CH 17

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Shaun is angry at the way a coworker has treated him. Shaun feels justified in his anger because "surely, anybody would feel the same way if the same thing happened to them." This example reveals Shaun’s susceptibility to the:

assumed-similarity bias

_____ are brought about by something in the environment.

Situational causes

Social psychologist Leon Festinger is associated with the study of:

cognitive dissonance.

The tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors (skill, ability, or effort) and to attribute failure to factors outside oneself is known as the:

self-serving bias

Which of the following is true of the fundamental attribution error?

It is more common in Western than in Eastern cultures.

Which of the following potential explanations is correctly paired with the process it reflects?


Sharon was made the captain of her softball team due to her excellent playing skills. However, the fact that she did not display good team management skills and was not very cooperative with her teammates was ignored while making her the captain. Which of the following biases is illustrated in this instance?

Halo effect

If you are exhibiting the self-serving bias, which would be your most likely explanation for a poor grade on the test?

"The professor doesn’t know how to teach."

On late-night TV, you see an infomercial claiming that the price of the product has been slashed for a special offer and now includes a bonus sample size of something that is in adjunct to the product. This illustrates the _____ compliance technique.


Which of the following sales techniques is based on the "norm of reciprocity"?

Not-so-free-sample technique

Which alternative below correctly defines a social influence concept?

Compliance – a change in behavior or attitudes in response to direct social pressure

The foot-in-the-door technique works because:

involvement with the small request leads to an interest in an issue.

Which of the following was a significant finding in studies conducted by Asch on conformity?

Conformity is considerably higher when people must respond publicly.

Identify the correct statement regarding conformity.

People without a clear answer are more susceptible to conformity.

The influential "prison" study of the power of social roles was conducted by:

Philip Zimbardo.

_____ is the process by which communal groups and individuals exert pressure on an individual, either deliberately or unintentionally.

Social influence

According to Asch’s pioneering work on conformity, which of the following statements is true?

Having just one person present who shares the minority point of view is sufficient to reduce conformity pressures.

The social rank held within a group is termed _____.


In Juanita’s community, girls are not expected to enjoy or excel at mathematics. Juanita’s algebra grades drop; by the time she is a high school junior, she is enrolled only in consumer mathematics courses. Which concept does Juanita’s example best illustrate?

Self-fulfilling prophecy

_____ refers to a negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members.


Perceived causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality factors are called _____ causes.


Which of the following attribution biases is correctly matched with its definition?

Halo effect—An initial impression that an individual has some positive (or negative) traits leads us to infer that they have many other positive (or negative) characteristics as well.

The fundamental attribution error is very common because:

of the nature of information available to the people making an attribution.

One forms an impression of another individual:

very quickly, within a few seconds.

Milgram’s participants were told that the study concerned:


In the _____ technique, someone makes a large request, expects it to be refused, and follows it with a smaller one.


Which alternative correctly names the psychologist often associated with a given social influence concept?

Obedience – Milgram

In the _____ technique, one asks a person to agree to a small request which—because it is small—the likelihood that he or she will comply is fairly high.


Which of the following compliance techniques is correctly matched with its description?

That’s-not-all technique—When a salesperson offers you a deal at an inflated price, immediately after the initial offer, the salesperson offers an incentive, discount, or bonus to clinch the deal.

Which of the following is true of the findings made by Asch on conformity?

Groups that unanimously support a position show the most pronounced conformity pressures.

Discrimination refers to:

behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group.

Fiona got an e-mail from her manager, Rebecca, asking her to meet to discuss a past project. Unfortunately, Fiona was struggling to complete a project due that afternoon and had to reply that she was too busy to meet today. Rebecca was not pleased with Fiona’s refusal to meet and told another coworker that she thought Fiona was "too busy and important" to meet with her supervisor thus she is an unpleasant snob. Rebecca is making a ______ attribution of Fiona.


Which of the following is true of schemas?

Schemas help us predict what others are like on the basis of relatively little information.

Which of the following is true of groupthink?

Under groupthink, members lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view.

The classic "shock" study of obedience is associated with:

Stanley Milgram.

Psychologists have found that prejudice and discrimination may be reduced by:

educating people about other groups.

On late-night TV, you see an infomercial claiming that the price of the product has been slashed for a special offer and now includes a bonus sample size of something that is in adjunct to the product. This illustrates the _____ compliance technique.


Which of the following is true of a group?

A group consists of people who are interdependent.

Which of the following is true of social roles and social norms?

Social roles are the behaviors that are associated with people in a given position.

Which of the following potential explanations is correctly paired with the process it reflects?

Awareness of a negative view of ones’ group generates anxiety, which impairs performance – stereotype threat

Milgram’s participants were told that the study concerned


A(n) _____ is an expectation about the occurrence of a future event or behavior that acts to increase the likelihood the event or behavior will occur.

self-fulfilling prophecy

Classic experimental studies of conformity were conducted in the 1950s by:

Solomon Asch.

Which of the following strategies did your text offer as effective means of dealing with anger?

Minimize the importance of the situation.

Roger was screaming for help as he was being beaten up by a group of muggers on a street. There were about 15 people standing nearby. However, none of the bystanders come forward to help Roger. This scenario representing lack of help illustrates:

diffusion of responsibility.

Which of the following is true of the factors that initially attract two people to each other?

