Ch. 15 - -What is Freedom-- Reconstruction

What was General William T. Sherman's Special Field Order 15?

Set aside the Sea Islands and a large area along the South Carolina and Georgia coasts for settlement of black families on 40 acres plots of land

How would you describe the black response to the ending of the Civil War and the coming of freedom?

Liberating - blacks worshiped freely, traveled around, sought out family members, and expanded their political freedoms

How did emancipation affect the structure of the black family?

It increased the power of black men, brought the notion that black men and women were part of different "spheres," and that women were able to work more in the home for their families, rather than out in the fields

During Reconstruction, what was the role of the church in the black community?

A place of worship, housed schools, social events, and also played a major role in politics

Which denominations had the largest followings among blacks after the Civil War?

Methodists and Baptists

Howard University is well known as what?

The nation's first black college, which was located at the nation's capital

How did the Civil War affect planter families?

Planters lost their savings, which were invested into Confederate bonds, lost their slaves, and some actually had to put in their own physical labor to survive

What was the Northern vision of the Reconstruction-era southern economy?

Free labor - emancipated blacks would be able to enjoy the same opportunities for advancement as the northern laborers and the South would become a "free society"

What did the Freedman's Bureau accomplish?

Coordinated and helped finance black education and expanded the establishment of hospitals to provide medical care

What is Sharecropping? Why was this preferred to gang labor?

Sharecropping allowed black families to rent a part of a plantation, with the crop divided between the family and the owner; was preferred to gang labor because they were not constantly supervised by the land owner

What was the crop-lien system? What effect did it have on sharecroppers?

The crop-lien system was where yeoman farmers had to take up growing cotton and pledge it as part of their collateral, in order to obtain necessary supplies from merchants; sharecroppers ended up renting out their already rented land to the yeoman farmers

In the "Petition of Committee on Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew Johnson", what are the freedmen requesting?

The right to own a homestead

What was the effect of Reconstruction on southern cities?

New social classes were developed, the cities grew remarkably, and railroads connected the cities together

What do we know about Andrew Johnson?

He considered himself an "honest yeoman" against the large planters and was the only senator from the seceding states to stay loyal to the Union

What were the southern Black Codes?

Denied blacks their rights to testify against whites, serve on juries or militias, or vote, and when freedmen working on plantations refused to sign yearly labor contracts, they were to be arrested or hired out to whites

What were Radical Republicans' views of the powers of the federal government?

They embraced the powers of the federal government and insisted that the old traditions of rights must not obstruct the national effort to protect the rights of all Americans

The most ambitious, but least successful, of the Republicans' aims was?

To confiscate the plantation owners' lands to redistribute to former slaves and northern immigrants

What do we know about Thaddeus Stevens?

Was one of the most prominent Radicals in Congress, was a lawyer and iron manufacturer, represented Pennsylvania in the House of Representatives, and was a big supporter of black's rights and the redistribution of southern lands

What was the Civil Rights Act of 1866?

Defined all persons born in the US as citizens and spelled out rights that they were able to enjoy, without regard to race. The main concept of this bill was equality before the law

What was Andrew Johnson's argument against the Civil Rights Bill of 1866?

That the power of the national government would grow, depriving the states of their autonomy, and that blacks did not deserve the right to become citizens, because that would be "discriminating against the white population"

What was the 14th Amendment? Why was it so important?

It granted citizenship to all persons born in the US, which empowered the government to protect the rights of all Americans. It was important because it prohibited states from abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens or denying them equal protection of the law

In March 1867, Congress passed what act? Why was this so important?

The Reconstruction Act, which temporarily divided the South into 5 military districts and called for the construction of new state governments, where black men could vote

What is the Tenure in Office Act?

Barred the president from removing certain officeholders, including cabinet members, without the consent of the state

What early 1868 action by Andrew Johnson sparked his impeachment by the U.S. House of Representatives?

