ch14

Which of the following equations correctly relates flow, pressure, and resistance?
A) resistance = flow × pressure
B) pressure = flow × resistance C) flow = pressure × resistance D) flow = pressure - resistance E) flow = pressure + resistance

B) pressure = flow × resistance

What is the driving force for blood flow through the systemic circuit?
A) mean arterial pressure
B) left ventricular pressure
C) central venous pressure
D) right atrial pressure
E) capillary hydrostatic pressure

A) mean arterial pressure

In comparison to the systemic circuit, the pulmonary circuit
A) has an equal pressure gradient to drive blood flow.
B) has lower blood flow.
C) is under greater pressure.
D) transports deoxygenated blood.
E) has lower resistance to blood flow.

E) has lower resistance to blood flow.

Which of the following would increase the rate of blood flow through a blood vessel?
A) increased pressure of the blood entering the vessel
B) increased viscosity of the blood
C) constriction of the blood vessel
D) decreased radius of the vessel
E) increased length of the vessel

A) increased pressure of the blood entering the vessel

5) Which of the following equations is correct?
A) resistance = (length × radius4) / viscosity
B) mean arterial pressure = cardiac output × stroke volume
C) cardiac output = mean arterial pressure × total peripheral resistance
D) cardiac output = stroke volume × heart rate
E) mean arterial pressure = resistance × viscosity

D) cardiac output = stroke volume × heart rate

Which of the following is NOT a component of the microcirculation?
A) veins
B) arterioles
C) metarterioles
D) capillaries
E) venules

A) veins

The lumen of every blood vessel is lined by a monolayer of what cell type?
A) fibroblasts
B) erythrocytes
C) smooth muscle cells
D) endothelial cells
E) platelets

D) endothelial cells

What is/are the component(s) of a blood vessel's extracellular matrix that provide(s) the tensile strength required to withstand pressure?
A) albumin
B) elastin
C) hemoglobin
D) gap junctions
E) collagen

E) collagen

The elastic nature of the largest blood vessel's walls allows them to act as a ________, maintaining the driving force for blood flow while the heart is relaxed during diastole.
A) contractile force
B) non-compliant structure
C) pressure reservoir
D) non-distensible structure
E) volume reservoir

C) pressure reservoir

The blood vessels of largest diameter are the ________, and the blood vessels with the thickest walls are the ________.
A) arteries : arterioles
B) arteries : veins
C) arteries : arteries
D) veins : arteries
E) veins : veins

D) veins : arteries

What component of artery walls allows them to store energy that is later used to maintain continuous blood flow through the circulatory system?
A) elastin
B) skeletal muscle
C) smooth muscle
D) endothelium
E) collagen

A) elastin

Arteries have ________ compliance and ________ resistance to flow.
A) low : low
B) high : high
C) zero : high
D) high : low
E) low : high

A) low : low

What is a measure of the change in vascular volume as pressure within the vessel is altered?
A) blood flow
B) compliance
C) resistance
D) the pressure gradient
E) diffusibility

B) compliance

A person goes to the doctor and is told his blood pressure is 90/60 and his pulse is 80. Which of the following is FALSE?
A) Pulse pressure is 80 mm Hg. B) Heart rate is 80.
C) Diastolic pressure is 60.
D) Systolic pressure is 90 mm Hg.
E) Mean arterial pressure is 70 mm Hg.

A) Pulse pressure is 80 mm Hg.

Blood pressure is usually estimated from indirect measurements of the pressure in what structure?
A) brachial artery
B) radial artery
C) left ventricle
D) femoral artery
E) aorta

A) brachial artery

Resistance to blood flow is regulated primarily by what blood vessels?
A) capillaries
B) arterioles
C) veins
D) ventricle
E) arteries

B) arterioles

In the circulatory system, the largest pressure drop occurs across which blood vessels?
A) arterioles
B) arteries
C) veins
D) venules
E) capillaries

A) arterioles

The pulsatile nature of blood pressure is greatest in which blood vessels?
A) arteries
B) capillaries
C) arterioles
D) venules
E) veins

A) arteries

The total cross-sectional area is greatest in which blood vessels?
A) capillaries
B) veins
C) venules
D) arteries
E) arterioles

A) capillaries

The contractile activity of smooth muscle cells within which type of blood vessel is primarily involved in the control of the organ blood flow and mean arterial pressure?
A) arteries
B) veins
C) capillaries
D) venules
E) arterioles

E) arterioles

Blood flow velocity is inversely proportional to the pooled surface area of a structure; therefore, it is greatest in the ________ and slowest in the ________.
A) arterioles : veins
B) arteries : capillaries
C) capillaries : arteries
D) arteries : veins
E) veins : arteries

B) arteries : capillaries

Which of the following statements about smooth muscle in arterioles is FALSE?
A) The muscle is multi-unit smooth muscle.
B) Muscle contraction is under intrinsic controls.
C) The muscle forms rings around the arteriole.
D) The muscle has inherent (myogenic) tone.
E) Muscle contraction is under extrinsic controls.

A) The muscle is multi-unit smooth muscle.

What is the purpose of extrinsic control of arteriolar smooth muscle contractile activity?
A) regulate blood flow through specific capillary beds
B) regulate heart rate
C) regulate cardiac output
D) regulate stroke volume
E) regulate mean arterial pressure

E) regulate mean arterial pressure

Which of the following chemicals' concentration is NOT increased by an elevation in metabolic activity?
A) potassium
B) pyruvic acid
C) carbon dioxide
D) hydrogen
E) oxygen

E) oxygen

Chemicals released by metabolically active cells will cause which of the following?
A) contraction of arteriolar smooth muscle to decrease blood flow
B) contraction of capillary smooth muscle to increase blood flow
C) relaxation of capillary smooth muscle to decrease blood flow
D) contraction of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow
E) relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow

E) relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow

What is a decrease in tissue oxygen called?
A) hyperoxia
B) ischemia
C) hypoxemia
D) hyperemia
E) hypoxia

E) hypoxia

What is an increase in blood flow in response to an increase in tissue metabolic activity called?
A) hypoxia
B) hyperoxia
C) reactive hyperemia
D) active hyperemia
E) ischemia

D) active hyperemia

In response to a decrease in tissue metabolic activity, tissue oxygen concentrations ________, which causes a(n) ________.
A) decrease : active hyperemic response
B) decrease : increase in tissue ischemia
C) increase : constriction of the arterioles
D) decrease : dilation of the arterioles
E) increase : active hyperemic response

C) increase : constriction of the arterioles

A decrease in pressure within an arteriole will initiate a(n)
A) cardiac and venous baroreceptor reflex.
B) arterial baroreceptor reflex. C) myogenic response.
D) sinus arrhythmia.
E) active hyperemia.

C) myogenic response.

Which of the following accurately compares active hyperemia to reactive hyperemia?
A) One is an increase in blood flow, the other is a decrease.
B) One is caused by increased metabolic activity, the other in response to an increase in metabolites from an occlusion to blood flow.
C) One is caused by an increase in metabolites, the other to a decrease in perfusion pressure.
D) One involves vasodilation, the other vasoconstriction.
E) One is an intrinsic response, the other an extrinsic response.

B) One is caused by increased metabolic activity, the other in response to an increase in metabolites from an occlusion to blood flow.

An increase in the concentration of which of the following within the interstitial space surrounding an arteriole would cause that vessel to constrict?
A) lactic acid
B) prostacyclin
C) nitric oxide
D) adenosine
E) oxygen

E) oxygen

32) Which of the following substances is secreted by endothelial cells and causes vasoconstriction?
A) adenosine
B) oxygen
C) bradykinin
D) nitric oxide
E) endothelin-1

E) endothelin-1

33) Which of the following substances is continuously secreted by endothelial cells and causes vasodilation?
A) endothelin-1
B) bradykinin
C) nitric oxide
D) adenosine
E) oxygen

C) nitric oxide

34) Which of the following is an important vasodilator in coronary arteries?
A) oxygen
B) endothelin-1
C) bradykinin
D) adenosine
E) nitric oxide

D) adenosine

During exercise, which organs receive an increase in the proportion of cardiac output delivered to them?
A) gastrointestinal tract and skeletal muscle
B) skeletal muscle, heart, and brain
C) brain and heart
D) skeletal muscle, heart, and skin
E) skeletal muscle, skin, and brain

D) skeletal muscle, heart, and skin

Any change in the relative distribution of cardiac output to an organ is typically due to changes in which of the following?
A) mean arterial pressure
B) viscosity of the blood moving through that organ's vascular bed
C) resistance of that organ's vascular bed
D) central venous pressure
E) compliance of that organ's vascular bed

