ch.5 learning

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learning

Relatively permanent change in behavior about by experience

Nature vs. nurture

nature- is genes nurture- human environment

maturation

habitutation

decreases in response to a stimulus

Basics of classical conditioning

Ivan Pavlov before conditioning During conditioning After conditioning

Jhon B. Watson

Human behavior ex. ringing of the bell

Little Albert

Human behavior ex.

extinction

ounce when previously conditioned response decrease in frequency and diaper

spontaneous recovery

Reemergence of an extinguished condition

Genrealization vs. Discrimination

Stimulus Generalization

Stimulus Discrimination

Law of effect- Thorndike

Responses that lead to stratifying consequences are more likely to be repeated

Skinner Box- B. F. Skinner

Reinforcement

Process in which a stimulus increase the probability that preceding will be repeated.

Reinforce

any stimulus increased the probability that proceeding behavior will occur again.

Make up term system

used in treatment of psychological disorders

primary reinforces

stratifying biological need and words naturally regardless of a person previous experience.

secondary reinforces

stimulus that become reinforcing because of its association with primary reinforce

positive reinforces

stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a proceeding response.

Nagative Reinforces

Punishment

stimulus that decrease the probability that a prior behavior will occur again

Poistive Punishment Addition of something

weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant

Negative punishment

Removal of something ex. Pro and Cons

Why reinforcement beats punishment

Formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desireable behaviors and decreasing the incident of unwanted ones

Schedules of Reinforcement

Different pattern of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior

continuous schedule

Reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs

Partial intermittent reinforcement schedule

Reinforces of a behavior some but bot all the time

variable Ratio Schedule

occurs after varying number of responses rather than a fixed number.

fixed interval schedule

Provides reinforcement for a response only after a fixed time period has elapsed ex. overall rates of response relatively low

Variable interval schedule

time between reinforcement varies around some average rather than being fixed.

Fixed ratio schedule

Reinforcement is given only a specific number of responses are made.

Behavioral modification

formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desireable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones

cognitive learning theory

study of learning that focuses on the thought process that underlie learning

latent learning

New behavior is not demonstration until some incentive is provided for displaying it.

cognitive map

mental representation of special location and directions

observational learning

learning by observing the behavior of another person or model

Albert Bandura

social cognitive approach

psychologist use the term to refer to a relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience

learning

Who is associated with the study of classical conditioning

Ivan Pavlov

what is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that would elict the same response naturally

classical conditioning

what are some examples of responses learned through classical conditioning

experimental foot steps

occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency what the cs is presented in the abences of the UCS

extinction

operant conditioning most importantly involves forming assossications between

moderate behavior and consequences

classical conditioning applies mostly to blank behavior

existing

operant conditioning is to blank new behavior

new

The root of operant conditioning may be traces to blank early studies of hungry cats learning to escape from cages

Thorndike

Responses that lead to stratifying consequences are more likely to be repeated. This is the law of

effect

what is a skinner box

is a laboratory apparatus used to study animal and behavior

Perhaps the most influential psychologist to study operant conditioning was

skinner

The process by which a stimulus increases the like hood that a preceding behavior will be repeated is called

reinforcement

Reinforces that satisfy biological need are called blank reinforces

primary

One reason Richard continues to work at his job is the check he receives every two weeks. Richard paycheck is blank reinforce

positive/ secondary

negative reinforcement

leads to increase in the probability of a behavior

positive punishment

addition of something/ weakens a response through application of an unpleasant

schedules of reinforcement

different pattern of frequency and timing or reinforcement following desire behavior

Bandura"s bobo doll experiment were intended to demonstrate

observational learning

observational learning

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