Ch1 Organizational Behavior MGMT3720

___ are defined as people who oversee the activities of others and who are responsible for attaining goals in an organization.
A) Assistants
B) Managers
C) Secretaries
D) Interns
E) Apprentices

B) Managers

Sally Mitchell works as a manager at an environmental organization. She is currently working on a global warming project and decides which tasks related to creating awareness about the issue needs to be done. In addition, she is also deciding which members of her team will work on engaging with the public and which will work on lobbying with the government. She is also assigning people as team members to ensure that tasks are undertaken on time. Which of the following categories of functions is Mitchell undertaking?

A) Planning
B) Organizing
C) Scrutinizing
D) Controlling
E) Envisioning

B) Organizing

Johanna Reid, a campaign manager at a child rights organization, recently started working on an illiteracy project. During the project, she needs to motivate team members to attain their project milestones and direct them through different phases of the project. Which of the following kinds of functions will these tasks be covered under?
A) planning
B) organizing
C) scrutinizing
D) evaluating
E) leading

E) leading

Lesley Torres is a project manager for the campaign "Action against Deforestation in Indonesia." She recently faced a glitch when the campaign could not be launched publicly according to schedule. Torres monitored the schedule to find the cause of the delay before speeding up the implementation process by allocating more members for the implementation phase. By doing this, which of the following functions is she performing?
A) controlling
B) planning
C) formulating
D) leading
E) organizing

A) Controlling

Which of the following functions do managers undertake as part of planning functions?
A) defining an organization's goals
B) implementing strategies for achieving goals
C) executing plans to integrate activities
D) accomplishing goals of a project
E) employing strategies to coordinate tasks

A) defining an organization's goals

6) According to Henry Mintzberg a factory supervisor giving a group of high school students a tour of the plant may be termed as a ________.
A) leader
B) figurehead
C) resource allocator
D) negotiator
E) disturbance handler

B) figurehead

Ellen Ortiz works as a sales manager at a telecom firm. The company has recently launched a new product in the market. Her work in the next few weeks involves sharing knowledge about the product with her team members. She will also need to inspire them to reach their sales targets and clarify any doubts about the new product. Which of the following roles is Ortiz playing?
A) leader
B) liaison
C) disseminator
D) spokesperson
E) negotiator

A) leader

Regina George works as a campaign manager in a not-for-profit organization in Hampshire. For the upcoming campaign against genetic engineering, she is networking with managers who are working on the issue of food safety. Through her network of contacts, she strives to gain information about the stakeholders in the food industry and other lobby groups. Which of the following roles is George most likely to be playing according to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles
A) figurehead
B) leader
C) liaison
D) entrepreneur
E) resource allocator

C) liaison

Annette Simpson works for a fashion house in Paris and is preparing for the company's upcoming line of winter clothing. She is currently researching online to know what is in vogue this season. In addition, she is also networking with contacts from the press and fashion magazine editors to understand the changing tastes of consumers. Which of the following roles is Simpson playing according to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles?
A) figurehead
B) leader
C) symbol head
D) monitor
E) spokesperson

D) monitor

According to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles, the role of a(n) ________ is to transmit information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization.
A) entrepreneur
B) resource allocator
C) spokesperson
D) leader
E) disseminator

E) disseminator

The role of a(n) ________, according to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles, is to transmit information to outsiders about an organization's plans, policies, actions, and results and to serve as an expert in the organization's industry.
A) spokesperson
B) disturbance handler
C) entrepreneur
D) leader
E) liaison

A) spokesperson

According to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles, a(n) ________ searches the organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change.
A) spokesperson
B) disturbance handler
C) entrepreneur
D) resource allocator
E) negotiator

C) entrepreneur

According to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles, the role of a(n) ________ is to make or approve significant organizational decisions and assign human, physical, and monetary assets.
A) disseminator
B) liaison
C) entrepreneur
D) resource allocator
E) disturbance handlers

D) resource allocator

According to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles, which of the following is a kind of interpersonal role?
A) monitor
B) disseminator
C) spokesperson
D) entrepreneur
E) liaison

E) liaison

According to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles, which of the following is a kind of decisional role?
A) negotiator
B) disseminator
C) liaison
D) spokesperson
E) monitor

A) negotiator

The role of a(n) ________ is a type of informational role according to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles.
A) figurehead
B) disseminator
C) liaison
D) entrepreneur
E) negotiator

B) disseminator

Which of the following is true regarding technical skills?
A) They can be learned only through formal education.
B) They encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge.
C) They are not required at all kinds of jobs.
D) They are monopolized by professionals.
E) They comprise the ability to understand and motivate people.

B) They encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge.

The ability to understand, communicate with, motivate, and support other people, both individually and in groups, may be defined as ________.
A) human skills
B) technical skills
C) conceptual skills
D) cognitive skills
E) analytical skills

A) human skills

Melissa Woods was recently hired as the campaign manager at an environmental organization. She has a degree in environmental sustainability and possesses substantial knowledge about the issue of global warming. She has the knowledge to lead the public relations team of the organization. However, a few months later, the board of directors of the organization expressed dissatisfaction with Melissa's performance and asked her to resign. Which of the following, if true, best explains this situation?
A) Melissa had no prior experience in research and development.
B) Melissa had weak interpersonal and networking skills to run the project.
C) Melissa focused on the results her team achieved rather than how they achieved those results.
D) Melissa is not up-to-date about the feasibility of using different modes of renewable energy.
E) Melissa had a diverse network of contacts established from her previous job.

B) Melissa had weak interpersonal and networking skills to run the project.