C) resistance of that organ's vascular bed

During exercise, which of the following tissues receive less blood flow compared to resting conditions?
A) gastrointestinal tract only
B) brain only
C) skin only
D) heart only
E) both gastrointestinal tract and skin

A) gastrointestinal tract only

Which of the following would decrease mean arterial pressure?
A) increase in stroke volume
B) increase in venous return
C) increase in heart rate
D) increase in total peripheral resistance
E) increase in arteriole diameter

E) increase in arteriole diameter

What type of adrenergic receptor is found in the smooth muscle of most systemic arterioles?
A) alpha only
B) beta1 only
C) beta2 only
D) beta3 only
E) both alpha and beta1

A) alpha only

The effects of epinephrine on vascular resistance are dependent upon which of the following?
A) concentration of local metabolites
B) relative distribution of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors
C) relative distribution of alpha and beta receptors
D) direction of change in mean arterial pressure
E) specific baroreceptor activated (low or high pressure)

C) relative distribution of alpha and beta receptors

In cardiac and skeletal muscle vasculature, the distribution of alpha and beta receptors is such that epinephrine will
A) induce a dilation that increases blood flow to these tissues.
B) have no effect on peripheral resistance.
C) increase skeletal muscle contractility.
D) induce a constriction that decreases blood flow to these tissues.
E) increase myocardial contractility.

A) induce a dilation that increases blood flow to these tissues.

Arteriolar smooth muscle in which of the following tissues tends to have beta2 receptors predominating?
A) gastrointestinal tract
B) liver
C) skeletal muscle
D) skin
E) brain

C) skeletal muscle

Drugs that block angiotensin-converting enzyme would cause which of the following?
A) decrease in epinephrine release
B) activation of the parasympathetic nervous system
C) stimulation of reactive hyperemia
D) decreased mean arterial pressure
E) decreased heart rate

D) decreased mean arterial pressure

Fenestrated capillaries are unique in their ability to
A) maintain a low permeability to small water-soluble molecules.
B) restrict the passage of proteins across endothelial cells.
C) move molecules across endothelial cells by transcytosis.
D) allow relatively large molecules to pass between endothelial cells.
E) allow few molecules to pass between endothelial cells.

D) allow relatively large molecules to pass between endothelial cells.

What organ has capillaries that are the most restrictive to movement of hydrophilic solutes?
A) liver
B) kidneys
C) skeletal muscle
D) bone marrow
E) brain

E) brain

Which of the following would increase blood flow through a capillary bed?
A) constriction of the arteriole leading into the capillary bed
B) increase in venous pressure
C) contraction of precapillary sphincters in the capillary bed
D) contraction of smooth muscle in the metarterioles bypassing the capillary bed
E) decrease in blood pressure in the arteriole leading into the capillary bed

D) contraction of smooth muscle in the metarterioles bypassing the capillary bed

Which of the following would cause relaxation of precapillary sphincters?
A) parasympathetic activity
B) epinephrine
C) vasopressin
D) sympathetic activity
E) carbon dioxide

E) carbon dioxide

Glucose moves across continuous capillary walls by what mechanism?
A) secondary active transport
B) facilitated
C) transcytosis
D) diffusion
E) primary active transport

D) diffusion

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism that enables molecules to move across capillary endothelial cells?
A) movement through water-filled gaps between endothelial cells
B) rapid diffusion of water-soluble molecules directly across the endothelial cells
C) transcytosis across endothelial cells
D) movement of exchangeable proteins across endothelial cells
E) diffusion of lipid-soluble molecules directly across the endothelial cell

B) rapid diffusion of water-soluble molecules directly across the endothelial cells

________ describes the movement of fluid out of the capillary, while ________ describes the movement of fluid into the capillary.
A) Filtration : absorption
B) Edema : venous pooling
C) Absorption : filtration
D) Hydrostatic pressure : oncotic pressure
E) Venous pooling : edema

A) Filtration : absorption

The portion of osmotic pressure exerted by ________ in the blood is known as colloid osmotic pressure (or oncotic pressure).
A) small ions
B) lipids
C) steroids
D) large ions
E) proteins

E) proteins

Under normal conditions, which Starling forces favor filtration?
A) capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
B) capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
C) capillary hydrostatic pressure and plasma oncotic pressure
D) interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
E) interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and plasma oncotic pressure

B) capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure

Which of the following inaccurately represents normal forces across capillary walls?
A) Interstitial fluid oncotic pressure is almost zero.
B) At rest, net filtration occurs across capillary walls.
C) Capillary hydrostatic pressure decreases from arteriole end to venous end.
D) Capillary oncotic pressure is due primarily to plasma proteins.
E) Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure increases from arteriole end to venous end.

E) Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure increases from arteriole end to venous end.

Given that the net filtration of fluid out of the capillaries averages about 3 liters per day, how is blood volume maintained in light of this apparent fluid loss?
A) The kidneys are involved in the reabsorption of the remaining fluid.
B) Gravity moves the fluid to the lowest point in the body, where the fluid is absorbed.
C) While fluid moves out across the capillary, it tends to move inward across veins.
D) The lymphatic system returns filtered fluid to the blood.
E) The net filtration is equally balanced by absorption.

D) The lymphatic system returns filtered fluid to the blood.

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism that alters the balance between filtration and absorption in the body?
A) increasing the elimination of plasma proteins in cases of kidney damage
B) increasing the permeability of the capillaries in regions of tissue damage
C) increasing capillary hydrostatic pressure within the feet as one stands
D) increasing hydrostatic pressure gradient in cases of enhanced interstitial protein
E) decreasing plasma protein synthesis in cases of liver damage

D) increasing hydrostatic pressure gradient in cases of enhanced interstitial protein

Which of the following comparisons between systemic capillaries and lymphatic capillaries is TRUE?
A) Pressure is higher in lymphatic capillaries.
B) Blood cells are found in both types of capillaries.
C) Fluid enters systemic capillaries from systemic arterioles; fluid enters lymphatic capillaries from
lymphatic veins.
D) Walls of systemic capillaries are more permeable.
E) Net filtration occurs across systemic capillaries; net absorption occurs across lymphatic capillaries.

E) Net filtration occurs across systemic capillaries; net absorption occurs across lymphatic capillaries.

Foreign materials are filtered out of the lymphatic fluid by what type of cell located within the lymph nodes?
A) erythrocytes
B) platelets
C) mast cells
D) macrophages
E) leukocytes

D) macrophages

Exchange between blood and interstitial fluid occurs across capillaries and, to a lesser extent,
A) arterioles.
B) veins.
C) arteries.
D) venules.
E) metarterioles.

D) venules.

What region of the cardiovascular system contains valves?
A) heart only
B) met arterioles only
C) veins only
D) both the heart and veins
E) the heart, metarterioles, and veins

D) both the heart and veins

Veins functions as ________ reservoirs due to their ________ compliance.
A) pressure : lack of
B) volume : low
C) pressure : low
D) pressure : high
E) volume : high

E) volume : high

Valves, which are found ________, maintain the unidirectional movement of blood, thereby facilitating the return of blood to the heart.
A) only in peripheral veins
B) in all venules
C) only in arteries
D) only in central veins
E) in all veins

A) only in peripheral veins

The high compliance of veins allows them to
A) provide the driving force for the movement of blood through the vasculature during diastole.
B) rapidly change central venous pressure with small changes in blood volume.
C) act as pressure reservoirs.
D) hold only small volumes of blood.
E) accommodate large volumes of blood with little change in pressure.

E) accommodate large volumes of blood with little change in pressure.

At rest, the greatest proportion of blood volume is present within the
A) systemic capillaries.
B) systemic arteries.
C) systemic veins.
D) pulmonary veins.
E) heart.

C) systemic veins.

Which of the following would decrease central venous pressure?
A) activity of skeletal muscles
B) increased respiratory activity C) increased sympathetic activity
D) standing up
E) increased blood volume

D) standing up

An increase in the volume of blood ejected from the heart, with no change in total peripheral resistance, would
A) elevate central venous pressure.
B) reduce the stretch on the aorta.
C) elevate pulmonary venous pressure.
D) reduce mean arterial pressure.
E) elevate mean arterial pressure.

E) elevate mean arterial pressure.

An increase in total peripheral resistance, in the absence of any change in cardiac output, would
A) elevate mean arterial pressure.
B) reduce the stretch on the aorta.
C) reduce mean arterial pressure.
D) decrease central venous pressure.
E) decrease pulmonary venous pressure.

A) elevate mean arterial pressure.

The respiratory pump facilitates the return of blood to the heart by
A) squeezing blood from the rhythmic contraction of the diaphragm muscle.
B) decreasing the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during expiration.
C) raising the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during inspiration.
D) decreasing the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during inspiration.
E) raising the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during expiration.