In February 1868, Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, an ally of Radicals

Why was Andrew Johnson acquitted on charges of impeachment?

Because Benjamin F. Wade would have replaced Johnson if he was removed, which would lead to the constitutional separation of powers between Congress and the executive branch would be damaged

"Waving the bloody shirt" referred to?

Republican opponents, why were identified by secession and treason

The 1868 Democratic presidential ticket, Horatio Seymour and Francis Blair Jr., had a campaign motto of?

Charging the Republicans with placing the South under a rule of "a semi-barbarous race" who longed to "subject white women to their unbridled lust"

What were the effects of passage of the 15th Amendment?

African-Americans were given the right to vote, thus completing abolishing slavery and it's ideas

The 15th Amendment did what?

Prohibited federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of race

Why were views of women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone towards the 15th Amendment?

Being women's rights advocates, they didn't know whether or not to support the 15th Amendment, because it did not do anything to help women gain suffrage

What did the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in the 1873 case in which Myra Bradwell challenged an Illinois statute excluding women from practicing law demonstrate?

That women were not equal to men; the Supreme Court declared that free labor principles did not apply to women since "the law of the Creator" had assigned them to the "domestic sphere"

With the beginning of Radical Reconstruction, what direct actions did southern African-Americans in the late 1860's and early 1870's take to remedy long-standing grievances?

They took part in sit-ins that integrated horse-drawn public streetcars in cities across the South, plantation owners organized strikes for higher wages, speakers spread across the South, thousands joined the Union league, and blacks registered to vote

Black officeholders during Reconstruction accomplished what?

They changed southern life, ensuring that black accused of crimes would be judged fairly and had fairness in aspects of local government

Hiram Revels and Blanche Bruce were the first two black?

Senators; first two blacks to serve in the U.S. Senate

Most of those termed "scalawags" during reconstruction had been?

White Republicans that were born in the South, who were considered traitors

What were the accomplishments of southern governments run by Republicans during Reconstruction?

They established the South's first state-supported public schools, pioneered civil rights legislation (made it illegal to discriminate based on race), and strengthened the position of rural laborers to promote the South's economic recovery

During Reconstruction, southern state governments helped to finance what important infrastructure?

Railroads

What was the "Whiskey Ring" scandal?

Series of thefts that added up to tens of millions of dollars, which involved the high officials of the Grant administration, and by New York's Tweed Ring, controlled by the Democrats

What happened in Colfax, Louisiana in 1873? What was the response?

The bloodiest act of violence during Reconstruction occurred; armed whites assaulted the town with a small cannon, which killed hundreds of former slaves, including 50 members of a black militia unit that had surrendered. Led to the Enforcement Acts being drafted

The Enforcement Acts, passed by Congress in 1870 and 1871, were designed to?

Outlaw terrorist societies and allow the president to use the army against them. Was meant to expand national authority during Reconstruction

The "Prostrate State" depicts?

A state engulfed by political corruption, drained by governmental extravagance, and under the control of a "mass of black barbarism"

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the Slaughterhouse Cases that?

When butchers excluded from a state-sponsored monopoly in Louisiana went to court, arguing that their right of equality to the law had been violated, the justice rejected their claim, ruling that the amendment had not altered traditional federalism

In 1875, when Mississippi governor Albert Ames asked President Grant for help because white rifle clubs had openly assaulted and murdered Republicans, Grant's response was?

That the northern public was "tired out" by southern problems

Who claimed in the 1870's to have converted the white South from corruption, misgovernment, and northern and black control?

The Redeemers

Describe the election of 1876.

Republicans nominated Governor Rutherford Hayes, while the Democrats chose Samuel Tilden. Only SC, FL, and LA were under Republican control, so whichever candidate could win over these states would win the election. Congress ended up having to make a 15-member Electoral, which was 8-7 Republican, so Hayes was elected

What was the Bargain of 1877?