Joann Hayes is currently working on a project to tackle climate change. During the project, she needs to find different options to replace the use of non-renewable energy and check the feasibility of different renewable energy options before choosing the most practical one. Which of the following skills does Hayes primarily need to use for these tasks?
A) human skills
B) interpersonal skills
C) conceptual skills
D) communication skills
E) interactive skills

C) conceptual skills

360.org, an organization working toward curbing climate change, recently conducted an interview with Jessica for the position of a public relations officer. However, interviewers Brenda and Laura are divided over whether Jessica should be given the job. Brenda believes that Jessica does not have in-depth knowledge about the issue of global warming and its impact. On the other hand, Laura feels that Jessica would be perfect for the job because she has strong networking and interpersonal skills. Which of the following, if true, would strengthen Laura's argument?
A) Gaining the support of corporate giants would comprise a large part of the job.
B) Jessica will need to prepare extensive reports about the issue of climate change.
C) The role will require Jessica to give presentations to environmental experts on renewable modes of energy.
D) Jessica had negligible experience in research and development.
E) Jessica has weak analytical skills to solve problems associated with implementing options of renewable energy.

A) Gaining the support of corporate giants would comprise a large part of the job.

360.org, an organization working toward curbing climate change, recently conducted an interview with Jessica for the position of a public relations officer. However, interviewers Brenda and Laura are divided over whether Jessica should be given the job. Brenda believes that Jessica does not have in-depth knowledge about the issue of global warming and its impact. On the other hand, Laura feels that Jessica would be perfect for the job because she has strong interpersonal skills. Which of the following, if true, would weaken Laura's argument?
A) Jessica was unable to fare well in the written test which analyzed her conceptual skills.
B) Jessica listened intently to the interviewers' questions before answering them.
C) Jessica was unable to communicate clearly why she was right for the job.
D) Jessica was very friendly and courteous with the receptionist while greeting her.
E) Jessica was high on confidence about getting the job because of her strong networking skills.

C) Jessica was unable to communicate clearly why she was right for the job.

According to Fred Luthans and his associates, managers involved in traditional management activities undertook which of the following tasks?
A) motivating
B) socializing
C) decision making
D) training
E) politicking

C) decision making

According to Fred Luthans and his associates' study of 450 managers, ________ made the largest contribution to the success of managers in terms of speed of promotion within their organization.
A) networking
B) decision making
C) planning
D) controlling
E) staffing

A) networking

According to Fred Luthans and his associates, managers who are involved in networking activities are most likely to undertake which of the following?
A) planning
B) decision making
C) controlling
D) politicking
E) staffing

D) politicking

Which of the following best defines organizational behavior?
A) It involves the study of groups of people coming together for collective bargaining.
B) It involves the study of what people do in a company and how it affects the company's output.
C) It involves analyzing different people in an industry with independent profit-centered motives.
D) It involves developing exclusively the knowledge of managers and senior-level employees.
E) It is a field which is not influenced by factors in the external world.

B) It involves the study of what people do in a company and how it affects the company's output.

Which of the following determinants of behavior does organizational behavior study?
A) profits
B) job satisfaction
C) perks
D) individuals
E) collective bargaining

D) individuals

Which of the following does systematic study use to look at relationships to attribute causes and effects?
A) intuitive data
B) feelings
C) scientific data
D) instinct
E) premonition

C) scientific data

Which of the following is true regarding systematic study?
A) It attributes causes and effects based on intuition.
B) It involves supporting decisions based on gut feelings.
C) It analyzes relationships based on previous experiences.
D) It involves analyzing relationships based on scientific data.
E) It involves taking action based on instinct.

D) It involves analyzing relationships based on scientific data.

In order to predict human behavior, it is best to supplement intuitive opinions with information derived from ________.
A) common sense
B) direct observation
C) systematic study
D) speculation
E) organizational theory

C) systematic study

Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence, all constitute aspects of ________ study.
A) organizational
B) intuitive
C) theoretical
D) systematic
E) case-based

D) systematic

________ refers to basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific proof.
A) Emergency management
B) Personal knowledge management
C) Property management
D) Evidence-based management
E) Knowledge management

D) Evidence-based management

________ refers to a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research.
A) Intuition
B) Reasoning
C) Rationality
D) Logic
E) Inference

A) Intuition

________ seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
A) Meteorology
B) Theology
C) Epistemology
D) Lexicology
E) Psychology

E) Psychology

Which of the following disciplines blends concepts from both psychology and sociology to focus on people's influence on one another?
A) social psychology
B) cosmology
C) parapsychology
D) lexicology
E) eschatology

A) social psychology

Which of the following is a difference between sociology and psychology?
A) Sociology studies humans and animals whereas psychology focuses exclusively on humans.
B) Sociology studies people in relation to their social culture whereas psychology focuses on the individual.
C) Sociology incorporates research from social sciences, philosophy, and natural sciences; psychology does not.
D) Sociology uses various methods of empirical investigation whereas psychology uses limited critical analyses.
E) Sociology uses only qualitative techniques whereas psychology uses both qualitative and quantitative techniques.

B) Sociology studies people in relation to their social culture whereas psychology focuses on the individual.

