ch 23 AP

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Which of the following statements best describes a dietary COMPLETE PROTEIN? A protein that __?__.

A. Contains all the body’s amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth.
B. Is derived only from legumes and other plant materials.
C. Meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet.
D. Is derived from meat including fish, but not from plant sources.

Contains all the body’s amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth.

Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?

A. Only glucose metabolism occurs
B. Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones
C. Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones
D. No metabolism occurs

Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones

Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?

A. Glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain
B. Gluconeogenesis, Krebs cycle, lipolysis
C. Lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation
D. Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?

A. Growth hormone
B. Insulin
C. Epinephrine
D. Thyroid hormone

insulin

Which food type is considered to be the most important for athletes to eat to improve performance?

A. Complex carbohydrates
B. Plant proteins
C. Simple carbohydrates
D. Animal proteins

Complex carbohydrates

When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly __?__.

A. Ketone bodies.
B. Urea.
C. Ammonia.
D. Acetyl CoA.

Urea.

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ___?__.

A. Glycogen
B. Lactic acid
C. Amino acids
D. Fatty acids

Fatty acids

What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?

A. Beta oxidation
B. Glycolysis
C. Phosphorylation
D. Cellular respiration

Phosphorylation

What is the outcome of ketosis?

A. Glucogenesis
B. Water retention and edema
C. Metabolic alkalosis
D. Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic acidosis

Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is __?__.

A. Transferred to a keto acid
B. Converted to urea
C. Transferred to acetyl CoA
D. Converted to ammonia

Transferred to a keto acid

The term METABOLISM is best defined as __?__.

A. A measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories.
B. The number of calories it takes to keep organs funtioning throughout the day.
C. The length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats.
D. The sum of biochemical reactions involved in building and breaking down molecules.

The sum of biochemical reactions involved in building and breaking down molecules.

The term BASAL METABOLIC RATE reflects the __?__.

A. Loss of organic molecules in urine.
B. Energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities.
C. Loss of energy to perspiration.
D. Energy needed to make all organic molecules.

Energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities.

The process of splitting glucose into two pyruvic acid molecules through a series of 10 steps in the cytosol is called __?__.

A. Citric acid cycle
B. Glycolysis
C. Glycogenolysis
D. Electron transfer

Glycolysis

Which of the choices below is NOT a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?

A. Amino acid synthesis
B. ATP production
C. Direct conversion into nucleic acids
D. Lipogenesis

Direct conversion into nucleic acids

Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?

A. Catabolism of cellular proteins
B. Glycogenolysis in the liver
C. Lipolysis in adipose and the liver
D. Absorption of glucose from the GIT

Absorption of glucose from the GIT

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?

A. Fats
B. Carbohydrates
C. Vitamins
D. Proteins

fats

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

A. Glycolysis
B. Lactic acid production
C. Substrate-level phosphorylation
D. Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation

Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body?

A. Shrink fat stores
B. Protect against weight loss during times of nutritional deprivation
C. Promote weight loss with activity
D. Decrease appetite and food intake

Protect against weight loss during times of nutritional deprivation

Which of the following is NOT true of beta oxidation?

A. Every second carbon is reduced
B. It involves the anabolism of fats
C. Fatty acids are brokein into acetic acid fragments
D. It occurs in mitochondria

it involves the anabolism of fats

Which of the following is not an important function of the liver?

A. Protein metabolism
B. Synthesis of bile salts
C. Lipid metabolism
D. Carbohydrate metabolism

Protein metabolism

Which of the following is NOT a function of LDLs?

A. Make cholesterol available for plasma membrane or hormone synthesis
B. Regulate cholesterol supplies to tissue cells
C. Transport cholesterol from body cells to the liver
D. Provide cholesterol to body cells

Transport cholesterol from body cells to the liver

Which of the following is correct?

A. Each FADH2 yields about 1.5 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation
B. Most ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation
C. Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway
D. Most ATP produced in cellular respiration are due to the Kreb’s cycle

Each FADH2 yields about 1.5 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation

Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?

A. Increase in ADH production
B. Sympathetic sweat gland activation
C. Vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels
D. Release of epinephrine

Release of epinephrine

hich of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?

A. Eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
B. Lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals
C. Corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil and wheat germ
D. Egg yolks, fish roe, and grains

Eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish

Which of the following does NOT occur in the mitochondria?

A. Glycolysis
B. Electron transport
C. Citric acid cycle
D. Kreb’s cycle

Glycolysis

Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?

A. Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis
B. It is the normal state of homeostasis and drives the absorption of vitamins and minerals
C. It is the result of the breakdown of proteins
D. It is a condition caused by having a diet low in fish and meat protein

Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis

The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and free fatty acids is known as __?__.

A. Lipogenesis
B. Gluconeogenesis
C. Lipolysis
D. Glycogenolysis

Lipolysis

The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that __?__.

A. They spend most of their day resting, so food will only turn to fat
B. Their appetite begins to diminish
C. Muscle mass and metabolic rate decrease with age
D. The elderly have a more efficient metabolic rate and do not need large amounts of food

Muscle mass and metabolic rate decrease with age

In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ____?____ in the oxidative state.

