Ch. 30 BIO

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Dietary supplements and decongestants containing ephedrine have recently become more strongly regulated in the United States. Ephedrine is an extract of a plant belonging to which phylum?

phylum Gnetophyta

In which phylum is the organism thought to be the world’s oldest living tree?


In addition to seeds, what is a trait unique to seed plants?


The pollen of conifers is primarily dispersed by __________.


The seed coat’s most important function is to provide protection for the __________.

sporophyte embryo

The pore in the integuments of an angiosperm ovule through which sperm is delivered is the __________.


A plant is said to be cross-pollinated if __________.

pollen grains are transferred to a flower on a different plant

In gymnosperms, the seed coat develops from the integument. In angiosperms, the seed coat develops from the __________.


Which of the following is a trait possessed by all angiosperms?

Double fertilization

Which of the following is not a gymnosperm?

Coconut palm

Which of the following best describes the function of fruits?

Protection and dispersal of seeds

The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always __________.

produces spores

Angiosperms are thought to have originated in which period?


In flowers, pollen is produced in the __________.


In which group is the sporophyte stage dominant in the alternation of generations?

All vascular plants

The dicots are now thought to be in the paraphyletic group, and the majority of dicot species are now placed in the eudicots. Which of the following is a member of a group that was included in the dicots but is now included in the eudicots?

Southern magnolia

Which of the following is not an advantage seeds provide over spores?

Asexual reproduction

At current rates of deforestation, tropical rain forests will be eliminated in __________ years.


Of the following, which is a difference in how reproduction occurs in gymnosperms compared to angiosperms?

Only the sperm of angiosperms combine with two central cell nuclei to form triploid endosperm

The closest seedless relatives of seed plants produce one kind of spore that gives rise to a bisexual gametophyte. What does this suggest about the ancestors of seed plants?

They were homosporous

Which gymnosperm phylum below is characterized by large cones and fern-like leaves and thrived during the Mesozoic?


What significant change occurred on Earth between the Carboniferous period and the Permian period that most likely contributed to the success of the gymnosperms?

The climate became drier and warmer.

Which of the following is a conifer?

European Larch, Longleaf Pine, Sequoia common juniper

Which of the following is enclosed within the pollen wall of a pollen grain?

Male gametophyte

Which example below is evidence provided by living gymnosperms of an evolutionary transition between seedless and seed plants?

The sperm of some gymnosperms have flagella.

Six major crops—wheat, rice, maize, potatoes, cassava, and sweet potatoes—constitute what percentage of all the calories consumed by humans?


Which of the following is not a trait characteristic of monocots?


Besides the plant tissue that humans ingest, which angiosperm tissue is most directly important for human survival?


A bright pink flower with deep floral tubes will most likely be pollinated by which mechanism?

Birds with long beaks

A pea pod is formed from __________. A pea inside the pod is formed from __________.

an ovary; an ovule

inner (endosperm: a nutrient-rich tissue, formed by the union of a sperm cell with two polar nuclei during double fertilization, that provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds)


a fruit (carpel: the ovule-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary)


a flower (anther: the terminal pollen sac of a stamen, where pollen grains containing sperm- producing male gametophytes forms


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