________ is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
A) Anthropology
B) Deontology
C) Epistemology
D) Agnotology
E) Dysteleology

A) Anthropology

Which of the following fields of study is most likely to involve studying organizational culture, formal organization theory, and structure?
A) sociology
B) deontology
C) epistemology
D) agnotology
E) dysteleology

A) sociology

Austin Reed is a graduate student helping to organize a study on individual job satisfaction. The study focuses on the top five causes of satisfaction or dissatisfaction on the job. His department is surveying 200 individuals in 100 different types of organizations. Austin is most likely a graduate student in the department of ________.
A) psychology
B) anthropology
C) political science
D) entomology
E) archaeology

A) psychology

You are bringing together faculty from different behavioral disciplines to author a new textbook in organizational behavior. Represented are professors from psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science, and industrial engineering. Which faculty member is most likely to furnish information about personality, learning, and motivation?
A) sociology
B) psychology
C) anthropology
D) political science
E) industrial engineering

B) psychology

Myriam is analyzing the gender roles of men and women in management in the United States and comparing them to the gender roles in management in Japan. She is surveying fifty male and fifty female managers in each country to compare their daily behavior. Myriam's study exemplifies how ________ contributes to OB.
A) anthropology
B) psychology
C) archaeology
D) political science
E) corporate strategy

A) anthropology

Which of the following is true regarding contingency variables?
A) They refer to situational factors that moderate the relationship between two or more variables.
B) They make simple, accurate, and sweeping generalizations about concepts in organizational behavior.
C) They indicate that everyone is motivated by money and financial perks.
D) They refer to scientific factors which are based on universal truths.
E) They remain constant irrespective of any change in the environment.

A) They refer to situational factors that moderate the relationship between two or more variables.

Raymond Mayer is conducting a study on discrimination against campaign activists based on gender. In his study, he noted that male executives who visited Indonesian villages to promote the use of renewable energy received a highly positive response. In contrast, women who visited the same villages received an antagonistic response. However, Mayer stated that his findings only applied to villages. In this study, the presence of a village is considered a ________ variable.
A) global
B) general
C) dependent
D) non-reactive
E) contingency

E) contingency

________ variables are variables that moderate the relationship between two or more variables.
A) Global
B) General
C) Dependent
D) Non-reactive
E) Contingency

E) Contingency

Which of the following is a result of globalization?
A) organizations being bound by national borders
B) lower production of goods in developing nations
C) highly homogeneous workforce
D) shared social value among all cultures
E) jobs moving to nations with low-cost labor

E) jobs moving to nations with low-cost labor

Managers who oversee the movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor are most likely to ________.
A) provide poor customer service
B) face opposition from labor groups
C) manage a culturally homogeneous workforce
D) operate in niche markets
E) lose competitive advantage by exporting jobs

B) face opposition from labor groups

The bookselling industry was revolutionized by ________.
A) Mintzberg's Theory of Management
B) evidence-based management
C) Luthan's findings on management behavior
D) intuition
E) the availability of Big Data

E) the availability of Big Data

Gould Furniture is one of the leading furniture companies in Indonesia. In the past, the company had a homogeneous workforce of Indonesian employees. The company is desperate to cut operating and manufacturing costs and, hence, is considering outsourcing part of the manufacturing process to low-cost Vietnam. However, local community leaders across the country are strongly opposing this decision. They believe that exporting jobs to other countries is detrimental to their country in every way possible. Which of the following, if true, is the flaw in the local community leaders' opinion?
A) The country has one of the lowest rates of employment in Asia.
B) Over 85 percent of Indonesia's revenue comes from agriculture.
C) The furniture market contributes to 20 percent of deforestation in the country.
D) The government of Indonesia provides substantial subsidies to start-up companies.
E) Gould Furniture has alliances with local furniture companies in Vietnam.

C) The furniture market contributes to 20 percent of deforestation in the country.

________ refers to the heterogeneity of organizations in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups.
A) Workforce associability
B) Workforce diversity
C) Cultural similarity
D) Organizational congruity
E) Operational homogeneity

B) Workforce diversity

By 2020, the 55-and-older age group of the U.S. labor force will represent approximately ________ of the total labor force.
A) one-quarter
B) one-third
C) one-half
D) two-thirds
E) three-quarters

A) one-quarter

A common characteristic of service jobs is that they ________.
A) need substantial interaction with an organization's customers
B) offer much higher pay in comparison with other non-service jobs
C) have fewer working hours than other jobs
D) require very little job knowledge compared to other jobs
E) provide more perks and benefits to employees

A) need substantial interaction with an organization's customers

Which of the following is an example of a position in a service job?
A) human resource executive
B) administrative executive
C) flight attendant
D) environmental campaigner
E) production line worker

C) flight attendant

Which of the following is not a reality for today's workforce?
A) Many workers never get away from the virtual workplace.
B) Organizations are asking employees to put in longer hours.
C) Employees have fewer outside commitments.
D) Issues related to well-being have dropped as the number of employees who work at home rises.
E) The line between work and non-work time has become blurred.

D) Issues related to well-being have dropped as the number of employees who work at home rises.

Recent studies show ________.
A) the line between work and non-work is becoming less blurred
B) most employees are achieving a better work-life balance
C) money and recognition define career success above all else
D) the majority of men and women rank autonomy as the number one indicator of career success
E) attaining a balance between personal life and work is a primary career goal

E) attaining a balance between personal life and work is a primary career goal

Which of the following terms best describes organizations that allow people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart?
A) networked organizations
B) hierarchical organizations
C) matrix organizations
D) stable organizations
E) flat organizations

A) networked organizations

Which of the following is the major challenge for managers in a fully networked organization?
A) eliminating the need for paper communication by relying entirely on e-mail, file transfers, and the like
B) retaining team members who can easily move to another employer when demand for their services changes
C) managing contract and temporary workers
D) maintaining a "virtual office" through the use of computers, interoffice networks, and the Internet
E) managing people who work together but are geographically separated

E) managing people who work together but are geographically separated

Christopher Richardson works as a graphic designer in Sydney. He often coordinates with colleagues working in Germany. In addition, he interacts with clients across the globe. Which of the following is most likely to facilitate his communications with clients and colleagues?
A) ergonomic cubicle
B) lateral thinking
C) sensemaking
D) systems thinking
E) networked organization

E) networked organization

Which of the following is a cause of work-life conflicts?
A) global organizations
B) sensemaking
C) privatization of essential industries
D) downshifting
E) use of self-managed teams

A) global organizations

Which of the following is true regarding positive organizational scholarship?
A) It involves monitoring negative practices in organizations and rectifying them.
B) It deals with how employees should analyze weaknesses and convert them into strengths.
C) It studies how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality, and unlock potential.
D) It dwells on limitations that an organization faces and how it can turn them into opportunities.
E) It involves scrutinizing loopholes in organizational practices and filling gaps in processes.

