CH16

Defined broadly, religion is:

a set of shared stories, beliefs, and practices about sacred things that guide beliefs and behaviors.

Weber's idea that Protestantism was the most important driving force behind the spread of capitalism was contested by Daniel Chirot (1985), who said it wasn't the development of Protestantism that influenced the spread of capitalism but rather the major impetus was:

geography.

Secularization is:

the transformation of a society away from religion and toward a separation of religious and social institutions such as politics, the economy, and the family.

Which of the following is a negative social function of religion?

Religion can justify unequal and unfair differences between groups in society.

In the 1960s, Peter Berger wrote that the world was becoming more secular. Recently, he wrote that:

he was wrong, and most of the world today is certainly religious.

With regard to people changing their religious affiliations, which of the following is true?

There is more growth among conservative Protestant denominations; moderate and liberal denominations have lost members.

Karl Marx referred to religion as the "opium of the masses." By this, he meant which of the following statements?

Religion pacifies people with promises of rewards in the afterlife; therefore, they do not challenge the subjugating, exploitative, and alienating social conditions in this life.

In its level of religiosity, the United States is similar to:

some poor and low-income developing nations.

Approximately what percentage of people in the world identify themselves as Christian?

33 percent

Ethicalism is the ____________; examples of it are ____________.

adherence to ethical principles in order to live a moral life; Taoism and Buddhism

The trend in industrial nations toward a separation between church and state, a belief in rationality and science, and the movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief is known as:

secularism.

Research has shown that religious attendance and affiliation are inversely correlated with alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. Which of the following is a valid conclusion of this?

We cannot determine if religion causes healthy lifestyles or if some other factor predisposes healthy behavior and religion.

According to the textbook, difference between evangelical Protestants and fundamentalist Christians is that fundamentalists:

separate themselves from the world; evangelicals try to win converts by engaging with the world.

When asked if they attend church services at least once a month, about 60 percent of Americans say they do. But when daily diaries of people's activities are examined, rates of church attendance are much lower. This problem of self-reporting of positive behaviors is known within sociology as:

social desirability bias.

Which of the following is a paradox about religion discussed in your text?

Religions that are more demanding of their followers grow faster than less strict religions, but as a religion grows larger, it tends to become less strict.

For some followers of religion, embodied practices make the religious experience feel more authentic and real. Which of the following is NOT an embodied practice?

beliefs

The ____________ population of the United States has grown since the 1960s due to immigration from countries like Indonesia, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, along with countries in the Middle East.

Muslim

In which two early social movements were religious groups involved?

abolition and temperance

One of the most "upper-class" religions is:

Episcopalianism

Which of the following was NOT a social resource of black church communities that Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was able to draw upon?

armies

Which of the following reflects the growing trend of "buy and return" activity, or "religious shopping," in reference to faith?

a tendency among teens to participate in multiple congregations in order to explore the market

Theism is the ____________; examples of it include ____________.

worship of a god or gods; Hinduism and Islam

Christianity is considered a(n) ____________ religion.

theistic

Objects and behaviors that are profane are:

part of everyday life.

Protestantism is split into many different ____________, or groups that share the same faith and are governed by the same administration. Examples are Baptists, Lutherans, and Methodists.

churches

As people age, they become:

more religious

The sacred realm is:

special, reserved, set apart from everyday use, unknowable, and mystical.

Which of the following statements is NOT one that reflects Durkheim's thoughts about religion?

Because of tension between different religious groups in pluralistic societies, religion undermines social unity.

Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be made by a sociologist?

...

Animism is the ____________; examples of it are ____________.

belief that spirits are present in the natural world; totemism and shamanism

Durkheim felt that one of the major functions of religion was that it perpetuates:

solidarity

The idea that you are preselected by God for salvation is one of the basic tenets behind:

Calvinism.

Which of the following is an example of how social solidarity and collective conscience function?

Max attends a church youth group regularly. Because he is active in group-sponsored activities and has been socialized to the norms of this group, he is less likely to spend time with peers who may engage in deviant activities.

Weber likened the history of society to a train and ideas to the switchmen of the tracks. What does this mean?

Ideas can be powerful forces to create change and alter the course of history when they are believed by enough people at the right time.

In a battle between church and state, what did the French government ban in 2004?

the wearing of religious garb or conspicuous symbols in its public schools

To understand the role of religion in people's lives and how individuals value and experience their faiths, which type of sociological approach should we adopt?

microsociology

To what does the so-called drive-through church refer?

short, frank church services that last 50 minutes or less

According to Durkheim, religion is created by ____________, and religious expressions represent ____________.

social interaction; collective realities

Max Weber visited the United States in 1904. He was greatly influenced by:

the writings of Benjamin Franklin.

According to Weber, which religion was a necessary condition for the development of capitalism?

Protestant Christianity

With regard to gender and religion, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Women's organizations in churches have maintained their numbers even as women have entered the workforce in greater numbers since the 1970s.

Today, sociologists tend to study religion from a ____________ perspective. This allows them to look at everyday human interactions, practices, and beliefs on a small scale.

microsociology

Some sociologists of religion, such as Kelly Besecke, study how people reconcile scientific knowledge with religious beliefs. Besecke found that American Christians practice "reflexive spirituality." This means that people:

look to religion to provide meaning, wisdom, and profound thought rather than absolute truths about the way the world works.

Which question is a sociologist of religion most likely to ask?

How are religious beliefs patterned by social forces?

Which of the following features was NOT part of the social context of early nineteenth-century America, a time when religious faiths were becoming networks for social change?

strong, centralized national institutions

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CH16

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Defined broadly, religion is:

a set of shared stories, beliefs, and practices about sacred things that guide beliefs and behaviors.

