Ch 22 Jarvis Musculoskeletal System Assessment

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move body part away from midline


move body part toward midline


immobility, consolidation, fixation of a joint because of disease, injury, or surgery, most often due to chronic rheumatoid arthritis


enclosed sac filled with viscous fluid located in joint areas of potential friction


moving arm in a circle around the shoulder/leg – hip


dry crackling sound or sensation due to grating of the ends of damaged bone


directed toward or located on surface


move sole of foot outward at ankle


straighten limb at joint


bending limb at a joint


moving sole of foot inward at the ankle


outward or convex curvature of the thoracic spine; hunchback


fibrous band running directly from one bone to another bone that strengthens joint


inward or concave curvature of the lumbar spine




sole of foot surface


turning the forearm so that the palm is down


move a body part forward & parallel to the ground


extent of movement of a joint


moving a body part backward & parallel to the ground

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic systemic inflammatory disease of joints & surrounding connective tissue


nerve pain along the course of the sciatic nerve that travels down from the back or thigh through the leg & into the foot


S shaped curvature of the thoracic spine, ant/post, or lateral L/R


turning the forearm so that the palm is up


strong fibrous cord that attaches a skeletal muscle to a bone

List four signs that suggest acute inflammation in a joint

swelling, heat, redness, and pain


Displacement of a body part, especially the temporary displacement of a bone from its normal position.


Incomplete or partial dislocation of a bone in a joint.


abnormal shortening of muscle tissue, rendering the muscle highly resistant to passive stretching.


Describe the correct method for use of the goniometer

extend joint to neutral or 0 degrees; center 0 point on goniometer on the joint; keep fixed arm of the goniometer on the 0 line and use the movable arm to measure; flex the joint and measure through the goniometer to determine the angle of greatest flexion.

differentiate testing of active range of motion versus passive range of motion

Active ROM is done when a person can do the exercises by himself; Passive ROM exercises are done for a person by a helper. The helper does the ROM exercises because the person cannot do them by himself.

State the expected range of degrees of flexion and extension of the following joints:

• Elbow – flexion of 150° – 160°, extension at 0° • Wrist – flexion 90°, extension 70° • Fingers (at metacarpophalangeal joints) – flexion at 90°, hyperextension at 30° • Hip – flexion at 90°, 120° • Knee – flexion at 130° – 150°, extension at 0° • Ankle – plantar 45, dorsi 20

Explain the method of measuring leg lenght

To determine if one leg is shorter than the other; Normally these measurements are equal or within 1 cm, indicating no true bone discrepancy. True leg lengths are equal, but apparent leg lengths unequal – this condition occurs with pelvic obliquity or adduction or flexion deformity in the hip

State four landmarks to note when checking an adolescent for scoliosis.

unequal shoulder elevation, unequal scapulae, obvious curvature, and unequal hip level

When performing a functional assessment for an older adult, state the common adaptations of the aging person makes when attempting these manoeuvers:

• Walking: shuffling patter and swaying • Climbing up stairs: person holds on to handrail • Walking down stairs: person holds on to handrail with both hands • Picking up object from floor: often bends at waist instead of knees • Rising up from sitting in chair: uses arms to push off chair arms • Rising up from lying in bed: may roll to one side, push arm to lift up torso

Describe the symptoms and signs in carpal tunnel syndrome.

Pain, burning, numbness

Contrast syndactyly and polydactyly

Syndactyly: webbed fingers. the metacarpals and phalanges of the webbed fingers are different lengths, and the joints do not line up. Polydactyly: Extra fingers, but does not affect the ROM comparing to syndactyly Both are a congenital deformity

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