C) It studies how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality, and unlock potential

________ is a key independent variable in positive organizational behavior research.
A) Engagement
B) Apathy
C) Despair
D) Constraint
E) Pessimism

A) Engagement

The concept of "reflected best-self" involves ________.
A) focusing on eliminating shortcomings to bring out the best in oneself
B) making employees aware of their weaknesses and rectifying them
C) observing and monitoring drawbacks of a team and then increasing their efficiency with the help of adequate training
D) asking employees to think about when they were at their personal best in order to exploit their strengths
E) studying industry-wide best practices and then implementing it

D) asking employees to think about when they were at their personal best in order to exploit their strengths

Which of the following is an example of an ethical dilemma?
A) Should I work extra hours to complete my assignment?
B) Should I e-mail my manager about queries on the project?
C) Should I discuss with the management the perks being offered?
D) Should I ask my manager for leave during Christmas?
E) Should I play politics to advance my career?

E) Should I play politics to advance my career?

A(n) ________ is an abstraction of reality, a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.
A) model
B) input
C) process
D) outcome
E) objective

A) model

Which of the following is true regarding models?
A) Models propose five types of variables.
B) Models proceed from outcomes to processes.
C) Models are used only in manufacturing organizations.
D) Models proceed from processes to inputs.
E) Models show that outcomes can influence inputs in the future.

E) Models show that outcomes can influence inputs in the future.

With reference to a basic OB model, ________ are determined in advance of the employment relationship and refer to variables such as personality, group structure, and organizational culture that lead to processes.
A) actions
B) inputs
C) outcome
D) processes
E) goals

B) inputs

Which of the following is an example of an input at an individual level?
A) motivation
B) moods
C) values
D) perception
E) emotions

C) values

An example of an input at an organizational level is ________.
A) motivation
B) conflict
C) power
D) communication
E) structure

E) structure

Which of the following is one of the three variables proposed by a basic OB model which refers to actions that individuals, groups, and organizations engage in as a result of inputs?
A) processes
B) scrutinization
C) planning
D) association
E) evaluation

A) processes

Which of the following is an example of a process at an individual level?
A) group cohesion
B) values
C) decision making
D) withdrawal behavior
E) power and politics

C) decision making

An example of a process at a group level is ________.
A) diversity
B) communication
C) values
D) culture
E) emotions

B) communication

Which of the following is an example of a process at the organizational level?
A) attitudes and stress
B) withdrawal behavior
C) emotions and moods
D) change of practices
E) team responsibilities

D) change of practices

________ is an example of an outcome at the organizational level.
A) Profitability
B) Diversity
C) Personality
D) Mood
E) Culture

A) Profitability

Which of the following is an example of an outcome at an individual level?
A) structure
B) culture
C) politics
D) power
E) attitude

E) attitude

The discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements and that contributes to the psychological and social environment of the workplace is called ________ behavior.
A) withdrawal
B) associative
C) networked
D) citizenship
E) cohesive

D) citizenship

Group ________ is the extent to which members of a group support and validate one another at work.
A) affect
B) associability
C) think
D) cohesion
E) maturity

D) cohesion

T/F : In the current competitive workplace, technical skills are the only skills that managers require to be successful.

FALSE

T/F : An organization is a consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people.

TRUE

T/F : The planning function involves defining an organization's goals and establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals.

TRUE

T/F : A degree in architecture will provide a student with the human skills required for a job.

FALSE

T/F : Organizational behavior applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups, and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively.

TRUE

T/F : Evidence-based management complements systematic study by basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence.

TRUE

T/F : Psychology contributes to the study of organizational behavior at the macro level whereas anthropology contributes at the micro level.

FALSE

T/F : One major study area of social psychology is change, how to implement it, and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance.

TRUE

T/F : While sociology focuses on the individual, psychology studies people in relation to their social environment or culture.

FALSE

T/F : Psychology seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.

TRUE

T/F : Entomology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.

FALSE

T/F : Human beings are simple in nature and, thus, simple, universal principles explain all kinds of organizational behavior.

FALSE

T/F : Organizational behavior cannot offer reasonably accurate explanations of human behavior or make valid predictions.

FALSE

T/F : Managers at global companies have realized that economic values are generally transferable across national boundaries.

FALSE

T/F : Workforce diversity refers to how organizations are becoming more homogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity.

FALSE

T/F : The job of a guest relations executive at a hotel is a kind of service job.

TRUE

T/F : Evidence that an organization is able to exist and grow over the long term is called organizational survival.

TRUE

T/F : A way for managers to respond to the problem of unethical behavior is to provide in-house advisors who can be contacted anonymously.

TRUE

T/F : The discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements and that contributes to the psychological and social environment of the workplace is called cohesive behavior.

FALSE

T/F : Group functioning refers to the quantity and quality of a group's work output.

