Ch 22 Review Respiratory System

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Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli


The olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal cavity contains the receptors for the sense of smell


the functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.


The lungs are perfused by two circulations: The pulmonary and the bronchial. The pulmonary circulation is or oxygenation of blood. The bronchial circulation supplies blood to the lung structures(tissues)


Changes in arterial pH can modify respiration rate and rhythm even when carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are normal.


Intrapleural pressure is normally about 4mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli.


During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs w/ each breath

FALSE tidal volume is about 500 mls of air

the alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation


in chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree.

FALSE more mucus is produced in response to he inflammation, it is not propelled up and out and may plug up the airways, and this leads to fibrosis and damage to the alveoli

labored breathing is termed dyspnea.


the largest amount of CO2 is transported in the bloodstream, in the form of carbonic anhydrase.


Increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin


The epiglottis is a smooth muscle that covers the glottis during swallowing.


Valsalva’s maneuver involves closing off the glottis (preventing expiration) while contracting the muscles of expiration, causing and increase in intra-abdominal pressure


smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia


tracheal obstruction is life threatening


the parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall


The average individual has 500ml of residual volume in his lungs


Atelectasis (lung collapse) renders the lung useless for ventilation


The Hering-Breuer reflex is a potentially dangerous response that may cause overinflation of the lung


Which is not a functional process performed by the respiratory system?

Pulmonary ventilation

The loudness of a person’s voice depends on the?

Force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. the function of type II is to?

Secrete surfactant

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.

Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?

the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?

cartilage rings

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.

pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.

Boyle’s law

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.

Dalton’s law

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.

0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.

decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.

increase of carbon dioxide

Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.

the ventral respiratory group

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.

only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants

Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?

the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?

decrease in lactic acid levels

Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?

Kaposi’s sarcoma

Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?

blood pH adjustment

Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?

Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.

Which of the following determines lung compliance?

alveolar surface tension

Tidal volume is air ________.

exchanged during normal breathing

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

partial pressure gradient

Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.

too little oxygen in the atmosphere

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.

vital capacity

Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?

Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?

rising blood pressure

Respiratory control centers are located in the

medulla and pons

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.

inspiratory reserve

Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?

More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.


Select the correct statement about the pharynx

The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx

The larynx contains ________.

the thyroid cartilage

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?

internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?

as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?

cardiac notch

Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?

aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?

attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.

voluntary cortical control

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?


The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.

alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

Gas emboli may occur because a ________.

diver holds his breath upon ascent

Inspiratory capacity is ________.

the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

Which center is located in the pons?

pontine respirator group (PRG)

The nose serves all the following functions except ________.

as the initiator of the cough reflex

A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by ________.

28 weeks

Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?

The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute

Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.

The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration

Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?

number of red blood cells

Type II alveolar cells secrete

Pulmonary surfactant

____ law is called the law of partial pressure.


____law would apply to the amount of CO2 you could dissolve in a Pepsi.


Oxygen unloading in a RBC due to declining pH is called the

Bohr effect

The ___ regulates smoothing of transitions from inspiration to expiration.

Pontine respiratory center

____is the most common lethal genetic disease in the United States

Cystic Fibrosis

The cartilaginous flap that closes the trachea during swallowing is called the


The archway in the back of the throat is called the


The trachea is lined with ____epithelium


Terminal bronchioles are lined with ____ epithelium

Simple cuboidal

No exchange of gases occurs here

Segmental Bronchi

Secrete a fluid containing surfactant

Type II cells

Where the respiratory zone of the lungs begins

Respiratory bronchioles

Composed of simple squamous epithelium

Respiratory bronchioles

Terminates in alveoli

Alveolar duct

Composed of cuboidal cells

Segmental bronchi

the respiratory membrane is composed of fused basement membrane of the capillary walls and ____.

Type I cells

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