Ch 7

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True or False?
Primates who live with nonrelatives will engage in altruistic behaviors more often than primates who live with relatives


What do primatologists need to have to understand what the primate communication data they collect means?

Knowledge of both their vocalizations and their context

Which of the following statements is/are true regarding the main theory of primate social behavior?

-Genes of individuals who engage in behaviors favored by natural selection are passed from one generation to the next -Primate social behavior is influenced by evolution

Which of the following is true regarding females with good nutrition?

-They have healthier offspring -They live longer -They give birth to their offspring closer together in time -They have offspring at a younger age

What is the main reason for sociality among primates?

Group defense from predators

Which of the following is true regarding infanticide?

-Infanticide leads to the cessation of lactation and the resumption of ovulation in the mother, making her sexually receptive -Infanticide occurs at the expense of the reproductive fitness of the original male

Which of the following is true regarding observations of primate vocalization?

-Campbell’s monkeys can use affixation to clarify their vocalization -Baboons can perceive acoustic differences in calls -Chimpanzees can make variations of the same sound to reflect how much they want a specific type of food

Which of the following are reasons why primates make loud calls?

-an individual’s separation from its group -encounters with predators -aggressive interactions with a rival group

Which of the following behaviors and attributes was Jane Goodall the first to document in chimpanzees?

-enduring mother/infant bonds -tool use -high intelligence -meat eating

Which of the residence patterns shown below are rare in primates?

-One female/multimale -Solitary

Which of the following are central features regarding chimpanzee tool use?

-Chimpanzees are intelligent enough to engage in behaviors that require learning -Chimpanzee tool production and use is highly localized

Why are primates social?

-to enhance survival -for group defense against predators -for access to mates -to promote longevity

Which communication traits are associates with which groups?

Nonhuman primates: restricted to a preprogrammed set of calls Both: sign language, patterns to vocalizations, sound variation to convey difference in meaning Humans: invent new vocalizations, spoken language

Feeding success is vital for female primates’ reproductive success. Which of the following are key factors that determine a female primate’s feeding success?

-quality of food -distribution of food -competition for food

How was Jane Goodall able to closely observe chimpanzee behaviors?

She habituated a group to her presence

Which of the following is true regarding primate vocalizations?

-Primate vocalizations are a form of vocal communication -Vocal systems are complex -Selective pressures likely shaped the vocalizations of primates -All primates produce them

What did primatologists Dorothy Cheney and Robert Seyfarth discover during their study of vervet monkey vocalizations?

-Females appear to know their infant’s voice -Responses to vocalizations provide insight into social cognitive abilities of primates

What are some altruistic behaviors?

Anti-predator warning calls, food sharing, grooming

Chimpanzee tool use is not new; chimpanzee tools have been dated to __________ yBP


How are primate societies diverse?

-Their societies are organized in complex ways -Primates form a range of long term relationships -Primates express themselves socially through various behaviors


Refers to a social group that includes one adult male, several adult females, and their offspring


Refers to a social group that includes one reproductively active female, several adult males, and their offspring


Refers to a social group that includes an adult male, an adult female, and their offspring

True or False? One of the main reasons why scientists study primate behavior is to address the question of why primates are social


Primate males engage in competition for access to females. This reproductive strategy has led to larger body size and canine size in males because of ____________

sexual selection

_______ is the anthropologist who discovered a wide range of surprising chimpanzee attributes

Jane Goodall

________ have little dietary value for most primates because they are difficult to digest

Mature leaves

Objects that primates use to acquire food are examples of:

material culture

Which of the following is INCORRECT? Primates:
-may hunt for other animals
-may use basic technology like termite sticks
-may socially transmit knowledge to others in their group
-may develop vocalizations unique to specific groups and regions
-all of the above are correct

-all of the above are correct

Chimpanzees have been trained to communicate with humans through:

American sign language

Primate behavior studies targeting the mother/infant bond suggest that:

growing up with a wire surrogate mother causes infants to lack social skills

The primate residence pattern of one-female, multimale can also be described as:


The average life span of humans is about:

twice as long as other primates’

Which of the following is true about chimpanzee tool use?

Chimpanzees use tools mostly for acquiring food

While swimming in the ocean with your friends, one of them starts to struggle to stay above the water. Your other friend braves a strong undertow, and both emerge safely on the beach. When the lifeguard arrives, he chastises your friend for brazenly jumping into the surf, but you praise your friend’s instincts, noting that:

cooperative behaviors such as altruism have a long history in both human and primate societies

During your first week as an intern at Gombe National Park, you fail to spot any chimpanzees, even in areas replete with food that the chimps are known to frequent. Dejected, you tell your supervisor, who reassures you that it will get better when:

the chimpanzees become habituated to your presence

The behavior of a picture of a howler monkey howling loudly is thought of by primatologists as:


In the form of primate grouping, both sexes mate promiscuously and there is little competition for mates

Multimale, Multifemale

Chimpanzees are known to hunt other animals for their meat. A chimpanzee group will have the most success in which of the following scenarios?

A dozen male chimps hunt juvenile red colobus monkeys

Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance:

survival and reproduction

Altruistic behavior:

is a behavior that benefits others while causing a disadvantage to the individual

The higher the social rank of a female primate the:

greater her access to resources, which results in higher birth rates

Many primate societies are complexly organized, enabling their members to form alliances including by:
-all of these

-all of these

What is special about primate societies and social behavior?

They are highly diverse

Why are primates social in the long term?

To reduce stress, promote longevity, and enhance reproductive success

Vocalizations enable primates to:

name resources and monitor the social group

Grooming involves:

bonding between two members of a social group, calming or appeasing the primate being groomed if he or she has a higher dominance

Vocalization in chimp groups:

is unique to specific groups or regions

A male and female gibbon that are similar in size are likely showing:

Lack of sexual dimorphism due to decreased competition for mates in a monogamous social structure

Why are primates social in the short term?

to increase interaction between sexually mature males and females

Kin selection refers to:

altruistic behavior that increases the donor’s inclusive fitness and that of the donor’s relatives

Sexual dimorphism:

concerns differences in body size and canine size

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