TRUE

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Ch1 Organizational Behavior MGMT3720

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___ are defined as people who oversee the activities of others and who are responsible for attaining goals in an organization.
A) Assistants
B) Managers
C) Secretaries
D) Interns
E) Apprentices

B) Managers

Sally Mitchell works as a manager at an environmental organization. She is currently working on a global warming project and decides which tasks related to creating awareness about the issue needs to be done. In addition, she is also deciding which members of her team will work on engaging with the public and which will work on lobbying with the government. She is also assigning people as team members to ensure that tasks are undertaken on time. Which of the following categories of functions is Mitchell undertaking?

A) Planning
B) Organizing
C) Scrutinizing
D) Controlling
E) Envisioning

B) Organizing

Johanna Reid, a campaign manager at a child rights organization, recently started working on an illiteracy project. During the project, she needs to motivate team members to attain their project milestones and direct them through different phases of the project. Which of the following kinds of functions will these tasks be covered under?
A) planning
B) organizing
C) scrutinizing
D) evaluating
E) leading

E) leading

Lesley Torres is a project manager for the campaign "Action against Deforestation in Indonesia." She recently faced a glitch when the campaign could not be launched publicly according to schedule. Torres monitored the schedule to find the cause of the delay before speeding up the implementation process by allocating more members for the implementation phase. By doing this, which of the following functions is she performing?
A) controlling
B) planning
C) formulating
D) leading
E) organizing

A) Controlling

Which of the following functions do managers undertake as part of planning functions?
A) defining an organization’s goals
B) implementing strategies for achieving goals
C) executing plans to integrate activities
D) accomplishing goals of a project
E) employing strategies to coordinate tasks

A) defining an organization’s goals

6) According to Henry Mintzberg a factory supervisor giving a group of high school students a tour of the plant may be termed as a ________.
A) leader
B) figurehead
C) resource allocator
D) negotiator
E) disturbance handler

B) figurehead

Ellen Ortiz works as a sales manager at a telecom firm. The company has recently launched a new product in the market. Her work in the next few weeks involves sharing knowledge about the product with her team members. She will also need to inspire them to reach their sales targets and clarify any doubts about the new product. Which of the following roles is Ortiz playing?
A) leader
B) liaison
C) disseminator
D) spokesperson
E) negotiator

A) leader

Regina George works as a campaign manager in a not-for-profit organization in Hampshire. For the upcoming campaign against genetic engineering, she is networking with managers who are working on the issue of food safety. Through her network of contacts, she strives to gain information about the stakeholders in the food industry and other lobby groups. Which of the following roles is George most likely to be playing according to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles
A) figurehead
B) leader
C) liaison
D) entrepreneur
E) resource allocator

C) liaison

Annette Simpson works for a fashion house in Paris and is preparing for the company’s upcoming line of winter clothing. She is currently researching online to know what is in vogue this season. In addition, she is also networking with contacts from the press and fashion magazine editors to understand the changing tastes of consumers. Which of the following roles is Simpson playing according to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles?
A) figurehead
B) leader
C) symbol head
D) monitor
E) spokesperson

D) monitor

According to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles, the role of a(n) ________ is to transmit information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization.
A) entrepreneur
B) resource allocator
C) spokesperson
D) leader
E) disseminator

E) disseminator

The role of a(n) ________, according to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles, is to transmit information to outsiders about an organization’s plans, policies, actions, and results and to serve as an expert in the organization’s industry.
A) spokesperson
B) disturbance handler
C) entrepreneur
D) leader
E) liaison

A) spokesperson

According to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles, a(n) ________ searches the organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change.
A) spokesperson
B) disturbance handler
C) entrepreneur
D) resource allocator
E) negotiator

C) entrepreneur

According to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles, the role of a(n) ________ is to make or approve significant organizational decisions and assign human, physical, and monetary assets.
A) disseminator
B) liaison
C) entrepreneur
D) resource allocator
E) disturbance handlers

D) resource allocator

According to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles, which of the following is a kind of interpersonal role?
A) monitor
B) disseminator
C) spokesperson
D) entrepreneur
E) liaison

E) liaison

According to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles, which of the following is a kind of decisional role?
A) negotiator
B) disseminator
C) liaison
D) spokesperson
E) monitor

A) negotiator

The role of a(n) ________ is a type of informational role according to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles.
A) figurehead
B) disseminator
C) liaison
D) entrepreneur
E) negotiator

B) disseminator

Which of the following is true regarding technical skills?
A) They can be learned only through formal education.
B) They encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge.
C) They are not required at all kinds of jobs.
D) They are monopolized by professionals.
E) They comprise the ability to understand and motivate people.

B) They encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge.

The ability to understand, communicate with, motivate, and support other people, both individually and in groups, may be defined as ________.
A) human skills
B) technical skills
C) conceptual skills
D) cognitive skills
E) analytical skills

A) human skills

Melissa Woods was recently hired as the campaign manager at an environmental organization. She has a degree in environmental sustainability and possesses substantial knowledge about the issue of global warming. She has the knowledge to lead the public relations team of the organization. However, a few months later, the board of directors of the organization expressed dissatisfaction with Melissa’s performance and asked her to resign. Which of the following, if true, best explains this situation?
A) Melissa had no prior experience in research and development.
B) Melissa had weak interpersonal and networking skills to run the project.
C) Melissa focused on the results her team achieved rather than how they achieved those results.
D) Melissa is not up-to-date about the feasibility of using different modes of renewable energy.
E) Melissa had a diverse network of contacts established from her previous job.

B) Melissa had weak interpersonal and networking skills to run the project.