A. Ammonia
B. Oxaloacetic acid
C. Glyceraldehyde
D. Pyruvic acid

Ammonia

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ____?____.

A. Production of energy
B. Production of enzymes, clotting factors and antibodies
C. Synthesis of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes
D. Production of some hormones, like insulin and glucagon

Production of energy

In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ____?____ are converted to glucose.

A. Glycerol
B. Glucagon
C. Acetyl CoA
D. Glycogen

Glycerol

Heat-loss mechanisms do NOT include __?__.

A. Vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels
B. Evaporation of sweat
C. Reducing physical activities
D. Behavioral changes such as wearing light, loose clothing

Vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels

Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the __?__.

A. Conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
B. Formation of sugar
C. Conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water.
D. Conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide, water and lactic acid

Conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid.

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the __?__.

A. Period when the metabolic rate is lowest
B. Postabsorptive state
C. Starvation period
D. Absorptive state

Absorptive state

Glucose can be obtained from __?__.

A. Triglyceride anabolism
B. Glycogenolysis
C. Lipogenesis
D. Protein anabolism

Glycogenolysis

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which __?__.

A. Glycogen is formed.
B. Glycogen is broken down to release glucose.
C. Glucose is converted to carbon dioxide and water.
D. Glucose is formed from non-carbohydrate precursors.

Glucose is formed from non-carbohydrate precursors.

Excessive fatty acid oxidation leads to an accumulation of acetyl CoA, which the liver converts to __?__.

A. Pyruvic acid
B. ATP
C. Lactic acid
D. Ketones

Ketones

Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ___?___.

A. Ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea
B. Adequate amounts of fats to provide adequate ATP formation
C. Adequate amounts of the essential amino acids
D. Excessive protein in the diet

Excessive protein in the diet

Cholesterol, though it is NOT an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it __?__.

A. Enters the glycolytic pathway without any modification.
B. Acts to stabilize the plasma membranes of cells and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones.
C. Helps to provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs.
D. Helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation.

Acts to stabilize the plasma membranes of cells and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones.

Catabolism would be best described as a process that __?__.

A. Elevates glucagon levels.
B. Increases triglyceride levels during the postabsorptive state.
C. Builds complex molecules or structures from smaller ones.
D. Breaks down complex structures into simpler ones.

Breaks down complex structures into simpler ones.

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ____?____ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.

A. Liver
B. Pancreas
C. Brain
D. Skeletal muscle

Brain

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because __?__.

A. All vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization.
B. Vitamins provide protection against diseases like the common cold.
C. Most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients.
D. Very few foods contain vitamins.

Most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients.

Lipogenesis occurs when __?__.

A. There is a shortage of free fatty acids
B. Excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane
C. Cellular ATP and glucose levels are high
D. There is insufficient glucose

Cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?

A. Amount of exercise and type of skeletal muscle
B. The way an individual metabolizes fat
C. The ratio of surface area to volume of the body
D. Body weight and diet

The ratio of surface area to volume of the body

The primary function of cellular respiration is to __?__.

A. Provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
B. Breakdown food molecules and generate ATP.
C. Determine the amount of heat needed to drive metabolism.
D. Efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body.

Breakdown food molecules and generate ATP.

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is __?__.

A. Protein
B. Fat
C. Acetyl CoA
D. Glucose

Glucose

The Kreb’s cycle produces __?__ ATP molecules per glucose molecule by substrate-level phosphorylation.

A. Four
B. Two
C. Three
D. One

2

The ingestion of which nutrient type results in the greatest food-induced thermogenesis?

A. Carbohydrates
B. Proteins
C. Vitamins
D. Lipids

Proteins

The amount of ____?____ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.

A. Norepinephrine
B. Growth hormone
C. Insulin
D. Thyroxine

Thyroxine

The abundant dietary lipids are __?__

A. Fatty acids
B. Phospholipids
C. Cholesterol
D. Triglycerides

Triglycerides

Select the correct statement about proteins.

A. Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are perfect sources of amino acids
B. Proteins can be synthesized in the body as long as most of the amino acids are present
C. Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested
D. Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis

Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested

Red Blood Cells have no organelles, including no mitochondria, therefore the only way for them to generate ATP is through __?__.

A. Glycolysis
B. The Citric acid cycle
C. The Kreb’s cycle
D. Oxidative phosphorylation

Glycolysis

Prostaglandins play a role in __?__.

A. Control of blood volume
B. Skeletal muscle contraction
C. Control of blood pressure
D. Non-inflammatory responses

Control of blood pressure

Oxidative deamination takes place in the __?__.

A. Muscles
B. Blood
C. Brain
D. Liver

liver

Oxidation reduction reactions __?__.

A. May involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons
B. Utilize hydrogenases
C. Are the result of the gain of hydrogen or the loss of oxygen
D. Rarely occur in the body

May involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons

Minerals required by the body in moderate amounts include all BUT which of the following? They are required in very small amounts.

A. Sulfur and potassium
B. Sodium and chlorine
C. Calcium and phosphorous
D. Iron and selenium

Iron and selenium

Anabolism includes reactions in which __?__.

A. Larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones.
B. Structural proteins are used as a potential energy source.
C. Ketone bodies are formed.
D. Carbohydrate utilization increases.

Larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones.

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