That Hayes would have to recognize Democratic control of the South, place a southerner in the cabinet position of postmaster general, and work for federal aid to the Texas and Pacific railroad, while Democrats agreed to not dispute Hayes's right to office and respect the civil and political rights of blacks (railroad promise never fulfilled)

How did the Civil War affect planter families?

For the first time, some of them had to do physical labor

The U.S. Supreme Court's decision in the 1873 case in which Myra Bradwell challenged an Illinois statute excluding women from practicing law:

demonstrates that, while racial definitions of freedom were changing, gendered ones still existed.

During Reconstruction, southern cities:

enjoyed new-found prosperity as merchants traded more frequently with the North.

Andrew Johnson

lacked Lincoln's political skills and keen sense of public opinion.

Civil War and the coming of freedom...

Blacks adopted different ways of testing their freedom, including moving about, seeking kin, and rejecting older forms of deferential behavior was one of best ways they expressed this

How did emancipation affect the structure of the black family?

The black family became more like the typical white family, with men as the breadwinners and women as the homemakers.

Black officeholders during Reconstruction:

helped ensure a degree of fairness in treatment of African-American citizens

During Reconstruction, southern state governments helped to finance:

railroads

Which denominations had the largest followings among blacks after the Civil War?

Methodist and Baptist

The Whiskey Ring scandal took place during the administration of:

Grant

Hiram Revels and Blanche Bruce were the first two black:

U.S. senators.

Sharecropping:

was preferred by African-Americans to gang labor (because they were less subject to supervision).

The two maps of the Barrow Plantation demonstrate:

the African-American commitment to education

The Fifteenth Amendment:

sought to guarantee that one could not be denied suffrage rights based on race

Southern Republicans during Reconstruction:

established the South's first state-supported schools.

The Northern vision of the Reconstruction-era southern economy included all of the following EXCEPT:

the labor system would be as close to slavery as possible, thereby assuring high productivity

Which of the following best describes the black response to the ending of the Civil War and the coming of freedom?

Blacks adopted different ways of testing their freedom, including moving about, seeking kin, and rejecting older forms of deferential behavior.

Howard University is well known as

a black university in Washington, D.C.

The Freedmen's Bureau

made notable achievements in improving African-American education and health care

In the "Petition of Committee in Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew Johnson" (1865), what are the freedmen requesting?

the right to purchase a homestead

The crop-lien system:

kept many sharecroppers in a state of constant debt and poverty

White farmers in the late nineteenth-century South

included many sharecroppers involved in the crop-lien system

The southern Black Codes

allowed the arrest on vagrancy charges of former slaves who failed to sign yearly labor contracts.

The Civil Rights Act of 1866:

defined the rights of American citizens without regard to race.

When Congress sent Andrew Johnson the Civil Rights Bill of 1866, he

argued that it discriminated against whites

The Fourteenth Amendment

marked the most important change in the U.S. Constitution since the Bill of Rights.

What early 1868 action by Andrew Johnson sparked his impeachment by the U.S. House of Representatives?

He, at least allegedly, violated the Tenure of Office Act.

During Reconstruction, those like Elizabeth Cady Stanton who supported a woman's right to vote

found themselves divided over whether or not to support the Fifteenth Amendment.

Black officeholders during Reconstruction

helped ensure a degree of fairness in the treatment of African-American citizens

Most of those termed "scalawags" during Reconstruction had been

non-slaveholding white farmers from the southern upcountry prior to the Civil War.

Which of the following was NOT an accomplishment of southern governments run by Republicans during Reconstruction?

widespread transformation of plantations into black-owned farms

The Enforcement Acts, passed by Congress in 1870 and 1871, were designed to:

stop the activities of terrorist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan

The Prostrate State depicts

South Carolina under allegedly corrupt Negro rule during Reconstruction.

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the Slaughterhouse Cases that

most rights of citizens are under the control of state governments rather than the federal government

The Bargain of 1877

allowed for white Democratic control of the South

Ch. 15 -What is Freedom- Reconstruction - Subjecto.com

Ch. 15 – -What is Freedom– Reconstruction

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What was General William T. Sherman’s Special Field Order 15?