Joann Hayes is currently working on a project to tackle climate change. During the project, she needs to find different options to replace the use of non-renewable energy and check the feasibility of different renewable energy options before choosing the most practical one. Which of the following skills does Hayes primarily need to use for these tasks?
A) human skills
B) interpersonal skills
C) conceptual skills
D) communication skills
E) interactive skills

C) conceptual skills

360.org, an organization working toward curbing climate change, recently conducted an interview with Jessica for the position of a public relations officer. However, interviewers Brenda and Laura are divided over whether Jessica should be given the job. Brenda believes that Jessica does not have in-depth knowledge about the issue of global warming and its impact. On the other hand, Laura feels that Jessica would be perfect for the job because she has strong networking and interpersonal skills. Which of the following, if true, would strengthen Laura’s argument?
A) Gaining the support of corporate giants would comprise a large part of the job.
B) Jessica will need to prepare extensive reports about the issue of climate change.
C) The role will require Jessica to give presentations to environmental experts on renewable modes of energy.
D) Jessica had negligible experience in research and development.
E) Jessica has weak analytical skills to solve problems associated with implementing options of renewable energy.

A) Gaining the support of corporate giants would comprise a large part of the job.

360.org, an organization working toward curbing climate change, recently conducted an interview with Jessica for the position of a public relations officer. However, interviewers Brenda and Laura are divided over whether Jessica should be given the job. Brenda believes that Jessica does not have in-depth knowledge about the issue of global warming and its impact. On the other hand, Laura feels that Jessica would be perfect for the job because she has strong interpersonal skills. Which of the following, if true, would weaken Laura’s argument?
A) Jessica was unable to fare well in the written test which analyzed her conceptual skills.
B) Jessica listened intently to the interviewers’ questions before answering them.
C) Jessica was unable to communicate clearly why she was right for the job.
D) Jessica was very friendly and courteous with the receptionist while greeting her.
E) Jessica was high on confidence about getting the job because of her strong networking skills.

C) Jessica was unable to communicate clearly why she was right for the job.

According to Fred Luthans and his associates, managers involved in traditional management activities undertook which of the following tasks?
A) motivating
B) socializing
C) decision making
D) training
E) politicking

C) decision making

According to Fred Luthans and his associates’ study of 450 managers, ________ made the largest contribution to the success of managers in terms of speed of promotion within their organization.
A) networking
B) decision making
C) planning
D) controlling
E) staffing

A) networking

According to Fred Luthans and his associates, managers who are involved in networking activities are most likely to undertake which of the following?
A) planning
B) decision making
C) controlling
D) politicking
E) staffing

D) politicking

Which of the following best defines organizational behavior?
A) It involves the study of groups of people coming together for collective bargaining.
B) It involves the study of what people do in a company and how it affects the company’s output.
C) It involves analyzing different people in an industry with independent profit-centered motives.
D) It involves developing exclusively the knowledge of managers and senior-level employees.
E) It is a field which is not influenced by factors in the external world.

B) It involves the study of what people do in a company and how it affects the company’s output.

Which of the following determinants of behavior does organizational behavior study?
A) profits
B) job satisfaction
C) perks
D) individuals
E) collective bargaining

D) individuals

Which of the following does systematic study use to look at relationships to attribute causes and effects?
A) intuitive data
B) feelings
C) scientific data
D) instinct
E) premonition

C) scientific data

Which of the following is true regarding systematic study?
A) It attributes causes and effects based on intuition.
B) It involves supporting decisions based on gut feelings.
C) It analyzes relationships based on previous experiences.
D) It involves analyzing relationships based on scientific data.
E) It involves taking action based on instinct.

D) It involves analyzing relationships based on scientific data.

In order to predict human behavior, it is best to supplement intuitive opinions with information derived from ________.
A) common sense
B) direct observation
C) systematic study
D) speculation
E) organizational theory

C) systematic study

Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence, all constitute aspects of ________ study.
A) organizational
B) intuitive
C) theoretical
D) systematic
E) case-based

D) systematic

________ refers to basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific proof.
A) Emergency management
B) Personal knowledge management
C) Property management
D) Evidence-based management
E) Knowledge management

D) Evidence-based management

________ refers to a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research.
A) Intuition
B) Reasoning
C) Rationality
D) Logic
E) Inference

A) Intuition

________ seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
A) Meteorology
B) Theology
C) Epistemology
D) Lexicology
E) Psychology

E) Psychology

Which of the following disciplines blends concepts from both psychology and sociology to focus on people’s influence on one another?
A) social psychology
B) cosmology
C) parapsychology
D) lexicology
E) eschatology

A) social psychology

Which of the following is a difference between sociology and psychology?
A) Sociology studies humans and animals whereas psychology focuses exclusively on humans.
B) Sociology studies people in relation to their social culture whereas psychology focuses on the individual.
C) Sociology incorporates research from social sciences, philosophy, and natural sciences; psychology does not.
D) Sociology uses various methods of empirical investigation whereas psychology uses limited critical analyses.
E) Sociology uses only qualitative techniques whereas psychology uses both qualitative and quantitative techniques.

B) Sociology studies people in relation to their social culture whereas psychology focuses on the individual.