Weber’s idea that Protestantism was the most important driving force behind the spread of capitalism was contested by Daniel Chirot (1985), who said it wasn’t the development of Protestantism that influenced the spread of capitalism but rather the major impetus was:

geography.

Secularization is:

the transformation of a society away from religion and toward a separation of religious and social institutions such as politics, the economy, and the family.

Which of the following is a negative social function of religion?

Religion can justify unequal and unfair differences between groups in society.

In the 1960s, Peter Berger wrote that the world was becoming more secular. Recently, he wrote that:

he was wrong, and most of the world today is certainly religious.

With regard to people changing their religious affiliations, which of the following is true?

There is more growth among conservative Protestant denominations; moderate and liberal denominations have lost members.

Karl Marx referred to religion as the "opium of the masses." By this, he meant which of the following statements?

Religion pacifies people with promises of rewards in the afterlife; therefore, they do not challenge the subjugating, exploitative, and alienating social conditions in this life.

In its level of religiosity, the United States is similar to:

some poor and low-income developing nations.

Approximately what percentage of people in the world identify themselves as Christian?

33 percent

Ethicalism is the ____________; examples of it are ____________.

adherence to ethical principles in order to live a moral life; Taoism and Buddhism

The trend in industrial nations toward a separation between church and state, a belief in rationality and science, and the movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief is known as:

secularism.

Research has shown that religious attendance and affiliation are inversely correlated with alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. Which of the following is a valid conclusion of this?

We cannot determine if religion causes healthy lifestyles or if some other factor predisposes healthy behavior and religion.

According to the textbook, difference between evangelical Protestants and fundamentalist Christians is that fundamentalists:

separate themselves from the world; evangelicals try to win converts by engaging with the world.

When asked if they attend church services at least once a month, about 60 percent of Americans say they do. But when daily diaries of people’s activities are examined, rates of church attendance are much lower. This problem of self-reporting of positive behaviors is known within sociology as:

social desirability bias.

Which of the following is a paradox about religion discussed in your text?

Religions that are more demanding of their followers grow faster than less strict religions, but as a religion grows larger, it tends to become less strict.

For some followers of religion, embodied practices make the religious experience feel more authentic and real. Which of the following is NOT an embodied practice?

beliefs

The ____________ population of the United States has grown since the 1960s due to immigration from countries like Indonesia, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, along with countries in the Middle East.

Muslim

In which two early social movements were religious groups involved?

abolition and temperance

One of the most "upper-class" religions is:

Episcopalianism

Which of the following was NOT a social resource of black church communities that Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was able to draw upon?

armies

Which of the following reflects the growing trend of "buy and return" activity, or "religious shopping," in reference to faith?

a tendency among teens to participate in multiple congregations in order to explore the market

Theism is the ____________; examples of it include ____________.

worship of a god or gods; Hinduism and Islam

Christianity is considered a(n) ____________ religion.

theistic

Objects and behaviors that are profane are:

part of everyday life.

Protestantism is split into many different ____________, or groups that share the same faith and are governed by the same administration. Examples are Baptists, Lutherans, and Methodists.

churches

As people age, they become:

more religious

The sacred realm is:

special, reserved, set apart from everyday use, unknowable, and mystical.

Which of the following statements is NOT one that reflects Durkheim’s thoughts about religion?

Because of tension between different religious groups in pluralistic societies, religion undermines social unity.

Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be made by a sociologist?

Animism is the ____________; examples of it are ____________.

belief that spirits are present in the natural world; totemism and shamanism

Durkheim felt that one of the major functions of religion was that it perpetuates:

solidarity

The idea that you are preselected by God for salvation is one of the basic tenets behind:

Calvinism.

Which of the following is an example of how social solidarity and collective conscience function?

Max attends a church youth group regularly. Because he is active in group-sponsored activities and has been socialized to the norms of this group, he is less likely to spend time with peers who may engage in deviant activities.

Weber likened the history of society to a train and ideas to the switchmen of the tracks. What does this mean?

Ideas can be powerful forces to create change and alter the course of history when they are believed by enough people at the right time.

In a battle between church and state, what did the French government ban in 2004?

the wearing of religious garb or conspicuous symbols in its public schools

To understand the role of religion in people’s lives and how individuals value and experience their faiths, which type of sociological approach should we adopt?

microsociology

To what does the so-called drive-through church refer?

short, frank church services that last 50 minutes or less

According to Durkheim, religion is created by ____________, and religious expressions represent ____________.

social interaction; collective realities

Max Weber visited the United States in 1904. He was greatly influenced by:

the writings of Benjamin Franklin.

According to Weber, which religion was a necessary condition for the development of capitalism?

Protestant Christianity

With regard to gender and religion, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Women’s organizations in churches have maintained their numbers even as women have entered the workforce in greater numbers since the 1970s.

Today, sociologists tend to study religion from a ____________ perspective. This allows them to look at everyday human interactions, practices, and beliefs on a small scale.

microsociology

Some sociologists of religion, such as Kelly Besecke, study how people reconcile scientific knowledge with religious beliefs. Besecke found that American Christians practice "reflexive spirituality." This means that people:

look to religion to provide meaning, wisdom, and profound thought rather than absolute truths about the way the world works.

Which question is a sociologist of religion most likely to ask?

How are religious beliefs patterned by social forces?

Which of the following features was NOT part of the social context of early nineteenth-century America, a time when religious faiths were becoming networks for social change?

strong, centralized national institutions

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