Set aside the Sea Islands and a large area along the South Carolina and Georgia coasts for settlement of black families on 40 acres plots of land

How would you describe the black response to the ending of the Civil War and the coming of freedom?

Liberating – blacks worshiped freely, traveled around, sought out family members, and expanded their political freedoms

How did emancipation affect the structure of the black family?

It increased the power of black men, brought the notion that black men and women were part of different "spheres," and that women were able to work more in the home for their families, rather than out in the fields

During Reconstruction, what was the role of the church in the black community?

A place of worship, housed schools, social events, and also played a major role in politics

Which denominations had the largest followings among blacks after the Civil War?

Methodists and Baptists

Howard University is well known as what?

The nation’s first black college, which was located at the nation’s capital

How did the Civil War affect planter families?

Planters lost their savings, which were invested into Confederate bonds, lost their slaves, and some actually had to put in their own physical labor to survive

What was the Northern vision of the Reconstruction-era southern economy?

Free labor – emancipated blacks would be able to enjoy the same opportunities for advancement as the northern laborers and the South would become a "free society"

What did the Freedman’s Bureau accomplish?

Coordinated and helped finance black education and expanded the establishment of hospitals to provide medical care

What is Sharecropping? Why was this preferred to gang labor?

Sharecropping allowed black families to rent a part of a plantation, with the crop divided between the family and the owner; was preferred to gang labor because they were not constantly supervised by the land owner

What was the crop-lien system? What effect did it have on sharecroppers?

The crop-lien system was where yeoman farmers had to take up growing cotton and pledge it as part of their collateral, in order to obtain necessary supplies from merchants; sharecroppers ended up renting out their already rented land to the yeoman farmers

In the "Petition of Committee on Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew Johnson", what are the freedmen requesting?

The right to own a homestead

What was the effect of Reconstruction on southern cities?

New social classes were developed, the cities grew remarkably, and railroads connected the cities together

What do we know about Andrew Johnson?

He considered himself an "honest yeoman" against the large planters and was the only senator from the seceding states to stay loyal to the Union

What were the southern Black Codes?

Denied blacks their rights to testify against whites, serve on juries or militias, or vote, and when freedmen working on plantations refused to sign yearly labor contracts, they were to be arrested or hired out to whites

What were Radical Republicans’ views of the powers of the federal government?

They embraced the powers of the federal government and insisted that the old traditions of rights must not obstruct the national effort to protect the rights of all Americans

The most ambitious, but least successful, of the Republicans’ aims was?

To confiscate the plantation owners’ lands to redistribute to former slaves and northern immigrants

What do we know about Thaddeus Stevens?

Was one of the most prominent Radicals in Congress, was a lawyer and iron manufacturer, represented Pennsylvania in the House of Representatives, and was a big supporter of black’s rights and the redistribution of southern lands

What was the Civil Rights Act of 1866?

Defined all persons born in the US as citizens and spelled out rights that they were able to enjoy, without regard to race. The main concept of this bill was equality before the law

What was Andrew Johnson’s argument against the Civil Rights Bill of 1866?

That the power of the national government would grow, depriving the states of their autonomy, and that blacks did not deserve the right to become citizens, because that would be "discriminating against the white population"

What was the 14th Amendment? Why was it so important?

It granted citizenship to all persons born in the US, which empowered the government to protect the rights of all Americans. It was important because it prohibited states from abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens or denying them equal protection of the law

In March 1867, Congress passed what act? Why was this so important?

The Reconstruction Act, which temporarily divided the South into 5 military districts and called for the construction of new state governments, where black men could vote

What is the Tenure in Office Act?

Barred the president from removing certain officeholders, including cabinet members, without the consent of the state

What early 1868 action by Andrew Johnson sparked his impeachment by the U.S. House of Representatives?