Proximity leads to liking.

"But are you in love?" Lynette asks her friend. Lynette is trying to determine whether her friend is experiencing _____ love.


According to instinct theories of aggression, which of the following statements is most likely to be true regarding aggression?

Certain stimuli act as aggressive cues, making aggressive acts much more likely when the cues are present.

The notion of a diffusion of responsibility is most usually applied to the study of:

prosocial behavior.

Which of the following is suggested by Sternberg in his theory on love?

The different combinations of the three components vary over the course of relationships.

The reciprocity-of-liking effect means that we like:

people who like us.

The fifth-grade teacher was surprised when her Japanese-American student Hiroko performed poorly in math. The teacher’s reaction was due to


Caroline has volunteered to work with the underprivileged children who are participants in her professor’s literacy project. She is hoping that her professor will take this into consideration when calculating her grade. Caroline is expecting


The advertising committee for a politician is going door to door and asking people to put a big ugly election sign on their lawn. If people refuse, they ask them if they would consider putting a smaller sign on the lawn. The committee is using

the door-in-the-face strategy.

If you were to donate one of your kidneys to whoever might need it, you would be demonstrating a(n) ________ view of human nature.


When you do poorly on a test, you remind yourself of all the distractions you had at school that week. You are displaying

self-serving bias.

While they are sitting eating their lunch, several of Sheldon’s friends suggest that the new girl in class is very pretty. Sheldon does not think that she is pretty. He will probably

agree with his friends and say she is very attractive.

The bystander effect occurs because

All of these

Mr. and Mrs. Lee warn their new babysitter, Alison, that their son, Dennis, is very aggressive and mischievous. As a result, Alison starts calling the child "Dennis the Menace," and she behaves in ways that elicit aggressive and mischievous behaviors from Dennis. This example best demonstrates the phenomenon called

the self-fulfilling prophecy.

Which of the following faces would be rated as most attractive?

A composite of multiple faces that have been digitally blended to produce an "average" face

The idea of "do onto others as you would have them do onto you" best describes


________ is an important element of altruism.


June is usually a very quiet individual, but she recently discovered a different side of herself. She was at the Mardi Gras and found herself swept up in the festivities, doing the things that the other party revelers were doing. These were not behaviors that she would have ever considered doing on her own. Social psychologists would most likely attribute June’s behavior to


Ten year old Joanne expresses her love for her mother every morning before she leaves to school. This is an example of _____ love.


According to instinct theories of aggression, which of the following is true?

Aggression is primarily the outcome of innate—or inborn—urges

The likelihood that an individual will help someone in an emergency situation is _____ correlated with the number of other people present.


In a recent softball game, Cindy misplayed a ground ball for an error. Later in the same game, she made a great catch on a very difficult play. According to the self-serving bias, she would attribute her error to ________ and her good catch to _______.

a bad bounce; good fielding skills

Susan drives by a particularly unusual apartment building each day on her way to and from work. Initially, she does not think much of the structure and actually has a mild dislike for it. However, after several months of commuting, she starts to like the apartment building and is even considering trying to rent an apartment there. This change in Susan’s feelings about the building best demonstrates

the mere exposure effect.

Cognitive dissonance theory states that individuals

try to make attitudes conform to behavior.

According to research on stereotype threat, we should be especially concerned about standardized tests if they

ask for race/ethnic information before the test starts.

Conformity is to obedience as

Asch is to Milgram.

It appears that many attractive people possess a number of positive characteristics. This is possibly due to

the self-fulfilling prophecy.

Rod and Deandra are intense supporters of their favorite football team, the Dallas Cowboys. Their self-esteem is strongly affected by the performance of the Cowboys. Which theory would best explain this effect?

Social identity theory

Consider the distinction many researchers make between passionate and companionate love. How do the two types of love differ?

Companionate love does not involve physical intimacy; passionate love does.

Behavior that helps others but that involves some self-sacrifice is termed:


_____ involves a state of intense absorption in someone that includes intense physiological arousal, psychological interest, and caring for the needs of another.

Passionate love

The light turns green, and Kaylee is about to go. A man driving a red truck goes speeding through the red light. Mentally, Kaylee calls him a jerk and thinks to herself that his license should be revoked. Kaylee may be committing the ________ error.

fundamental attribution

Research findings indicate that frustration

can lead to aggression or passivity.

Michael is the new department head. He expects everyone to "get on board" with his restructuring of the department, and he publicly reprimands anyone who disagrees with his new policies. On the other hand, Michael praises department members for unanimity, cohesiveness, and harmony. Michael is creating an atmosphere most conducive to


Tommy just hit the game winning home run for his team. He is most likely to attribute his success to


A study by Rosenthal and Jacobson found that children who were labeled as "late bloomers" at the start of the school year showed larger IQ gains than other, non-labeled students, even though these particular children were chosen randomly. The children’s teachers were informed about these labels, but the students themselves were not. The results from this study are most relevant to which of the following?

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Which of the following theories explains why we like to think of our group as the in-group?

Social identity theory

"Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I’ll die having a good time." This statement illustrates an attempt to reduce

cognitive dissonance.

________ is an important element of altruism


Affectionate love is also called ________ love.


According to research on stereotype threat, we should be especially concerned about standardized tests if they

ask for race/ethnic information before the test starts.

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