Ch15 & 16 criminal punishment-environment test

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Indeterminate sentences would be more likely to be favored by those with a retributivist than those with a deterrence viewpoint.


In Deep Ecology, through what means is happiness gained?

Through the performance of quiet, real work.

According to the deterrence argument for legal punishment, any kind of punishment is justified no matter what the consequences.


The old Native American saying, "before you act, consider the consequences on the next seven generations," represents what kind of thinking?


Some ecofeminists believe that the source of our environmental problems lies in our being governed in our relation to nature by the male type of dominance over it.


To suggest that capital punishment is a different moral question for nomadic peoples living in tents or other temporary shelters than for societies with maximum-security prisons is what kind of reasoning?


Which country has the highest incarceration rate in the world?


Punishment is internally related to lawbreaking, according to the deterrence viewpoint.


The word environment comes from an Old French word meaning

Turning around in.

Which of the following types of crime will always be difficult to deter?

Crimes of passion.

The fact that having capital punishment "on the table" causes many people to confess to crimes in order to have death "taken off the table" is what kind of ethical reasoning?


Ecocentrists are distinguished by their rejection of the anthropocentric idea that _________.

Only humans have intrinsic value.

Which of our moral theories is most likely to be used in support of the retribution argument for capital punishment?

Categorical imperative

To say that a wilderness has prima facie value means that it must be preserved no matter what the cost to do so.


The article by William Baxter utilized primarily ________ reasoning.


Retributivists always support a lex talionis view and thus always will support the death penalty for murderers (as being a life for a life).


Ecocentrism relies on what form of moral reasoning?

Natural law

According to anthropocentrism, what has intrinsic value?

Humans only.

If all acts are determined by various causal factors, then on retributivist grounds punishment as such is unjustified.


According to the retributivist argument, all those who commit serious crimes must "pay" for them and we determine how much they should pay only by considering how serious was their crime.


According to a consequentialist argument regarding legal punishment, if a form of punishment is not deterring anyone from crime, then it cannot be justified.


The essence of the view known as deep ecology is that organisms depend on their environment in many ways.


A retributivist would uphold a just punishment for certain crimes even if the imposition of this punishment did not deter anyone from committing such crimes.


How, in Aldo Leopold’s ethics, are right actions to be distinguished from wrong ones?

Right actions tend to preserve the stability and beauty of nature; wrong actions tend to do otherwise.

The cost of life in prison without parole compared to an execution is

Significantly lower.

Criminal justice

Justice that is focused on punishment and correction (vs. social justice); see also retributive justice, deterrence, restorative justice.


A focal point for consequentialist approaches to criminal justice, which is concerned with deterring criminals from committing crime (vs. retributive justice and restorative justice).


To be found innocent of a crime for which one was previously convicted and found guilty.

Lex Talionis

An idea of retributive justice, which is focused on equivalence or proportionality between the crime and the punishment, often described as ?eye for an eye? justice.

Restorative justice

An approach to criminal justice that seeks to make criminals take responsibility and make amends, while restoring the community that they have broken (vs. retributive justice and deterrence).

Retributive justice

A theory of criminal justice that focuses on giving criminals what they deserve and forcing them to pay back what they owe to victims or to society (vs. restorative justice and deterrence); see also lex talionis.

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