C) raising the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during inspiration.

Which of the following would NOT increase mean arterial pressure?
A) decreased parasympathetic activity effects on the heart
B) increased sympathetic activity to the veins
C) increased sympathetic activity to the heart
D) decreased parasympathetic activity effects on the arterioles E) increased levels of epinephrine in the blood

D) decreased parasympathetic activity effects on the arterioles

The long-term regulation of arterial blood pressure involves the
A) stimulation of an increase in urine flow through the kidneys.
B) control of peripheral resistance.
C) immediate change in activity of the nervous system.
D) control of blood volume by the kidneys.
E) release of hormones over a period of minutes.

D) control of blood volume by the kidneys.

________ are responsible for the detection of mean arterial pressure.
A) Aortic chemoreceptors
B) Medullary chemoreceptors
C) Venous baroreceptors
D) Thermoreceptors
E) Arterial baroreceptors

E) Arterial baroreceptors

Which of the following best classifies the baroreceptor reflex?
A) cranial; autonomic; conditioned; monosynaptic
B) cranial; autonomic; innate; polysynaptic
C) cranial; somatic; conditioned; polysynaptic
D) spinal; autonomic; innate; polysynaptic
E) spinal; autonomic; innate; monosynaptic

B) cranial; autonomic; innate; polysynaptic

As mean arterial pressure increases, the ________, informing the medulla oblongata that blood pressure has indeed increased.
A) number of neurons stimulated within the aortic arch increases
B) blood flow to the brain increases
C) number of sympathetic neurons activated decreases
D) amplitude of the action potentials from the baroreceptors increases
E) frequency of action potentials from the baroreceptors increases

E) frequency of action potentials from the baroreceptors increases

Information about mean arterial pressure is integrated within what area of the central nervous system?
A) cerebellum
B) pons
C) medulla oblongata
D) cervical spinal cord
E) hypothalamus

C) medulla oblongata

Where is the cardiovascular control center?
A) adrenal medulla
B) medulla oblongata
C) hypothalamus
D) adrenal cortex
E) pons

B) medulla oblongata

Which of the following descriptions of the autonomic innervation of the cardiovascular system is FALSE?
A) Only sympathetic neurons provide significant innervation of the contractile cells of the heart.
B) Only sympathetic neurons innervate smooth muscle in veins.
C) Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons innervate smooth muscle in arterioles.
D) Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons innervate the SA node.
E) Sympathetic activity increases cardiac output, whereas parasympathetic activity decreases cardiac
output.

C) Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons innervate smooth muscle in arterioles.

Which of the following will NOT occur in response to a decrease in the extent of stretch detected by a baroreceptor?
A) increased heart rate
B) increased urine flow
C) increased ventricular contractility
D) increased venomotor tone
E) increased peripheral resistance

B) increased urine flow

Which of the following is NOT altered within seconds to minutes of the baroreceptor reflex being activated?
A) venomotor tone
B) total peripheral resistance
C) heart rate
D) stroke volume
E) blood volume

E) blood volume

Which of the following does NOT occur in response to baroreceptors detecting an increase in mean arterial pressure?
A) decreased end-diastolic volume
B) decreased frequency of sinoatrial node action potentials
C) decreased venous compliance
D) vasoconstriction
E) decreased heart rate

D) vasoconstriction

The chronic elevation in arterial pressure (hypertension) that occurs in many individuals results in
A) the resetting of the baroreceptor to a lower pressure.
B) a decreased sensitivity of the baroreceptor that causes pressure to fluctuate.
C) the maintenance of a constant error signal by the baroreceptor.
D) the baroreceptors becoming more sensitive to pressure.
E) a gradual increase in pressure that resets the baroreceptors.

E) a gradual increase in pressure that resets the baroreceptors.

The reduction in organ blood flow that results from a decrease in mean arterial pressure would be exacerbated by the ________ that occurs as a consequence of the baroreceptor reflex.
A) increased venous return
B) increased peripheral resistance
C) increased ventricular contractility
D) decreased compliance of the veins
E) increased stroke volume

B) increased peripheral resistance

An increase in sympathetic nervous activity to arterioles will have little effect on vasoconstriction of the
A) brain and heart.
B) skeletal muscles.
C) kidneys.
D) gastrointestinal tract.
E) heart and kidneys.

A) brain and heart.

The hormone vasopressin acts in the short term to ________ and in the long term to ________, thereby increasing mean arterial pressure.
A) vasoconstrict arterioles : decrease urine outflow
B) increase urine outflow : vasodilate arterioles
C) vasodilate arterioles : increase urine outflow
D) vasodilate arterioles : decrease urine outflow
E) decrease urine outflow : vasoconstrict arterioles

A) vasoconstrict arterioles : decrease urine outflow

Due to their location, baroreceptors in the large systemic veins and the heart function primarily to monitor
A) heart rate.
B) mean arterial pressure.
C) blood flow.
D) blood volume.
E) total peripheral resistance.

D) blood volume.

Which of the following terms is used to label the rhythmic changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity that affect heart rate coincident with respiration?
A) pulmonary sinus rhythmia
B) respiratory sinus rhythmia
C) lung sinus rhythmia
D) respiratory sinus arrhythmia
E) pulmonary sinus arrhythmia

D) respiratory sinus arrhythmia

Despite seeming counterproductive, an increase in arterial carbon dioxide levels activates ________, which causes a(n) ________ in heart rate and a(n) ________ in total peripheral resistance.
A) baroreceptors : decrease : decrease
B) baroreceptors : increase : increase
C) chemoreceptors : decrease : increase
D) chemoreceptors: decrease : decrease
E) baroreceptors : decrease : increase

D) chemoreceptors: decrease : decrease

Which of the following will NOT occur as a consequence of the activation of the baroreceptor reflex that would occur in response to an increased heat load within the body?
A) an increase in resistance within the skin vasculature
B) an increase in stroke volume
C) an increase in heart rate
D) an increase in venoconstriction
E) a decrease in resistance within the skeletal muscle vasculature

A) an increase in resistance within the skin vasculature

The increase in stroke volume that occurs during exercise is caused primarily by a(n)
A) increase in end-diastolic volume.
B) increase in myocardial contractility.
C) decrease in peripheral resistance.
D) increase in venous return.
E) decrease in end-systolic volume.

B) increase in myocardial contractility.

The increase in blood flow to active skeletal muscle relative to other organs is largely caused by the
A) increase in local metabolic factors within the muscle.
B) increase in sympathetic activity.
C) decrease in metabolic factors within the muscle.
D) decrease in parasympathetic activity.
E) increase in parasympathetic activity.

A) increase in local metabolic factors within the muscle.

Which of the following accurately describes sympathetic control of blood vessels in the skin during thermoregulation?
A) Heat causes an increase in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasodilation.
B) Heat causes a decrease in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasoconstriction.
C) Heat activates the parasympathetic activity and has no effect on the sympathetic nervous system.
D) Heat causes a decrease in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasodilation.
E) Heat causes an increase in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasoconstriction.

D) Heat causes a decrease in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasodilation.

Mean arterial pressure can be increased by all of the following EXCEPT
A) increasing venous return.
B) increasing blood volume.
C) decreasing end-diastolic volume.
D) increasing sympathetic activity.
E) increasing heart rate.

C) decreasing end-diastolic volume.

Which of the following can cause vasoconstriction?
A) angiotensin II
B) increase in carbon dioxide
C) release of nitric oxide
D) increase in histamine
E) increase in osmolarity

A) angiotensin II

The primary mechanism for exchange of substances across the capillary wall is
A) diffusion.
B) mediated transport.
C) bulk flow.
D) vesicle transport.
E) active transport.

A) diffusion.

Given the following information, calculate the net filtration pressure: capillary hydrostatic pressure = 30 mm Hg; interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure = 5 mm Hg; capillary oncotic pressure = 25 mm Hg; and interstitial fluid oncotic pressure = 10 mm Hg.
A) 0 mm Hg, no net force
B) 40 mm Hg, favoring filtration C) 10 mm Hg, favoring filtration
D) -10 mm Hg, favoring reabsorption
E) -40 mm Hg, favoring reabsorption

C) 10 mm Hg, favoring filtration

Which of the following can cause edema?
A) decreased venous pressure only
B) damage to capillary walls only
C) increase in extravasated plasma proteins only
D) both an increase in plasma proteins and a decrease in venous pressure
E) both damage to capillary walls and an increase in extravasated plasma proteins

B) damage to capillary walls only

Which of the following is an incorrect description of a blood vessel type?
A) The radius of arterioles can be regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic controls.
B) Most of the blood volume at rest is in the systemic veins.
C) Arteries are elastic.
D) Capillary walls are comprised of only two cell layers, minimizing the distance for exchange.
E) Veins have high compliance.