________ is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
A) Anthropology
B) Deontology
C) Epistemology
D) Agnotology
E) Dysteleology

A) Anthropology

Which of the following fields of study is most likely to involve studying organizational culture, formal organization theory, and structure?
A) sociology
B) deontology
C) epistemology
D) agnotology
E) dysteleology

A) sociology

Austin Reed is a graduate student helping to organize a study on individual job satisfaction. The study focuses on the top five causes of satisfaction or dissatisfaction on the job. His department is surveying 200 individuals in 100 different types of organizations. Austin is most likely a graduate student in the department of ________.
A) psychology
B) anthropology
C) political science
D) entomology
E) archaeology

A) psychology

You are bringing together faculty from different behavioral disciplines to author a new textbook in organizational behavior. Represented are professors from psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science, and industrial engineering. Which faculty member is most likely to furnish information about personality, learning, and motivation?
A) sociology
B) psychology
C) anthropology
D) political science
E) industrial engineering

B) psychology

Myriam is analyzing the gender roles of men and women in management in the United States and comparing them to the gender roles in management in Japan. She is surveying fifty male and fifty female managers in each country to compare their daily behavior. Myriam’s study exemplifies how ________ contributes to OB.
A) anthropology
B) psychology
C) archaeology
D) political science
E) corporate strategy

A) anthropology

Which of the following is true regarding contingency variables?
A) They refer to situational factors that moderate the relationship between two or more variables.
B) They make simple, accurate, and sweeping generalizations about concepts in organizational behavior.
C) They indicate that everyone is motivated by money and financial perks.
D) They refer to scientific factors which are based on universal truths.
E) They remain constant irrespective of any change in the environment.

A) They refer to situational factors that moderate the relationship between two or more variables.

Raymond Mayer is conducting a study on discrimination against campaign activists based on gender. In his study, he noted that male executives who visited Indonesian villages to promote the use of renewable energy received a highly positive response. In contrast, women who visited the same villages received an antagonistic response. However, Mayer stated that his findings only applied to villages. In this study, the presence of a village is considered a ________ variable.
A) global
B) general
C) dependent
D) non-reactive
E) contingency

E) contingency

________ variables are variables that moderate the relationship between two or more variables.
A) Global
B) General
C) Dependent
D) Non-reactive
E) Contingency

E) Contingency

Which of the following is a result of globalization?
A) organizations being bound by national borders
B) lower production of goods in developing nations
C) highly homogeneous workforce
D) shared social value among all cultures
E) jobs moving to nations with low-cost labor

E) jobs moving to nations with low-cost labor

Managers who oversee the movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor are most likely to ________.
A) provide poor customer service
B) face opposition from labor groups
C) manage a culturally homogeneous workforce
D) operate in niche markets
E) lose competitive advantage by exporting jobs

B) face opposition from labor groups

The bookselling industry was revolutionized by ________.
A) Mintzberg’s Theory of Management
B) evidence-based management
C) Luthan’s findings on management behavior
D) intuition
E) the availability of Big Data

E) the availability of Big Data

Gould Furniture is one of the leading furniture companies in Indonesia. In the past, the company had a homogeneous workforce of Indonesian employees. The company is desperate to cut operating and manufacturing costs and, hence, is considering outsourcing part of the manufacturing process to low-cost Vietnam. However, local community leaders across the country are strongly opposing this decision. They believe that exporting jobs to other countries is detrimental to their country in every way possible. Which of the following, if true, is the flaw in the local community leaders’ opinion?
A) The country has one of the lowest rates of employment in Asia.
B) Over 85 percent of Indonesia’s revenue comes from agriculture.
C) The furniture market contributes to 20 percent of deforestation in the country.
D) The government of Indonesia provides substantial subsidies to start-up companies.
E) Gould Furniture has alliances with local furniture companies in Vietnam.

C) The furniture market contributes to 20 percent of deforestation in the country.

________ refers to the heterogeneity of organizations in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups.
A) Workforce associability
B) Workforce diversity
C) Cultural similarity
D) Organizational congruity
E) Operational homogeneity

B) Workforce diversity

By 2020, the 55-and-older age group of the U.S. labor force will represent approximately ________ of the total labor force.
A) one-quarter
B) one-third
C) one-half
D) two-thirds
E) three-quarters

A) one-quarter

A common characteristic of service jobs is that they ________.
A) need substantial interaction with an organization’s customers
B) offer much higher pay in comparison with other non-service jobs
C) have fewer working hours than other jobs
D) require very little job knowledge compared to other jobs
E) provide more perks and benefits to employees

A) need substantial interaction with an organization’s customers

Which of the following is an example of a position in a service job?
A) human resource executive
B) administrative executive
C) flight attendant
D) environmental campaigner
E) production line worker

C) flight attendant

Which of the following is not a reality for today’s workforce?
A) Many workers never get away from the virtual workplace.
B) Organizations are asking employees to put in longer hours.
C) Employees have fewer outside commitments.
D) Issues related to well-being have dropped as the number of employees who work at home rises.
E) The line between work and non-work time has become blurred.

D) Issues related to well-being have dropped as the number of employees who work at home rises.

Recent studies show ________.
A) the line between work and non-work is becoming less blurred
B) most employees are achieving a better work-life balance
C) money and recognition define career success above all else
D) the majority of men and women rank autonomy as the number one indicator of career success
E) attaining a balance between personal life and work is a primary career goal

E) attaining a balance between personal life and work is a primary career goal

Which of the following terms best describes organizations that allow people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart?
A) networked organizations
B) hierarchical organizations
C) matrix organizations
D) stable organizations
E) flat organizations

A) networked organizations

Which of the following is the major challenge for managers in a fully networked organization?
A) eliminating the need for paper communication by relying entirely on e-mail, file transfers, and the like
B) retaining team members who can easily move to another employer when demand for their services changes
C) managing contract and temporary workers
D) maintaining a "virtual office" through the use of computers, interoffice networks, and the Internet
E) managing people who work together but are geographically separated

E) managing people who work together but are geographically separated

Christopher Richardson works as a graphic designer in Sydney. He often coordinates with colleagues working in Germany. In addition, he interacts with clients across the globe. Which of the following is most likely to facilitate his communications with clients and colleagues?
A) ergonomic cubicle
B) lateral thinking
C) sensemaking
D) systems thinking
E) networked organization

E) networked organization

Which of the following is a cause of work-life conflicts?
A) global organizations
B) sensemaking
C) privatization of essential industries
D) downshifting
E) use of self-managed teams

A) global organizations

Which of the following is true regarding positive organizational scholarship?
A) It involves monitoring negative practices in organizations and rectifying them.
B) It deals with how employees should analyze weaknesses and convert them into strengths.
C) It studies how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality, and unlock potential.
D) It dwells on limitations that an organization faces and how it can turn them into opportunities.
E) It involves scrutinizing loopholes in organizational practices and filling gaps in processes.