In February 1868, Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, an ally of Radicals

Why was Andrew Johnson acquitted on charges of impeachment?

Because Benjamin F. Wade would have replaced Johnson if he was removed, which would lead to the constitutional separation of powers between Congress and the executive branch would be damaged

"Waving the bloody shirt" referred to?

Republican opponents, why were identified by secession and treason

The 1868 Democratic presidential ticket, Horatio Seymour and Francis Blair Jr., had a campaign motto of?

Charging the Republicans with placing the South under a rule of "a semi-barbarous race" who longed to "subject white women to their unbridled lust"

What were the effects of passage of the 15th Amendment?

African-Americans were given the right to vote, thus completing abolishing slavery and it’s ideas

The 15th Amendment did what?

Prohibited federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of race

Why were views of women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone towards the 15th Amendment?

Being women’s rights advocates, they didn’t know whether or not to support the 15th Amendment, because it did not do anything to help women gain suffrage

What did the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in the 1873 case in which Myra Bradwell challenged an Illinois statute excluding women from practicing law demonstrate?

That women were not equal to men; the Supreme Court declared that free labor principles did not apply to women since "the law of the Creator" had assigned them to the "domestic sphere"

With the beginning of Radical Reconstruction, what direct actions did southern African-Americans in the late 1860’s and early 1870’s take to remedy long-standing grievances?

They took part in sit-ins that integrated horse-drawn public streetcars in cities across the South, plantation owners organized strikes for higher wages, speakers spread across the South, thousands joined the Union league, and blacks registered to vote

Black officeholders during Reconstruction accomplished what?

They changed southern life, ensuring that black accused of crimes would be judged fairly and had fairness in aspects of local government

Hiram Revels and Blanche Bruce were the first two black?

Senators; first two blacks to serve in the U.S. Senate

Most of those termed "scalawags" during reconstruction had been?

White Republicans that were born in the South, who were considered traitors

What were the accomplishments of southern governments run by Republicans during Reconstruction?

They established the South’s first state-supported public schools, pioneered civil rights legislation (made it illegal to discriminate based on race), and strengthened the position of rural laborers to promote the South’s economic recovery

During Reconstruction, southern state governments helped to finance what important infrastructure?

Railroads

What was the "Whiskey Ring" scandal?

Series of thefts that added up to tens of millions of dollars, which involved the high officials of the Grant administration, and by New York’s Tweed Ring, controlled by the Democrats

What happened in Colfax, Louisiana in 1873? What was the response?

The bloodiest act of violence during Reconstruction occurred; armed whites assaulted the town with a small cannon, which killed hundreds of former slaves, including 50 members of a black militia unit that had surrendered. Led to the Enforcement Acts being drafted

The Enforcement Acts, passed by Congress in 1870 and 1871, were designed to?

Outlaw terrorist societies and allow the president to use the army against them. Was meant to expand national authority during Reconstruction

The "Prostrate State" depicts?

A state engulfed by political corruption, drained by governmental extravagance, and under the control of a "mass of black barbarism"

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the Slaughterhouse Cases that?

When butchers excluded from a state-sponsored monopoly in Louisiana went to court, arguing that their right of equality to the law had been violated, the justice rejected their claim, ruling that the amendment had not altered traditional federalism

In 1875, when Mississippi governor Albert Ames asked President Grant for help because white rifle clubs had openly assaulted and murdered Republicans, Grant’s response was?

That the northern public was "tired out" by southern problems

Who claimed in the 1870’s to have converted the white South from corruption, misgovernment, and northern and black control?

The Redeemers

Describe the election of 1876.

Republicans nominated Governor Rutherford Hayes, while the Democrats chose Samuel Tilden. Only SC, FL, and LA were under Republican control, so whichever candidate could win over these states would win the election. Congress ended up having to make a 15-member Electoral, which was 8-7 Republican, so Hayes was elected

What was the Bargain of 1877?