D) Capillary walls are comprised of only two cell layers, minimizing the distance for exchange.

During exercise, carbon dioxide produced by muscle cells causes vasodilation in skeletal muscle. This is an example of
A) active hyperemia.
B) flow autoregulation.
C) ischemia.
D) reactive hyperemia.
E) hypoxia.

A) active hyperemia.

Which of the following structures contains high pressure baroreceptors?
A) aortic arch only
B) carotid sinus only
C) right atrium only
D) both the aortic arch and carotid sinus
E) aortic arch, right atrium, and carotid sinus

D) both the aortic arch and carotid sinus

Of the following choices, which has the elastic recoil of its walls during diastole, causing a continuation of blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle?
A) capillary
B) arteriole
C) vein
D) venule
E) artery

E) artery

Which of the following has high compliance, allowing it to hold a large volume of blood with little change in pressure?
A) capillary
B) vein
C) artery
D) arteriole
E) venule

B) vein

Which of the following has the regulation of its radius determining blood flow through specific organs?
A) capillary
B) venule
C) artery
D) vein
E) arteriole

E) arteriole

Which of the following is the smallest of blood vessels with thin walls allowing for ready exchange of material between blood and tissue?
A) vein
B) artery
C) arteriole
D) capillary
E) venule

D) capillary

Which of the following blood vessels is slightly larger than capillaries, allowing for some exchange between blood and the tissue?
A) venule
B) artery
C) vein
D) capillary
E) arteriole

A) venule

Which of the following is a decrease in tissue oxygen?
A) ischemia
B) reactive hyperemia
C) myogenic response
D) hypoxia
E) active hyperemia

D) hypoxia

Which of the following is a decrease in blood supply to the tissue such that it does not meet the metabolic demands of the tissue?
A) myogenic response
B) hypoxia
C) ischemia
D) reactive hyperemia
E) active hyperemia

C) ischemia

An increase in blood flow to tissues in response to increased metabolic activity is called
A) ischemia.
B) myogenic response.
C) reactive hyperemia.
D) hypoxia.
E) active hyperemia.

E) active hyperemia.

A constriction of an arteriole in response to stretch of the arteriole smooth muscle is called
A) myogenic response.
B) reactive hyperemia.
C) ischemia.
D) active hyperemia.
E) hypoxia.

A) myogenic response.

An increase in blood flow to tissues in response to a previous reduction in blood flow is called
A) hypoxia.
B) reactive hyperemia.
C) active hyperemia.
D) ischemia.
E) myogenic response.

B) reactive hyperemia.

Vasopressin has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasospasm
B) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
C) vasodilation
D) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
E) vasoconstriction

E) vasoconstriction

Oxygen has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasodilation
B) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
C) vasospasm
D) vasoconstriction
E) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm

D) vasoconstriction

Angiotensin II has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasoconstriction
B) vasospasm
C) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
D) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
E) vasodilation

A) vasoconstriction

Carbon dioxide has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasoconstriction
B) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
C) vasodilation
D) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
E) vasospasm

C) vasodilation

Nitric oxide has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasodilation
B) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
C) vasoconstriction
D) vasospasm
E) vasoconstriction and vasospasm

A) vasodilation

Hydrogen ions have what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasoconstriction
B) vasospasm
C) vasodilation
D) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
E) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm

C) vasodilation

Sympathetic nerves have what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
B) vasodilation
C) vasoconstriction
D) vasospasm
E) vasoconstriction and vasospasm

C) vasoconstriction

Parasympathetic nervous activity has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasoconstriction
B) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
C) vasospasm
D) vasodilation
E) neither vasoconstriction and vasodilation

E) neither vasoconstriction and vasodilation

What is the equation relating flow to resistance and a pressure gradient?
A) flow = pressure gradient / resistance
B) flow × resistance = pressure × gradient
C) flow/resistance = 1/pressure gradient
D) flow = pressure × resistance
E) flow × resistance = 1/pressure gradient

A) flow = pressure gradient / resistance

What is the driving force for blood flow through the systemic circuit?
A) mean arterial pressure
B) total peripheral resistance
C) perfusion pressure
D) pulse pressure
E) cardiac output

A) mean arterial pressure

What is a decrease in blood flow that is less than what is necessary to keep up with metabolic demands called?
A) hypoxia
B) hypoxemia
C) infarction
D) hyperemia
E) ischemia

E) ischemia

What are local controls that tend to keep blood flow constant called?
A) osteogenic factors
B) flow autoregulation
C) flow telemetry
D) autonomics
E) extrinsic factors

B) flow autoregulation

Bradykinin causes vasodilation by stimulating the release of what substance from endothelial cells?
A) thromboxane A2
B) nitric oxide
C) cyclooxygenase
D) endothelin I
E) arachidonic acid

B) nitric oxide

Epinephrine triggers vasodilation by binding to which receptors and vasoconstriction by binding to which receptors?
A) beta2 : alpha
B) alpha2 : beta2
C) alpha1 : beta1
D) beta : cholinergic
E) alpha : beta2

A) beta2 : alpha

To produce angiotensin II, what must be secreted from the kidney to convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme?
A) preangiotensin
B) renin
C) erythropoietin
D) vitamin D3
E) angiotensinogen

B) renin

What are blood vessels that normally bypass capillary beds are called?
A) A-V malformations
B) pararterioles
C) venules
D) pre-capillary sphincters
E) metarterioles.

E) metarterioles.

What is bulk flow of fluid from inside a capillary into interstitial fluid called?
A) adsorption
B) absorption
C) secretion
D) filtration
E) excretion

D) filtration

What is the fluid within the lymphatic vessels called?
A) plasma
B) filtrate
C) lymph
D) pus
E) exudates

C) lymph

What is a drop in mean arterial pressure that results from standing up called?
A) recumbent hypotension
B) metastatic hypotension
C) paroxysmal hypotension
D) resultant hypotension
E) orthostatic hypotension

E) orthostatic hypotension

Smooth muscle in the veins has what type of adrenergic receptor?
A) alpha
B) gamma
C) alpha cholinergic
D) cholinergic
E) beta2

A) alpha

Which of the following is the equation relating cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance?
A) MAP = CO - TPR
B) TPR = CO/MAP
C) MAP + CO + TPR = pulse pressure
D) CO = TPR/MAP
E) MAP = CO × TPR

E) MAP = CO × TPR

Where are the arterial baroreceptors located?
A) coronary arteries
B) the pons
C) aortic arch and carotid sinuses (carotid arteries)
D) coronary sinuses and aortic arch
E) brachiocephalic artery

C) aortic arch and carotid sinuses (carotid arteries)

What are the two functions of increasing blood flow to the skin during exercise?
A) facilitate dissipation of heat; remove water for sweat production
B) facilitate dissipation of heat; energy reserve for underlying musculature
C) fat utilization for energy production; remove water for sweat production
D) facilitate dissipation of heat; provide energy for sweat production
E) energy reserve for underlying musculature; provide energy for sweat production

D) facilitate dissipation of heat; provide energy for sweat production

In response to a decrease in the stretch of a baroreceptor, sympathetic nervous activity will ________ while parasympathetic nervous activity will ________.
A) not change : remain constant B) increase : decrease
C) decrease : remain constant D) not change : increase
E) decrease : increase

B) increase : decrease

An increase in the stretch of a baroreceptor will cause venomotor tone to ________ while ventricular contractility will ________.
A) decrease : decrease
B) remain constant : not change
C) increase : not change
D) increase : increase
E) increase : decrease

A) decrease : decrease

What structures of the cardiovascular system are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, but are NOT by the parasympathetic nervous system?
A) arteriolar smooth muscle and venous smooth muscle
B) SA node, AV node, and bundle of His
C) ventricular myocardium, arteriolar smooth muscle and venous smooth muscle
D) SA node and AV node
E) arteriolar smooth muscle

C) ventricular myocardium, arteriolar smooth muscle and venous smooth muscle

Calculate the net filtration pressure given the following information: capillary blood pressure = 40 mm Hg; interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure = 2 mm Hg; plasma osmotic pressure = 20 mm Hg; and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure = 5 mm Hg. Does filtration or absorption occur across this capillary wall?
A) 67 mm Hg; absorption
B) 23 mm Hg; filtration
C) 27 mm Hg; filtration
D) 17 mm Hg; filtration
E) 27 mm Hg; absorption

B) 23 mm Hg; filtration

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ch14

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Which of the following equations correctly relates flow, pressure, and resistance?
A) resistance = flow × pressure
B) pressure = flow × resistance C) flow = pressure × resistance D) flow = pressure – resistance E) flow = pressure + resistance

B) pressure = flow × resistance

What is the driving force for blood flow through the systemic circuit?
A) mean arterial pressure
B) left ventricular pressure
C) central venous pressure
D) right atrial pressure
E) capillary hydrostatic pressure

A) mean arterial pressure

In comparison to the systemic circuit, the pulmonary circuit
A) has an equal pressure gradient to drive blood flow.
B) has lower blood flow.
C) is under greater pressure.
D) transports deoxygenated blood.
E) has lower resistance to blood flow.

