of gas in the swim bladder and the density of the fish?

C

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