Ch. 17

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What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA?

transcription

What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein?

translation

What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA?

RNA processing

Polypeptides are assembled from _____

amino acids

RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____

mRNA

A codon consists of _____ bases and specifies which _____ will be inserted into the polypeptide chain.

three … amino acid

A particular triplet of bases in the template strand of DNA is 5′ AGT 3′. The corresponding codon for the mRNA transcribed is

3′ UCA 5′.

What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?

Transcription

DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?

Organelles

Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?

A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase

Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene?

The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.

What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription?

Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides

Transcription

Involves the formation of an RNA strand that is complementary to the DNA template strand.

Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand?

Complementary

What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene?

It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription.

Where does RNA polymerase begin transcribing a gene into mRNA?

It starts after a certain nucleotide sequence called a promoter

Which of the following statements best describes the termination of transcription in prokaryotes?

RNA polymerase transcribes through the terminator sequence, causing the polymerase to separate from the DNA and release the transcript.

What is the function of RNA polymerase?

It unwinds the double helix and adds nucleotides to a growing strand of RNA.

A part of the promoter, called the TATA box, is said to be highly conserved in evolution. Which of the following might this illustrate?

Any mutation in the sequence is selected against

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5′ end of the RNA.

modified guanine nucleotide

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3′ end of the RNA.

a long string of adenine nucleotides

Spliceosomes are composed of _____

snRNPs and other proteins

The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____.

exons

Translation occurs in the _____.

cytoplasm

What is a ribozyme?

a biological catalyst made of RNA

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