E) has lower resistance to blood flow.

Which of the following would increase the rate of blood flow through a blood vessel?
A) increased pressure of the blood entering the vessel
B) increased viscosity of the blood
C) constriction of the blood vessel
D) decreased radius of the vessel
E) increased length of the vessel

A) increased pressure of the blood entering the vessel

5) Which of the following equations is correct?
A) resistance = (length × radius4) / viscosity
B) mean arterial pressure = cardiac output × stroke volume
C) cardiac output = mean arterial pressure × total peripheral resistance
D) cardiac output = stroke volume × heart rate
E) mean arterial pressure = resistance × viscosity

D) cardiac output = stroke volume × heart rate

Which of the following is NOT a component of the microcirculation?
A) veins
B) arterioles
C) metarterioles
D) capillaries
E) venules

A) veins

The lumen of every blood vessel is lined by a monolayer of what cell type?
A) fibroblasts
B) erythrocytes
C) smooth muscle cells
D) endothelial cells
E) platelets

D) endothelial cells

What is/are the component(s) of a blood vessel’s extracellular matrix that provide(s) the tensile strength required to withstand pressure?
A) albumin
B) elastin
C) hemoglobin
D) gap junctions
E) collagen

E) collagen

The elastic nature of the largest blood vessel’s walls allows them to act as a ________, maintaining the driving force for blood flow while the heart is relaxed during diastole.
A) contractile force
B) non-compliant structure
C) pressure reservoir
D) non-distensible structure
E) volume reservoir

C) pressure reservoir

The blood vessels of largest diameter are the ________, and the blood vessels with the thickest walls are the ________.
A) arteries : arterioles
B) arteries : veins
C) arteries : arteries
D) veins : arteries
E) veins : veins

D) veins : arteries

What component of artery walls allows them to store energy that is later used to maintain continuous blood flow through the circulatory system?
A) elastin
B) skeletal muscle
C) smooth muscle
D) endothelium
E) collagen

A) elastin

Arteries have ________ compliance and ________ resistance to flow.
A) low : low
B) high : high
C) zero : high
D) high : low
E) low : high

A) low : low

What is a measure of the change in vascular volume as pressure within the vessel is altered?
A) blood flow
B) compliance
C) resistance
D) the pressure gradient
E) diffusibility

B) compliance

A person goes to the doctor and is told his blood pressure is 90/60 and his pulse is 80. Which of the following is FALSE?
A) Pulse pressure is 80 mm Hg. B) Heart rate is 80.
C) Diastolic pressure is 60.
D) Systolic pressure is 90 mm Hg.
E) Mean arterial pressure is 70 mm Hg.

A) Pulse pressure is 80 mm Hg.

Blood pressure is usually estimated from indirect measurements of the pressure in what structure?
A) brachial artery
B) radial artery
C) left ventricle
D) femoral artery
E) aorta

A) brachial artery

Resistance to blood flow is regulated primarily by what blood vessels?
A) capillaries
B) arterioles
C) veins
D) ventricle
E) arteries

B) arterioles

In the circulatory system, the largest pressure drop occurs across which blood vessels?
A) arterioles
B) arteries
C) veins
D) venules
E) capillaries

A) arterioles

The pulsatile nature of blood pressure is greatest in which blood vessels?
A) arteries
B) capillaries
C) arterioles
D) venules
E) veins

A) arteries

The total cross-sectional area is greatest in which blood vessels?
A) capillaries
B) veins
C) venules
D) arteries
E) arterioles

A) capillaries

The contractile activity of smooth muscle cells within which type of blood vessel is primarily involved in the control of the organ blood flow and mean arterial pressure?
A) arteries
B) veins
C) capillaries
D) venules
E) arterioles

E) arterioles

Blood flow velocity is inversely proportional to the pooled surface area of a structure; therefore, it is greatest in the ________ and slowest in the ________.
A) arterioles : veins
B) arteries : capillaries
C) capillaries : arteries
D) arteries : veins
E) veins : arteries

B) arteries : capillaries

Which of the following statements about smooth muscle in arterioles is FALSE?
A) The muscle is multi-unit smooth muscle.
B) Muscle contraction is under intrinsic controls.
C) The muscle forms rings around the arteriole.
D) The muscle has inherent (myogenic) tone.
E) Muscle contraction is under extrinsic controls.

A) The muscle is multi-unit smooth muscle.

What is the purpose of extrinsic control of arteriolar smooth muscle contractile activity?
A) regulate blood flow through specific capillary beds
B) regulate heart rate
C) regulate cardiac output
D) regulate stroke volume
E) regulate mean arterial pressure

E) regulate mean arterial pressure

Which of the following chemicals’ concentration is NOT increased by an elevation in metabolic activity?
A) potassium
B) pyruvic acid
C) carbon dioxide
D) hydrogen
E) oxygen

E) oxygen

Chemicals released by metabolically active cells will cause which of the following?
A) contraction of arteriolar smooth muscle to decrease blood flow
B) contraction of capillary smooth muscle to increase blood flow
C) relaxation of capillary smooth muscle to decrease blood flow
D) contraction of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow
E) relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow

E) relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow

What is a decrease in tissue oxygen called?
A) hyperoxia
B) ischemia
C) hypoxemia
D) hyperemia
E) hypoxia

E) hypoxia

What is an increase in blood flow in response to an increase in tissue metabolic activity called?
A) hypoxia
B) hyperoxia
C) reactive hyperemia
D) active hyperemia
E) ischemia

D) active hyperemia

In response to a decrease in tissue metabolic activity, tissue oxygen concentrations ________, which causes a(n) ________.
A) decrease : active hyperemic response
B) decrease : increase in tissue ischemia
C) increase : constriction of the arterioles
D) decrease : dilation of the arterioles
E) increase : active hyperemic response

C) increase : constriction of the arterioles

A decrease in pressure within an arteriole will initiate a(n)
A) cardiac and venous baroreceptor reflex.
B) arterial baroreceptor reflex. C) myogenic response.
D) sinus arrhythmia.
E) active hyperemia.

C) myogenic response.

Which of the following accurately compares active hyperemia to reactive hyperemia?
A) One is an increase in blood flow, the other is a decrease.
B) One is caused by increased metabolic activity, the other in response to an increase in metabolites from an occlusion to blood flow.
C) One is caused by an increase in metabolites, the other to a decrease in perfusion pressure.
D) One involves vasodilation, the other vasoconstriction.
E) One is an intrinsic response, the other an extrinsic response.

B) One is caused by increased metabolic activity, the other in response to an increase in metabolites from an occlusion to blood flow.

An increase in the concentration of which of the following within the interstitial space surrounding an arteriole would cause that vessel to constrict?
A) lactic acid
B) prostacyclin
C) nitric oxide
D) adenosine
E) oxygen

E) oxygen

32) Which of the following substances is secreted by endothelial cells and causes vasoconstriction?
A) adenosine
B) oxygen
C) bradykinin
D) nitric oxide
E) endothelin-1

E) endothelin-1

33) Which of the following substances is continuously secreted by endothelial cells and causes vasodilation?
A) endothelin-1
B) bradykinin
C) nitric oxide
D) adenosine
E) oxygen

C) nitric oxide

34) Which of the following is an important vasodilator in coronary arteries?
A) oxygen
B) endothelin-1
C) bradykinin
D) adenosine
E) nitric oxide

D) adenosine

During exercise, which organs receive an increase in the proportion of cardiac output delivered to them?
A) gastrointestinal tract and skeletal muscle
B) skeletal muscle, heart, and brain
C) brain and heart
D) skeletal muscle, heart, and skin
E) skeletal muscle, skin, and brain

D) skeletal muscle, heart, and skin

Any change in the relative distribution of cardiac output to an organ is typically due to changes in which of the following?
A) mean arterial pressure
B) viscosity of the blood moving through that organ’s vascular bed
C) resistance of that organ’s vascular bed
D) central venous pressure
E) compliance of that organ’s vascular bed

C) resistance of that organ’s vascular bed

During exercise, which of the following tissues receive less blood flow compared to resting conditions?
A) gastrointestinal tract only
B) brain only
C) skin only
D) heart only
E) both gastrointestinal tract and skin

A) gastrointestinal tract only

Which of the following would decrease mean arterial pressure?
A) increase in stroke volume
B) increase in venous return
C) increase in heart rate
D) increase in total peripheral resistance
E) increase in arteriole diameter

E) increase in arteriole diameter

What type of adrenergic receptor is found in the smooth muscle of most systemic arterioles?
A) alpha only
B) beta1 only
C) beta2 only
D) beta3 only
E) both alpha and beta1

A) alpha only

The effects of epinephrine on vascular resistance are dependent upon which of the following?
A) concentration of local metabolites
B) relative distribution of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors
C) relative distribution of alpha and beta receptors
D) direction of change in mean arterial pressure
E) specific baroreceptor activated (low or high pressure)

C) relative distribution of alpha and beta receptors

In cardiac and skeletal muscle vasculature, the distribution of alpha and beta receptors is such that epinephrine will
A) induce a dilation that increases blood flow to these tissues.
B) have no effect on peripheral resistance.
C) increase skeletal muscle contractility.
D) induce a constriction that decreases blood flow to these tissues.
E) increase myocardial contractility.

