Ch. 4

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an open channel in a plant cell wall that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent cells

endomembrane system

a network of membranes inside and surrounding a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles

central vacuole

in a plant cell, a large membranous sac with diverse roles in growth and storage of chemicals and wastes

rough endoplasmic reticulum

ribosomes attached that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins

intermediate filament

an intermediate-sized protein fiber

nuclear envelope

a double membrane that encloses the nucleus, perforated with pores that regulate traffic with the cytoplasm

plasma membrane

the membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell; consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins


the thinnest of the three main kinds of protein fibers


the contents of a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; jelly-like


a digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest engulfed food or damaged organelles

eukaryotic cell

a type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed these.

cellular metabolism

all the chemical activities of a cell


a transmembrane protein that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton in animal cells


the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

the portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes


a protein with one or more short chains of sugars attached to it

endoplasmic reticulum

composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosom-free (smooth) regions


a structure within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is made and assembled with proteins imported from the cytoplasm to make ribosomal subunits

mitochondrial matrix

the compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substances for the citric acid cycle


a non-membrane-bounded region in a prokaryotic cell where the DNA is concentrated


a long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion.


includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules

prokaryotic cell

a type of cell lacking membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea

golgi apparatus

an organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of membranous sacs that modify, store, and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum


the semifluid portion of the cytoplasm


an organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs. Enclosed by two membranes, it is where most of the cell’s ATP is made


an organelle found in plants and algae that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds (sugars) from carbon dioxide and water


a short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion or moving fluid past the cell


a structure found in animal cells from which microtubules originate and that is important during cell division. has two centriols

extracellular matrix

the meshwork surrounding animal cells; consisits of glycoproteins and polysaccharides synthesized and secreted by cells

cell wall

a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists; protects the cell and helps maintain its shape


a gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell


a membrane-enclosed sac that is part of the endomembrane system of a eukaryotic cell and has diverse functions in different kinds of cells


a membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell


(1) and atoms central core, containing protons and neutrons (2) the organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains te genetic material in the form of chromosomes, made of chromatin

transport vesicle

a small membranous sac in a eukaryotic cell’s cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.


the thickest of the three main kinds of fibers


the sac made of membrane in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell


a cell structure consisting of RNA and protein


an organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen atoms from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide


an infolding of the inner mitochondrial membrane

four parts of ALL cells

-plasma membrane -cytoplasm -ribosomes -DNA


-no nucleus -smaller (10x-100x) -no organelles -single-celled -have plasmids ("extra" DNA) -chromosomes in a LOOP -ALL have cell walls -has 4 parts of ALL cells


-nucleus -larger -organelles -plants, animals, fungi, protists -can be single or multi celled -chromosomes are linear w/ histone proteins -has 4 parts of ALL cells


What mitochondrial feature enhances cellular respiration?


The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____.


part of the proteins that make up microtubules


What component of the cell membrane connects signals from the outside of the cell with the inside of the cell and vice versa?


The primary role of _____ is to bind animal cells together.

stomach tissue

Which tissue would likely contain large amounts of anchoring junctions?


Which plant structure is most like gap junctions in animal cells?


Which of these organelles carries out cellular respiration?


Ribosomal subunits are manufactured by the _____.


_____ are the sites of protein synthesis.

rough endoplasmic reticulum

Which of these manufactures cellular membranes by adding membrane proteins and phospholipids to its own membrane?

plasma membrane

The _____ is a selective barrier, regulating the passage of material into and out of the cell.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Where is calcium stored?


Which of these are hollow rods that shape and support the cell?

basal bodies

_____ is/are identical in structure to centrioles.


Which of these organelles produces H2O2 as a by-product?


Which cell structure is responsible for metabolism?

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