ch 5

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1. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach:

categorized skulls into five racial types.

2. R.C. Lewontin found that human "races" have no taxonomic significance. He demonstrated this:

through research indicating that most genetic variation is found across human populations.

3. A cline:

is continuous variation that follows a continuum.

4. The long limb measurements of Turkana pastoralists indicate that:

the population is on the continuum of ariation ovserved in Allen’s rule.

5. The American economist David Seckler hypothesized that:

shortness in height is an adaptation to reduced good supplies.

6. Multiple biological traits:

do not lead to clear-cut racial classifications

7. Stressors during the prenatal stage include:

smoking, alcohol, and drugs.

8. Children living at high altitudes develop a larger chest cavity by adulthood than children living at lower altitudes. This is an example of:

developmental adaptations that occur at the level of individual during critical life.

9. Allen’s rule indicates that humans will have:

longer limbs in hot environments and shorter limbs in cold environments.

10. When epiphyses fuse to the diaphyses:

full adult height is attained

11. Genetic adaptation:

occurs at the population level via natural selection.

12. Acclimatization:

occurs at the individual level throughout an individuals lifetime.

13. Cultural adaptation:

involves using material culture to make living possible in certain settings.

14. Melanin:

is advantageous because it provides protection from solar radiation.

15. Relative to people with a history of living in temperate climates, the Inuit and other cold-adapted populations:

have short limbs and large bodies.

16. Dark skin (a result of increased melanin production in equatorial peoples) is likely a response to ultraviolet radiation, because UV radiation can cause:

skin cancer

17. Sexual dimorphism:

refers to the difference in physical attributes of males and females.

18. Wolff’s law:

is the principle that the lengths of limbs bones are related to environmental conditions.

19. Hypoxia has been shown to be an agent of natural selection in that Tibetan women:

with alleles for high oxygen saturation in their hemoglobin have more surviving children.

20. The postnatal stage of adolescence includes:

development of secondary sex characteristics and interest in adult social, sexual, and economic behaviors.

21. Rickets is the result of:

high UV exposure.

22. Natural selection favored alleles for light skin in:


23. Which is a major contributor to the success of our species?

human adaptablility

24. According to Hartocollis in "Growing Obesity Increases Perils of Childbirth"

all of the above.

25. According to "Growing Obesity Increases Perils of Childbirth" reported by Anemona Hartocollis, about 1 in 10 women are obese and have life-threatening trouble in delivery.


26. In "Growing Obesity Increases Perils of Childbirth" it is reported that obese women

are more likely to have high blood pressure, diabetes, anesthesia complications, hemorrhage, blood clots and strokes during pregnancy and delivery.

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