A) induce a dilation that increases blood flow to these tissues.

Arteriolar smooth muscle in which of the following tissues tends to have beta2 receptors predominating?
A) gastrointestinal tract
B) liver
C) skeletal muscle
D) skin
E) brain

C) skeletal muscle

Drugs that block angiotensin-converting enzyme would cause which of the following?
A) decrease in epinephrine release
B) activation of the parasympathetic nervous system
C) stimulation of reactive hyperemia
D) decreased mean arterial pressure
E) decreased heart rate

D) decreased mean arterial pressure

Fenestrated capillaries are unique in their ability to
A) maintain a low permeability to small water-soluble molecules.
B) restrict the passage of proteins across endothelial cells.
C) move molecules across endothelial cells by transcytosis.
D) allow relatively large molecules to pass between endothelial cells.
E) allow few molecules to pass between endothelial cells.

D) allow relatively large molecules to pass between endothelial cells.

What organ has capillaries that are the most restrictive to movement of hydrophilic solutes?
A) liver
B) kidneys
C) skeletal muscle
D) bone marrow
E) brain

E) brain

Which of the following would increase blood flow through a capillary bed?
A) constriction of the arteriole leading into the capillary bed
B) increase in venous pressure
C) contraction of precapillary sphincters in the capillary bed
D) contraction of smooth muscle in the metarterioles bypassing the capillary bed
E) decrease in blood pressure in the arteriole leading into the capillary bed

D) contraction of smooth muscle in the metarterioles bypassing the capillary bed

Which of the following would cause relaxation of precapillary sphincters?
A) parasympathetic activity
B) epinephrine
C) vasopressin
D) sympathetic activity
E) carbon dioxide

E) carbon dioxide

Glucose moves across continuous capillary walls by what mechanism?
A) secondary active transport
B) facilitated
C) transcytosis
D) diffusion
E) primary active transport

D) diffusion

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism that enables molecules to move across capillary endothelial cells?
A) movement through water-filled gaps between endothelial cells
B) rapid diffusion of water-soluble molecules directly across the endothelial cells
C) transcytosis across endothelial cells
D) movement of exchangeable proteins across endothelial cells
E) diffusion of lipid-soluble molecules directly across the endothelial cell

B) rapid diffusion of water-soluble molecules directly across the endothelial cells

________ describes the movement of fluid out of the capillary, while ________ describes the movement of fluid into the capillary.
A) Filtration : absorption
B) Edema : venous pooling
C) Absorption : filtration
D) Hydrostatic pressure : oncotic pressure
E) Venous pooling : edema

A) Filtration : absorption

The portion of osmotic pressure exerted by ________ in the blood is known as colloid osmotic pressure (or oncotic pressure).
A) small ions
B) lipids
C) steroids
D) large ions
E) proteins

E) proteins

Under normal conditions, which Starling forces favor filtration?
A) capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
B) capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
C) capillary hydrostatic pressure and plasma oncotic pressure
D) interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
E) interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and plasma oncotic pressure

B) capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure

Which of the following inaccurately represents normal forces across capillary walls?
A) Interstitial fluid oncotic pressure is almost zero.
B) At rest, net filtration occurs across capillary walls.
C) Capillary hydrostatic pressure decreases from arteriole end to venous end.
D) Capillary oncotic pressure is due primarily to plasma proteins.
E) Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure increases from arteriole end to venous end.

E) Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure increases from arteriole end to venous end.

Given that the net filtration of fluid out of the capillaries averages about 3 liters per day, how is blood volume maintained in light of this apparent fluid loss?
A) The kidneys are involved in the reabsorption of the remaining fluid.
B) Gravity moves the fluid to the lowest point in the body, where the fluid is absorbed.
C) While fluid moves out across the capillary, it tends to move inward across veins.
D) The lymphatic system returns filtered fluid to the blood.
E) The net filtration is equally balanced by absorption.

D) The lymphatic system returns filtered fluid to the blood.

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism that alters the balance between filtration and absorption in the body?
A) increasing the elimination of plasma proteins in cases of kidney damage
B) increasing the permeability of the capillaries in regions of tissue damage
C) increasing capillary hydrostatic pressure within the feet as one stands
D) increasing hydrostatic pressure gradient in cases of enhanced interstitial protein
E) decreasing plasma protein synthesis in cases of liver damage

D) increasing hydrostatic pressure gradient in cases of enhanced interstitial protein

Which of the following comparisons between systemic capillaries and lymphatic capillaries is TRUE?
A) Pressure is higher in lymphatic capillaries.
B) Blood cells are found in both types of capillaries.
C) Fluid enters systemic capillaries from systemic arterioles; fluid enters lymphatic capillaries from
lymphatic veins.
D) Walls of systemic capillaries are more permeable.
E) Net filtration occurs across systemic capillaries; net absorption occurs across lymphatic capillaries.

E) Net filtration occurs across systemic capillaries; net absorption occurs across lymphatic capillaries.

Foreign materials are filtered out of the lymphatic fluid by what type of cell located within the lymph nodes?
A) erythrocytes
B) platelets
C) mast cells
D) macrophages
E) leukocytes

D) macrophages

Exchange between blood and interstitial fluid occurs across capillaries and, to a lesser extent,
A) arterioles.
B) veins.
C) arteries.
D) venules.
E) metarterioles.

D) venules.

What region of the cardiovascular system contains valves?
A) heart only
B) met arterioles only
C) veins only
D) both the heart and veins
E) the heart, metarterioles, and veins

D) both the heart and veins

Veins functions as ________ reservoirs due to their ________ compliance.
A) pressure : lack of
B) volume : low
C) pressure : low
D) pressure : high
E) volume : high

E) volume : high

Valves, which are found ________, maintain the unidirectional movement of blood, thereby facilitating the return of blood to the heart.
A) only in peripheral veins
B) in all venules
C) only in arteries
D) only in central veins
E) in all veins

A) only in peripheral veins

The high compliance of veins allows them to
A) provide the driving force for the movement of blood through the vasculature during diastole.
B) rapidly change central venous pressure with small changes in blood volume.
C) act as pressure reservoirs.
D) hold only small volumes of blood.
E) accommodate large volumes of blood with little change in pressure.

E) accommodate large volumes of blood with little change in pressure.

At rest, the greatest proportion of blood volume is present within the
A) systemic capillaries.
B) systemic arteries.
C) systemic veins.
D) pulmonary veins.
E) heart.

C) systemic veins.

Which of the following would decrease central venous pressure?
A) activity of skeletal muscles
B) increased respiratory activity C) increased sympathetic activity
D) standing up
E) increased blood volume

D) standing up

An increase in the volume of blood ejected from the heart, with no change in total peripheral resistance, would
A) elevate central venous pressure.
B) reduce the stretch on the aorta.
C) elevate pulmonary venous pressure.
D) reduce mean arterial pressure.
E) elevate mean arterial pressure.

E) elevate mean arterial pressure.

An increase in total peripheral resistance, in the absence of any change in cardiac output, would
A) elevate mean arterial pressure.
B) reduce the stretch on the aorta.
C) reduce mean arterial pressure.
D) decrease central venous pressure.
E) decrease pulmonary venous pressure.

A) elevate mean arterial pressure.

The respiratory pump facilitates the return of blood to the heart by
A) squeezing blood from the rhythmic contraction of the diaphragm muscle.
B) decreasing the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during expiration.
C) raising the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during inspiration.
D) decreasing the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during inspiration.
E) raising the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during expiration.