C) It studies how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality, and unlock potential

________ is a key independent variable in positive organizational behavior research.
A) Engagement
B) Apathy
C) Despair
D) Constraint
E) Pessimism

A) Engagement

The concept of "reflected best-self" involves ________.
A) focusing on eliminating shortcomings to bring out the best in oneself
B) making employees aware of their weaknesses and rectifying them
C) observing and monitoring drawbacks of a team and then increasing their efficiency with the help of adequate training
D) asking employees to think about when they were at their personal best in order to exploit their strengths
E) studying industry-wide best practices and then implementing it

D) asking employees to think about when they were at their personal best in order to exploit their strengths

Which of the following is an example of an ethical dilemma?
A) Should I work extra hours to complete my assignment?
B) Should I e-mail my manager about queries on the project?
C) Should I discuss with the management the perks being offered?
D) Should I ask my manager for leave during Christmas?
E) Should I play politics to advance my career?

E) Should I play politics to advance my career?

A(n) ________ is an abstraction of reality, a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.
A) model
B) input
C) process
D) outcome
E) objective

A) model

Which of the following is true regarding models?
A) Models propose five types of variables.
B) Models proceed from outcomes to processes.
C) Models are used only in manufacturing organizations.
D) Models proceed from processes to inputs.
E) Models show that outcomes can influence inputs in the future.

E) Models show that outcomes can influence inputs in the future.

With reference to a basic OB model, ________ are determined in advance of the employment relationship and refer to variables such as personality, group structure, and organizational culture that lead to processes.
A) actions
B) inputs
C) outcome
D) processes
E) goals

B) inputs

Which of the following is an example of an input at an individual level?
A) motivation
B) moods
C) values
D) perception
E) emotions

C) values

An example of an input at an organizational level is ________.
A) motivation
B) conflict
C) power
D) communication
E) structure

E) structure

Which of the following is one of the three variables proposed by a basic OB model which refers to actions that individuals, groups, and organizations engage in as a result of inputs?
A) processes
B) scrutinization
C) planning
D) association
E) evaluation

A) processes

Which of the following is an example of a process at an individual level?
A) group cohesion
B) values
C) decision making
D) withdrawal behavior
E) power and politics

C) decision making

An example of a process at a group level is ________.
A) diversity
B) communication
C) values
D) culture
E) emotions

B) communication

Which of the following is an example of a process at the organizational level?
A) attitudes and stress
B) withdrawal behavior
C) emotions and moods
D) change of practices
E) team responsibilities

D) change of practices

________ is an example of an outcome at the organizational level.
A) Profitability
B) Diversity
C) Personality
D) Mood
E) Culture

A) Profitability

Which of the following is an example of an outcome at an individual level?
A) structure
B) culture
C) politics
D) power
E) attitude

E) attitude

The discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements and that contributes to the psychological and social environment of the workplace is called ________ behavior.
A) withdrawal
B) associative
C) networked
D) citizenship
E) cohesive

D) citizenship

Group ________ is the extent to which members of a group support and validate one another at work.
A) affect
B) associability
C) think
D) cohesion
E) maturity

D) cohesion

T/F : In the current competitive workplace, technical skills are the only skills that managers require to be successful.

FALSE

T/F : An organization is a consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people.

TRUE

T/F : The planning function involves defining an organization’s goals and establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals.

TRUE

T/F : A degree in architecture will provide a student with the human skills required for a job.

FALSE

T/F : Organizational behavior applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups, and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively.

TRUE

T/F : Evidence-based management complements systematic study by basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence.

TRUE

T/F : Psychology contributes to the study of organizational behavior at the macro level whereas anthropology contributes at the micro level.

FALSE

T/F : One major study area of social psychology is change, how to implement it, and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance.

TRUE

T/F : While sociology focuses on the individual, psychology studies people in relation to their social environment or culture.

FALSE

T/F : Psychology seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.

TRUE

T/F : Entomology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.

FALSE

T/F : Human beings are simple in nature and, thus, simple, universal principles explain all kinds of organizational behavior.

FALSE

T/F : Organizational behavior cannot offer reasonably accurate explanations of human behavior or make valid predictions.

FALSE

T/F : Managers at global companies have realized that economic values are generally transferable across national boundaries.

FALSE

T/F : Workforce diversity refers to how organizations are becoming more homogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity.

FALSE

T/F : The job of a guest relations executive at a hotel is a kind of service job.

TRUE

T/F : Evidence that an organization is able to exist and grow over the long term is called organizational survival.

TRUE

T/F : A way for managers to respond to the problem of unethical behavior is to provide in-house advisors who can be contacted anonymously.

TRUE

T/F : The discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements and that contributes to the psychological and social environment of the workplace is called cohesive behavior.

FALSE

T/F : Group functioning refers to the quantity and quality of a group’s work output.

TRUE

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