That Hayes would have to recognize Democratic control of the South, place a southerner in the cabinet position of postmaster general, and work for federal aid to the Texas and Pacific railroad, while Democrats agreed to not dispute Hayes’s right to office and respect the civil and political rights of blacks (railroad promise never fulfilled)

How did the Civil War affect planter families?

For the first time, some of them had to do physical labor

The U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in the 1873 case in which Myra Bradwell challenged an Illinois statute excluding women from practicing law:

demonstrates that, while racial definitions of freedom were changing, gendered ones still existed.

During Reconstruction, southern cities:

enjoyed new-found prosperity as merchants traded more frequently with the North.

Andrew Johnson

lacked Lincoln’s political skills and keen sense of public opinion.

Civil War and the coming of freedom…

Blacks adopted different ways of testing their freedom, including moving about, seeking kin, and rejecting older forms of deferential behavior was one of best ways they expressed this

How did emancipation affect the structure of the black family?

The black family became more like the typical white family, with men as the breadwinners and women as the homemakers.

Black officeholders during Reconstruction:

helped ensure a degree of fairness in treatment of African-American citizens

During Reconstruction, southern state governments helped to finance:

railroads

Which denominations had the largest followings among blacks after the Civil War?

Methodist and Baptist

The Whiskey Ring scandal took place during the administration of:

Grant

Hiram Revels and Blanche Bruce were the first two black:

U.S. senators.

Sharecropping:

was preferred by African-Americans to gang labor (because they were less subject to supervision).

The two maps of the Barrow Plantation demonstrate:

the African-American commitment to education

The Fifteenth Amendment:

sought to guarantee that one could not be denied suffrage rights based on race

Southern Republicans during Reconstruction:

established the South’s first state-supported schools.

The Northern vision of the Reconstruction-era southern economy included all of the following EXCEPT:

the labor system would be as close to slavery as possible, thereby assuring high productivity

Which of the following best describes the black response to the ending of the Civil War and the coming of freedom?

Blacks adopted different ways of testing their freedom, including moving about, seeking kin, and rejecting older forms of deferential behavior.

Howard University is well known as

a black university in Washington, D.C.

The Freedmen’s Bureau

made notable achievements in improving African-American education and health care

In the "Petition of Committee in Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew Johnson" (1865), what are the freedmen requesting?

the right to purchase a homestead

The crop-lien system:

kept many sharecroppers in a state of constant debt and poverty

White farmers in the late nineteenth-century South

included many sharecroppers involved in the crop-lien system

The southern Black Codes

allowed the arrest on vagrancy charges of former slaves who failed to sign yearly labor contracts.

The Civil Rights Act of 1866:

defined the rights of American citizens without regard to race.

When Congress sent Andrew Johnson the Civil Rights Bill of 1866, he

argued that it discriminated against whites

The Fourteenth Amendment

marked the most important change in the U.S. Constitution since the Bill of Rights.

What early 1868 action by Andrew Johnson sparked his impeachment by the U.S. House of Representatives?

He, at least allegedly, violated the Tenure of Office Act.

During Reconstruction, those like Elizabeth Cady Stanton who supported a woman’s right to vote

found themselves divided over whether or not to support the Fifteenth Amendment.

Black officeholders during Reconstruction

helped ensure a degree of fairness in the treatment of African-American citizens

Most of those termed "scalawags" during Reconstruction had been

non-slaveholding white farmers from the southern upcountry prior to the Civil War.

Which of the following was NOT an accomplishment of southern governments run by Republicans during Reconstruction?

widespread transformation of plantations into black-owned farms

The Enforcement Acts, passed by Congress in 1870 and 1871, were designed to:

stop the activities of terrorist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan

The Prostrate State depicts

South Carolina under allegedly corrupt Negro rule during Reconstruction.

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the Slaughterhouse Cases that

most rights of citizens are under the control of state governments rather than the federal government

The Bargain of 1877

allowed for white Democratic control of the South

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