C) raising the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during inspiration.

Which of the following would NOT increase mean arterial pressure?
A) decreased parasympathetic activity effects on the heart
B) increased sympathetic activity to the veins
C) increased sympathetic activity to the heart
D) decreased parasympathetic activity effects on the arterioles E) increased levels of epinephrine in the blood

D) decreased parasympathetic activity effects on the arterioles

The long-term regulation of arterial blood pressure involves the
A) stimulation of an increase in urine flow through the kidneys.
B) control of peripheral resistance.
C) immediate change in activity of the nervous system.
D) control of blood volume by the kidneys.
E) release of hormones over a period of minutes.

D) control of blood volume by the kidneys.

________ are responsible for the detection of mean arterial pressure.
A) Aortic chemoreceptors
B) Medullary chemoreceptors
C) Venous baroreceptors
D) Thermoreceptors
E) Arterial baroreceptors

E) Arterial baroreceptors

Which of the following best classifies the baroreceptor reflex?
A) cranial; autonomic; conditioned; monosynaptic
B) cranial; autonomic; innate; polysynaptic
C) cranial; somatic; conditioned; polysynaptic
D) spinal; autonomic; innate; polysynaptic
E) spinal; autonomic; innate; monosynaptic

B) cranial; autonomic; innate; polysynaptic

As mean arterial pressure increases, the ________, informing the medulla oblongata that blood pressure has indeed increased.
A) number of neurons stimulated within the aortic arch increases
B) blood flow to the brain increases
C) number of sympathetic neurons activated decreases
D) amplitude of the action potentials from the baroreceptors increases
E) frequency of action potentials from the baroreceptors increases

E) frequency of action potentials from the baroreceptors increases

Information about mean arterial pressure is integrated within what area of the central nervous system?
A) cerebellum
B) pons
C) medulla oblongata
D) cervical spinal cord
E) hypothalamus

C) medulla oblongata

Where is the cardiovascular control center?
A) adrenal medulla
B) medulla oblongata
C) hypothalamus
D) adrenal cortex
E) pons

B) medulla oblongata

Which of the following descriptions of the autonomic innervation of the cardiovascular system is FALSE?
A) Only sympathetic neurons provide significant innervation of the contractile cells of the heart.
B) Only sympathetic neurons innervate smooth muscle in veins.
C) Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons innervate smooth muscle in arterioles.
D) Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons innervate the SA node.
E) Sympathetic activity increases cardiac output, whereas parasympathetic activity decreases cardiac
output.

C) Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons innervate smooth muscle in arterioles.

Which of the following will NOT occur in response to a decrease in the extent of stretch detected by a baroreceptor?
A) increased heart rate
B) increased urine flow
C) increased ventricular contractility
D) increased venomotor tone
E) increased peripheral resistance

B) increased urine flow

Which of the following is NOT altered within seconds to minutes of the baroreceptor reflex being activated?
A) venomotor tone
B) total peripheral resistance
C) heart rate
D) stroke volume
E) blood volume

E) blood volume

Which of the following does NOT occur in response to baroreceptors detecting an increase in mean arterial pressure?
A) decreased end-diastolic volume
B) decreased frequency of sinoatrial node action potentials
C) decreased venous compliance
D) vasoconstriction
E) decreased heart rate

D) vasoconstriction

The chronic elevation in arterial pressure (hypertension) that occurs in many individuals results in
A) the resetting of the baroreceptor to a lower pressure.
B) a decreased sensitivity of the baroreceptor that causes pressure to fluctuate.
C) the maintenance of a constant error signal by the baroreceptor.
D) the baroreceptors becoming more sensitive to pressure.
E) a gradual increase in pressure that resets the baroreceptors.

E) a gradual increase in pressure that resets the baroreceptors.

The reduction in organ blood flow that results from a decrease in mean arterial pressure would be exacerbated by the ________ that occurs as a consequence of the baroreceptor reflex.
A) increased venous return
B) increased peripheral resistance
C) increased ventricular contractility
D) decreased compliance of the veins
E) increased stroke volume

B) increased peripheral resistance

An increase in sympathetic nervous activity to arterioles will have little effect on vasoconstriction of the
A) brain and heart.
B) skeletal muscles.
C) kidneys.
D) gastrointestinal tract.
E) heart and kidneys.

A) brain and heart.

The hormone vasopressin acts in the short term to ________ and in the long term to ________, thereby increasing mean arterial pressure.
A) vasoconstrict arterioles : decrease urine outflow
B) increase urine outflow : vasodilate arterioles
C) vasodilate arterioles : increase urine outflow
D) vasodilate arterioles : decrease urine outflow
E) decrease urine outflow : vasoconstrict arterioles

A) vasoconstrict arterioles : decrease urine outflow

Due to their location, baroreceptors in the large systemic veins and the heart function primarily to monitor
A) heart rate.
B) mean arterial pressure.
C) blood flow.
D) blood volume.
E) total peripheral resistance.

D) blood volume.

Which of the following terms is used to label the rhythmic changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity that affect heart rate coincident with respiration?
A) pulmonary sinus rhythmia
B) respiratory sinus rhythmia
C) lung sinus rhythmia
D) respiratory sinus arrhythmia
E) pulmonary sinus arrhythmia

D) respiratory sinus arrhythmia

Despite seeming counterproductive, an increase in arterial carbon dioxide levels activates ________, which causes a(n) ________ in heart rate and a(n) ________ in total peripheral resistance.
A) baroreceptors : decrease : decrease
B) baroreceptors : increase : increase
C) chemoreceptors : decrease : increase
D) chemoreceptors: decrease : decrease
E) baroreceptors : decrease : increase

D) chemoreceptors: decrease : decrease

Which of the following will NOT occur as a consequence of the activation of the baroreceptor reflex that would occur in response to an increased heat load within the body?
A) an increase in resistance within the skin vasculature
B) an increase in stroke volume
C) an increase in heart rate
D) an increase in venoconstriction
E) a decrease in resistance within the skeletal muscle vasculature

A) an increase in resistance within the skin vasculature

The increase in stroke volume that occurs during exercise is caused primarily by a(n)
A) increase in end-diastolic volume.
B) increase in myocardial contractility.
C) decrease in peripheral resistance.
D) increase in venous return.
E) decrease in end-systolic volume.

B) increase in myocardial contractility.

The increase in blood flow to active skeletal muscle relative to other organs is largely caused by the
A) increase in local metabolic factors within the muscle.
B) increase in sympathetic activity.
C) decrease in metabolic factors within the muscle.
D) decrease in parasympathetic activity.
E) increase in parasympathetic activity.

A) increase in local metabolic factors within the muscle.

Which of the following accurately describes sympathetic control of blood vessels in the skin during thermoregulation?
A) Heat causes an increase in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasodilation.
B) Heat causes a decrease in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasoconstriction.
C) Heat activates the parasympathetic activity and has no effect on the sympathetic nervous system.
D) Heat causes a decrease in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasodilation.
E) Heat causes an increase in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasoconstriction.

D) Heat causes a decrease in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasodilation.

Mean arterial pressure can be increased by all of the following EXCEPT
A) increasing venous return.
B) increasing blood volume.
C) decreasing end-diastolic volume.
D) increasing sympathetic activity.
E) increasing heart rate.

C) decreasing end-diastolic volume.

Which of the following can cause vasoconstriction?
A) angiotensin II
B) increase in carbon dioxide
C) release of nitric oxide
D) increase in histamine
E) increase in osmolarity

A) angiotensin II

The primary mechanism for exchange of substances across the capillary wall is
A) diffusion.
B) mediated transport.
C) bulk flow.
D) vesicle transport.
E) active transport.

A) diffusion.

Given the following information, calculate the net filtration pressure: capillary hydrostatic pressure = 30 mm Hg; interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure = 5 mm Hg; capillary oncotic pressure = 25 mm Hg; and interstitial fluid oncotic pressure = 10 mm Hg.
A) 0 mm Hg, no net force
B) 40 mm Hg, favoring filtration C) 10 mm Hg, favoring filtration
D) -10 mm Hg, favoring reabsorption
E) -40 mm Hg, favoring reabsorption

C) 10 mm Hg, favoring filtration

Which of the following can cause edema?
A) decreased venous pressure only
B) damage to capillary walls only
C) increase in extravasated plasma proteins only
D) both an increase in plasma proteins and a decrease in venous pressure
E) both damage to capillary walls and an increase in extravasated plasma proteins

B) damage to capillary walls only

Which of the following is an incorrect description of a blood vessel type?
A) The radius of arterioles can be regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic controls.
B) Most of the blood volume at rest is in the systemic veins.
C) Arteries are elastic.
D) Capillary walls are comprised of only two cell layers, minimizing the distance for exchange.
E) Veins have high compliance.

