Ch. 29 Bio

What is the evolutionary significance of megaphylls?

They increase the surface area for photosynthesis.

Sori can be found in which of the following?

pterophytes

What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?

stomata

Water is brought into mosses primarily by what?

diffusion through all cells

Which of the following statements about algae and plants is true?

Plants have a waxy, waterproof cuticle, and algae do not.

In sporophyte ferns, the leaves are _____.

megaphylls

Which of the following are traits shared by land plants and their closest relatives among the algae?

-Structure of flagellated sperm -Formation of a phragmoplast -Rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins in the plasma membrane

Where would you find a fern gametophyte?

on moist soil

Which of the following is true of the life cycle of bryophytes?

A moist environment is required for sexual reproduction.

Typically, the upper part of a bryophyte capsule that contains the spores features a ring of interlocking, tooth-like structures known as the __________.

peristome

To examine meiosis in ferns, you would study __________.

the sporangia

In moving to land, plants had to overcome which of the following challenges?

Desiccation

Which is a key difference between alternation of generations in plants and sexual reproduction in nonplant organisms?

In plants, the haploid and diploid stages are both multicellular.

How are gametes produced by bryophytes?

By mitosis of gametophyte cells

Which of the following is a genus in the phylum Monilophyta?

Equisetum

What is advantage is conferred to algae and plants that possess sporopollenin?

Reproductive cells are more resistant to desiccation.

A major division in plant systematics is based on whether a particular species has __________.

vascular tissue

The "dots" on the underside of a fern frond are spore cases; therefore, what is true of the plant to which the frond belongs?

It is a sporophyte.

The gametophyte stage of the plant life cycle is most conspicuous in __________.

mosses

During what period did seedless vascular plants form extensive forests of tall trees?

Carboniferous

Which of the following is a trait unique to land plants?

Walled spores produced in sporangia

The embryophytes are __________.

-land plants

What characteristic of Sphagnum peatlands is responsible for their ability to inhibit decomposition?

-Low pH -Low temperature -Phenolic compounds produced by Sphagnum -Low oxygen

The development of the __________ prevents plants from drying out and protects them from microbes.

cuticle

Alternation of generations in all land plants is between __________.

a multicellular haploid organism and a multicellular diploid organism

The tissue called phloem has what function in vascular plants?

Distribution of sugars, amino acids, and other organic products

In what way do megasporangia differ from microsporangia?

Megasporangia produce spores that develop into female gametocytes, whereas microsporangia produce spores that develop into male gametophytes.

Fern gametophytes are __________.

free-living, multicellular organisms

The antheridia of mosses produce __________.

sperm

Evidence suggests that land plants arose from within which protist lineage?

Charophytes

vessel (gametangium: multicellular plant structure in which gametes are formed. Female gametangia are called archegonia; male gametangia are called antheridia)

-angio

moss

bryo-

plant (bryophyte: an informal name for a moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that lives on land but lacks some of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants)

-phyte

naked

gymno-

seed (gymnosperm: a vascular plant that bears naked seeds—seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers)

-sperm

different

hetero-

a seed (heterosporous: referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores, which develop into male gametophytes, and megaspores, which develop into female gametophytes)

-sporo

like (homosporous: referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which develops into a bisexual gametophyte)

homo-

large (megaspores: a spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a female gametophyte)

maga-

small

micro-

leaf (microphyll: in lycophytes. a small leaf with a single unbranched vein)

-phyll

around

peri-

mouth (peristome: a ring of interlocking, toothlike structures on the upper part of the moss capsule, often specialized for gradual spore discharge)

-stoma

bearer (gametophore: the mature gamete- producing structure of a moss gametophyte)

-phore

first

proto-

thread (protonema: a mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores)

-nema

root

rhizo

like, form (rhizoid: a long tubular single cell or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground)

-oid

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Ch. 29 Bio

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What is the evolutionary significance of megaphylls?

They increase the surface area for photosynthesis.

Sori can be found in which of the following?

pterophytes

What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?

stomata

Water is brought into mosses primarily by what?

diffusion through all cells

Which of the following statements about algae and plants is true?

Plants have a waxy, waterproof cuticle, and algae do not.

In sporophyte ferns, the leaves are _____.

megaphylls

Which of the following are traits shared by land plants and their closest relatives among the algae?

-Structure of flagellated sperm -Formation of a phragmoplast -Rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins in the plasma membrane

Where would you find a fern gametophyte?

on moist soil

Which of the following is true of the life cycle of bryophytes?

A moist environment is required for sexual reproduction.

Typically, the upper part of a bryophyte capsule that contains the spores features a ring of interlocking, tooth-like structures known as the __________.

peristome

To examine meiosis in ferns, you would study __________.

the sporangia

In moving to land, plants had to overcome which of the following challenges?

Desiccation

Which is a key difference between alternation of generations in plants and sexual reproduction in nonplant organisms?

In plants, the haploid and diploid stages are both multicellular.

How are gametes produced by bryophytes?

By mitosis of gametophyte cells

Which of the following is a genus in the phylum Monilophyta?

Equisetum

What is advantage is conferred to algae and plants that possess sporopollenin?

Reproductive cells are more resistant to desiccation.

A major division in plant systematics is based on whether a particular species has __________.

vascular tissue

The "dots" on the underside of a fern frond are spore cases; therefore, what is true of the plant to which the frond belongs?

It is a sporophyte.

The gametophyte stage of the plant life cycle is most conspicuous in __________.

mosses

During what period did seedless vascular plants form extensive forests of tall trees?

Carboniferous

Which of the following is a trait unique to land plants?

Walled spores produced in sporangia

The embryophytes are __________.

-land plants

What characteristic of Sphagnum peatlands is responsible for their ability to inhibit decomposition?

-Low pH -Low temperature -Phenolic compounds produced by Sphagnum -Low oxygen

The development of the __________ prevents plants from drying out and protects them from microbes.

cuticle

Alternation of generations in all land plants is between __________.

a multicellular haploid organism and a multicellular diploid organism

The tissue called phloem has what function in vascular plants?

Distribution of sugars, amino acids, and other organic products

In what way do megasporangia differ from microsporangia?

Megasporangia produce spores that develop into female gametocytes, whereas microsporangia produce spores that develop into male gametophytes.

Fern gametophytes are __________.

free-living, multicellular organisms

The antheridia of mosses produce __________.

sperm

Evidence suggests that land plants arose from within which protist lineage?

Charophytes

vessel (gametangium: multicellular plant structure in which gametes are formed. Female gametangia are called archegonia; male gametangia are called antheridia)

-angio

moss

bryo-

plant (bryophyte: an informal name for a moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that lives on land but lacks some of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants)

-phyte

naked

gymno-

seed (gymnosperm: a vascular plant that bears naked seeds—seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers)

-sperm

different

hetero-

a seed (heterosporous: referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores, which develop into male gametophytes, and megaspores, which develop into female gametophytes)

-sporo

like (homosporous: referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which develops into a bisexual gametophyte)

homo-

large (megaspores: a spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a female gametophyte)

maga-

small

micro-

leaf (microphyll: in lycophytes. a small leaf with a single unbranched vein)

-phyll

around

peri-

mouth (peristome: a ring of interlocking, toothlike structures on the upper part of the moss capsule, often specialized for gradual spore discharge)

-stoma

bearer (gametophore: the mature gamete- producing structure of a moss gametophyte)

-phore

first

proto-

thread (protonema: a mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores)

-nema

root

rhizo

like, form (rhizoid: a long tubular single cell or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground)

-oid

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