Ch.20 Urinary System

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Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?

Synthesis of plasma Proteins

The organs of the urinary system are

Paired kidneys, paired ureters, a bladder and a urethra

Athletes might abuse which of the following chemicals made in the urinary system to improve performance by increasing red blood cell production


Which of the following is correct concerning the location of the kidneys?

they are located behind the parietal peritoneum

A renal corpuscle includes the

glomerulus and glomerular capsule

Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end ?

proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule

A nephron consists of

a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule

The renal medulla is composed of ____, where as the renal cortex is composed of ____.

Renal Pyramids, nephron tubules

A renal corpuscle is a _____, where as a renal tubule is a _____.

Cluster of blood capillaries and glomerular capsule; highly coiled tubule exiting the glomerular capsule

Podocytes and pedicels are part of the

Glomerular capsule

The first capillary bed associated with the nephron


Once in the glomerulus, the filtrate moves into the

renal tubule

The reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the

Proximal convoluted tubule

When plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold

glucose appears in the urine

When sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active trnasport, chloride ions are

reabsorbed by passive transport

The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the

nephron loop

The hormone ADH promotes water reabsorption through then walls of the

distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct

Most hydrogen ions are secreted

actively into the entire renal tubule

Which of the following would increase the rate of glomerular filtration

Increased blood pressure

In which of the following regions of the nephron is water actively transported

None of the above

Which of the following is an abnormal constituent of urine

None of the above

Which choice describes the counter current mechanism of the nephron loop

Water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb

In the disaese gout,k plasma has excess

uric acid

As a result of very low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure

drops and filtration decreases

The countercurrent mechanism in the nephron

Creates a highly concentrated interstitial fluid so that urine can be concentrated by the collecting ducts when they are permeable to water

Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be

conserved and water to be conserved

Michael is 26 years old. He becomes dehydrated after a long run if he has not drunk enough. His infant son sean, however becomes dehydrated fairly frequently. This difference in susceptibility to dehydration is because

Infant kidneys are less able to conserve water

A renal clearance test determines the rate at which the kidneys can

removes a particular substance from the blood

An increase in glomerule osmotic pressure _____ the rate of glomerular filtration


Filtration rate in the glomerulus is increased by

Both vasodilation of the afferent arteriole and vasoconstiction of the efferent arteriole

The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by ____ and by _____

Vasodilation of the afferent arteriole; reninangiotensin II vasoconstricting the renal artery

An adaption of the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule for reabsorption is

Microscopic projections called microvilli

A decrease in the glomerular hydrostatic pressure of a glomerular capsule will _____ the rate of glomerular


The compostion of glomerular filtrate differs from that of plasma by including

The same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules

Glomerular filtration produces about _____ liters of fluid in twnety-four hours


An increase in urine volume is termed


Water channels in cell membranes formed by ______ are a result of ADH signaling in the kidneys


Which of the following is not diuretic


Linda drinks a 28 ounce venti sugar-free vanilla non fat caffe latte on her way to work and has to urinate about a half hour later. This is most likely because

Caffeine is a diuretic

After work Linda relaxes by drinking two beers and soon has to urinate. The alcohol is a diuretic because it

Inhibits ADH secretion

A by product of amino acid catabolism in the liver is


A product of the metabolism of certain nucleric acid bases is

Uric acid

Up to ____ of urea is filtered and recycled


The relative concentration of potassium is

higher in urine than plasma or glomerular filtrate

Secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide

increases sodium excretion

Autoregulation refers to

Maintaining constant GFR

At the renal plasma threshold

more glucose is in the filtrate than active transport can handle

Marvin goes on vacation to maine and for a week eats nothing but seafood. The next week he experiences intense pain in his big toe. He probably has


Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is used to treat

Kidney Stones

The layers of ureter are

outer fibrous coat, middle muscular coat, and inner mucous coat

The _____ is the tube that conveys urine outside the body


The ureter extends downward

behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from below

The micturition reflex center is in the

sacral segments of the spinal cord

Which of the following is not part of the male urethra

ductus deferens

The trigone is

a triangular area on the floor of the urinary bladder

The detrusor muscle is in the

urinary bladder

Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron

calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

Conscious control of microturition inhibits the micturition reflex by using nerve centers in the

Brainstem and cerebral cortex

Nocturnal enuresis is


The micturition reflex can be voluntarily controlled by the

cerebral cortex stimulating or inhibiting the external urethral sphincter valve

Females are at higher risk of contracting a a urinary tract infection because

the female urethra is shorter than the males

Kidney stones are least likely to be composed of


Kidney Cells die as early as age


Kidney shrinkage with age is due to

loss of glomeruli

Which of the following does not occur with aging of the urinary system

nephrons invert

Chronic glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the

glomerular capillaries

Hemodialysis is called

an artificial kidney

During a kidney transplant procedure, the renal artery and vein of the donor kidney are connected to the recipients

iliac artery and vein

As a consequence of widespread edema, blood volume

decreases and blood pressure drops

The new parents are stunned at the state of their newborns soiled diaper, it is blue ! what might be the cause of the odd diaper stain

A defect in transport of the amino acid trytophan in the small intestine

The glomerular capsule is composed of two layers of squamous epithelial cells


The efferent arteriole supplies blood to the capillary of the glomerulus


Sympathetic nerve impulses usually cause proportional degrees of vasodilation in the afferent and efferent arterioles


At rest the kidneys recieve about a quarter of the blood coming from the heart


Glomerular filtrate is similiar to tissue fluid in composition


If the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma is decreased, the glomerular filtration rate is increased


The glomerular filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule is isotonic to the plasma of the peritubular capillary


When the concentration of water in body fluids increase, the secretion of ADH increases


Glomerular filtration produces about 18 liters of fluid formed in 24 hrs


Active transport mechanisms have limited transport capacities because the renal tubule is not very permeable to molecules


THe nephron loop secretes many hydrogen ions between plasma and urine


An increase in sodium reabsorption increases water reabsorption by actively transporting sodium ions into the blood


ADH increases absorption of water from urine into blood by increasing the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts


Inulin clearance measures the rate of glomerular filtration


Inulin and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) can be used to determine glomerular filtration rate and the rate of blood flow through the kidneys


Peristalic waves force urine along the length of the ureter


The urinary bladder is above the parietal peritoneum


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