D) Capillary walls are comprised of only two cell layers, minimizing the distance for exchange.

During exercise, carbon dioxide produced by muscle cells causes vasodilation in skeletal muscle. This is an example of
A) active hyperemia.
B) flow autoregulation.
C) ischemia.
D) reactive hyperemia.
E) hypoxia.

A) active hyperemia.

Which of the following structures contains high pressure baroreceptors?
A) aortic arch only
B) carotid sinus only
C) right atrium only
D) both the aortic arch and carotid sinus
E) aortic arch, right atrium, and carotid sinus

D) both the aortic arch and carotid sinus

Of the following choices, which has the elastic recoil of its walls during diastole, causing a continuation of blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle?
A) capillary
B) arteriole
C) vein
D) venule
E) artery

E) artery

Which of the following has high compliance, allowing it to hold a large volume of blood with little change in pressure?
A) capillary
B) vein
C) artery
D) arteriole
E) venule

B) vein

Which of the following has the regulation of its radius determining blood flow through specific organs?
A) capillary
B) venule
C) artery
D) vein
E) arteriole

E) arteriole

Which of the following is the smallest of blood vessels with thin walls allowing for ready exchange of material between blood and tissue?
A) vein
B) artery
C) arteriole
D) capillary
E) venule

D) capillary

Which of the following blood vessels is slightly larger than capillaries, allowing for some exchange between blood and the tissue?
A) venule
B) artery
C) vein
D) capillary
E) arteriole

A) venule

Which of the following is a decrease in tissue oxygen?
A) ischemia
B) reactive hyperemia
C) myogenic response
D) hypoxia
E) active hyperemia

D) hypoxia

Which of the following is a decrease in blood supply to the tissue such that it does not meet the metabolic demands of the tissue?
A) myogenic response
B) hypoxia
C) ischemia
D) reactive hyperemia
E) active hyperemia

C) ischemia

An increase in blood flow to tissues in response to increased metabolic activity is called
A) ischemia.
B) myogenic response.
C) reactive hyperemia.
D) hypoxia.
E) active hyperemia.

E) active hyperemia.

A constriction of an arteriole in response to stretch of the arteriole smooth muscle is called
A) myogenic response.
B) reactive hyperemia.
C) ischemia.
D) active hyperemia.
E) hypoxia.

A) myogenic response.

An increase in blood flow to tissues in response to a previous reduction in blood flow is called
A) hypoxia.
B) reactive hyperemia.
C) active hyperemia.
D) ischemia.
E) myogenic response.

B) reactive hyperemia.

Vasopressin has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasospasm
B) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
C) vasodilation
D) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
E) vasoconstriction

E) vasoconstriction

Oxygen has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasodilation
B) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
C) vasospasm
D) vasoconstriction
E) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm

D) vasoconstriction

Angiotensin II has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasoconstriction
B) vasospasm
C) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
D) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
E) vasodilation

A) vasoconstriction

Carbon dioxide has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasoconstriction
B) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
C) vasodilation
D) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
E) vasospasm

C) vasodilation

Nitric oxide has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasodilation
B) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
C) vasoconstriction
D) vasospasm
E) vasoconstriction and vasospasm

A) vasodilation

Hydrogen ions have what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasoconstriction
B) vasospasm
C) vasodilation
D) vasoconstriction and vasospasm
E) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm

C) vasodilation

Sympathetic nerves have what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
B) vasodilation
C) vasoconstriction
D) vasospasm
E) vasoconstriction and vasospasm

C) vasoconstriction

Parasympathetic nervous activity has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasoconstriction
B) neither vasodilation or vasoconstriction, but may cause vasospasm
C) vasospasm
D) vasodilation
E) neither vasoconstriction and vasodilation

E) neither vasoconstriction and vasodilation

What is the equation relating flow to resistance and a pressure gradient?
A) flow = pressure gradient / resistance
B) flow × resistance = pressure × gradient
C) flow/resistance = 1/pressure gradient
D) flow = pressure × resistance
E) flow × resistance = 1/pressure gradient

A) flow = pressure gradient / resistance

What is the driving force for blood flow through the systemic circuit?
A) mean arterial pressure
B) total peripheral resistance
C) perfusion pressure
D) pulse pressure
E) cardiac output

A) mean arterial pressure

What is a decrease in blood flow that is less than what is necessary to keep up with metabolic demands called?
A) hypoxia
B) hypoxemia
C) infarction
D) hyperemia
E) ischemia

E) ischemia

What are local controls that tend to keep blood flow constant called?
A) osteogenic factors
B) flow autoregulation
C) flow telemetry
D) autonomics
E) extrinsic factors

B) flow autoregulation

Bradykinin causes vasodilation by stimulating the release of what substance from endothelial cells?
A) thromboxane A2
B) nitric oxide
C) cyclooxygenase
D) endothelin I
E) arachidonic acid

B) nitric oxide

Epinephrine triggers vasodilation by binding to which receptors and vasoconstriction by binding to which receptors?
A) beta2 : alpha
B) alpha2 : beta2
C) alpha1 : beta1
D) beta : cholinergic
E) alpha : beta2

A) beta2 : alpha

To produce angiotensin II, what must be secreted from the kidney to convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme?
A) preangiotensin
B) renin
C) erythropoietin
D) vitamin D3
E) angiotensinogen

B) renin

What are blood vessels that normally bypass capillary beds are called?
A) A-V malformations
B) pararterioles
C) venules
D) pre-capillary sphincters
E) metarterioles.

E) metarterioles.

What is bulk flow of fluid from inside a capillary into interstitial fluid called?
A) adsorption
B) absorption
C) secretion
D) filtration
E) excretion

D) filtration

What is the fluid within the lymphatic vessels called?
A) plasma
B) filtrate
C) lymph
D) pus
E) exudates

C) lymph

What is a drop in mean arterial pressure that results from standing up called?
A) recumbent hypotension
B) metastatic hypotension
C) paroxysmal hypotension
D) resultant hypotension
E) orthostatic hypotension

E) orthostatic hypotension

Smooth muscle in the veins has what type of adrenergic receptor?
A) alpha
B) gamma
C) alpha cholinergic
D) cholinergic
E) beta2

A) alpha

Which of the following is the equation relating cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance?
A) MAP = CO – TPR
B) TPR = CO/MAP
C) MAP + CO + TPR = pulse pressure
D) CO = TPR/MAP
E) MAP = CO × TPR

E) MAP = CO × TPR

Where are the arterial baroreceptors located?
A) coronary arteries
B) the pons
C) aortic arch and carotid sinuses (carotid arteries)
D) coronary sinuses and aortic arch
E) brachiocephalic artery

C) aortic arch and carotid sinuses (carotid arteries)

What are the two functions of increasing blood flow to the skin during exercise?
A) facilitate dissipation of heat; remove water for sweat production
B) facilitate dissipation of heat; energy reserve for underlying musculature
C) fat utilization for energy production; remove water for sweat production
D) facilitate dissipation of heat; provide energy for sweat production
E) energy reserve for underlying musculature; provide energy for sweat production

D) facilitate dissipation of heat; provide energy for sweat production

In response to a decrease in the stretch of a baroreceptor, sympathetic nervous activity will ________ while parasympathetic nervous activity will ________.
A) not change : remain constant B) increase : decrease
C) decrease : remain constant D) not change : increase
E) decrease : increase

B) increase : decrease

An increase in the stretch of a baroreceptor will cause venomotor tone to ________ while ventricular contractility will ________.
A) decrease : decrease
B) remain constant : not change
C) increase : not change
D) increase : increase
E) increase : decrease

A) decrease : decrease

What structures of the cardiovascular system are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, but are NOT by the parasympathetic nervous system?
A) arteriolar smooth muscle and venous smooth muscle
B) SA node, AV node, and bundle of His
C) ventricular myocardium, arteriolar smooth muscle and venous smooth muscle
D) SA node and AV node
E) arteriolar smooth muscle

C) ventricular myocardium, arteriolar smooth muscle and venous smooth muscle

Calculate the net filtration pressure given the following information: capillary blood pressure = 40 mm Hg; interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure = 2 mm Hg; plasma osmotic pressure = 20 mm Hg; and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure = 5 mm Hg. Does filtration or absorption occur across this capillary wall?
A) 67 mm Hg; absorption
B) 23 mm Hg; filtration
C) 27 mm Hg; filtration
D) 17 mm Hg; filtration
E) 27 mm Hg; absorption

B) 23 mm Hg; filtration

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