Ch. 13 A&P 1 (Mastering)

Bell's palsy is ________.

A) characterized by partial paralysis of diaphragm muscles
B) characterized by paralysis of facial muscles
C) often caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve
D) characterized by loss of vision

B) characterized by paralysis of facial muscles

Transduction refers to conversion of ________.

A) receptor energy to stimulus energy
B) afferent impulses to efferent impulses
C) presynaptic nerve impulses to postsynaptic nerve impulses
D) stimulus energy into energy of a graded potential

D) stimulus energy into energy of a graded potential

In a crossed-extensor reflex, if the right arm was grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________.

A) also flex
B) extend
C) abduct
D) adduct

B) extend

Select the correct definition.

A) Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.
B) Perceptual detection is the ability to detect how much stimulus is applied to the body.
C) Spatial discrimination allows us to recognize submodalities of a particular sensation.
D) Magnitude estimation is the simplest level of sensation.

A) Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.

The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve.

A) maxillary
B) ophthalmic
C) mandibular
D) cervical

D) cervical

Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________.

A) exteroceptors
B) proprioceptors
C) interoceptors
D) mechanoreceptors

A) exteroceptors

Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?

A) The stimulus energy must occur within the receptor's receptive field.
B) The stimulus energy must match the specificity of the receptor.
C) The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential.
D) A generator potential in the associated sensory neuron must reach threshold.

C) The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential called a transduction potential.

The cranial nerve with a cervical origin (spinal cord) is the ________.

A) vagus
B) hypoglossal
C) accessory
D) glossopharyngeal

C) accessory

Which of the following is not an aspect of sensory perception?

A) visceral identification
B) magnitude estimation
C) spatial discrimination
D) feature abstraction
E) pattern recognition

A) visceral identification

Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.

A) interoceptors
B) photoreceptors
C) nociceptors
D) proprioceptors

C) nociceptors

characteristics of sensory neurons in the stretch reflex?

These sensory neurons transmit afferent impulses toward the spinal cord (CNS). When a stretch activates the muscle spindle, these sensory neurons transmit impulses at a higher frequency.

Which is the true statement about the synapses in the spinal cord in the stretch reflex?

A) Multipolar interneurons make inhibitory polysynaptic synapses to the antagonist muscle.
B) The antagonist muscle is activated by increased frequency stimuli.
C) Polysynaptic interneurons first synapse with higher brain centers.
D) Sensory neurons synapse with motor neuron interneurons to excite the extrafusal fibers of the stretched muscle.

A) Multipolar interneurons make inhibitory polysynaptic synapses to the antagonist muscle.

Examine the cross section through the lumbar section of the spinal cord and the two patellar reflex pathways shown. What identifies these synapses?

Afferent impulses synapse with motor neurons and interneurons. Pathways will activate one muscle and simultaneously inhibit its antagonist muscle.

Examine and characterize the two motor pathways in the stretch patellar reflex.

A) Alpha motor neurons send efferent messages to the quadriceps, while parallel efferent messages to the hamstrings are reduced.
B) Alpha motor neurons send efferent messages to excite the quadriceps and the hamstrings are reduced.
C) Alpha motor neurons activate the quadriceps. Once the quadriceps have contracted, alpha motor neurons inhibit the hamstrings.
D) Interneurons excite alpha motor neurons, which in turn excite the muscle.

A) Alpha motor neurons send efferent messages to the quadriceps, while parallel efferent messages to the hamstrings are reduced.

Order the following terms as they would occur in a typical stretch reflex. Some items may be placed equivalently (in sequential order from left to right); some events may occur simultaneously (statements overlapping).

Muscle stretch -> Muscle spindles are activated -> Sensory neurons transmit afferent impulses -> Extrafusal fibers of the stretched muscle are excited , interneurons sends inhibitory impulses to antagonistic motor neurons -> Efferent impulses to antagonistic muscles are reduced, efferent impulses cause the stretched muscle to contract

A patient sustains a ventral horn injury to the lumbar region of the spine. This injury has damaged the cell bodies of several afferent nerves within the region. Predict how the patient's patellar reflex might be affected.

A) The patient's patellar reflex would be hyperactive.
B) Both the quadriceps and the hamstring would contract.
C) The hamstring would relax, but the quadriceps would not contract.
D) The quadriceps would contract, but the hamstring would not relax.
E) The patient's patellar reflex would be absent or weak.

E) The patient's patellar reflex would be absent or weak.

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.

True/False

False

receptor types above might function as a nociceptor?

Nociceptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli like noxious chemicals and extremes of temperature or pH. Nociceptors are generally associated with free nerve endings of specialized neurons.

The receptor function as exteroceptors?

Exteroceptors are sensitive to stimuli arising outside the body.

Which of the receptor types contribute to the sense of touch by responding to deep pressure stimuli?

Deep pressure is detected by specific types of encapsulated receptors, such as the Pacinian corpuscles

Which pathways comprise the autonomic nervous system?

The outflow of the ANS is characterized by a two neuron chain spanning from CNS to effector organ.

Neurons that control the voluntary movement of the arm would be associated with which pathway?

the single heavily myelinated neuron that spans the distance from the CNS to a skeletal muscle

A collection of neuron cell bodies in the PNS are found within

A) ganglia
B) rami
C) nuclei
D) tracts

A) ganglia

The site of the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine?

A) within the ganglia of the sympathetic division
B) terminus of a parasympathetic postganglionic neuron
C) within the ganglia of the parasympathetic division
D) terminus of a sympathetic postganglionic neuron
E) terminus of a somatic motor neuron

D) terminus of a sympathetic postganglionic neuron

Which of the following statements is true?

A) The effects of neurotransmitters released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons are always stimulatory.
B) The effects of neurotransmitters released by somatic motor neurons may be either stimulatory or inhibitory.
C) The effects of neurotransmitters released from either sympathetic or parasympathetic postganglionic neurons may be stimulatory or inhibitory.
D) The effects of neurotransmitters released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons are always inhibitory.

C) The effects of neurotransmitters released from either sympathetic or parasympathetic postganglionic neurons may be stimulatory or inhibitory.

Which type of sensory receptor allows us to feel an insect landing on our skin?

A) nociceptor
B) mechanoreceptor
C) chemoreceptor
D) thermoreceptor

B) mechanoreceptor

__________ are receptors that can respond to changes in pressure.

A) Chemoreceptors
B) Nociceptors
C) Mechanoreceptors
D) Photoreceptors

C) Mechanoreceptors

Which of the following is NOT used to classify sensory receptors?

A) the number of dendritic endings present
B) structural complexity
C) the type of stimulus they detect
D) location

A) the number of dendritic

Which of the following is composed of encapsulated nerve endings?

A) free nerve endings of sensory neurons
B) hair follicle receptors
C) tactile discs
D) muscle spindles

D) muscle spindles

Anatomically, all general sensory receptors are encapsulated nerve endings.

True/ False

False

The hyperalgesia that is common in phantom limb pain could be blocked if a new drug was developed that could prevent (without triggering any side-effects) the ______.

A) diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors
B) release of enkephalins
C) binding of enkephalins to NMDA receptors
D) diffusion of enkephalins across synaptic clefts

A) diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors

Three main levels of neural integration operate in the somatosensory system. Which level involves processing in the sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?

A) circuit level
B) receptor level
C) perceptual level
D) integrative level

C) perceptual level

The first level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the __________ level.

A) perceptual
B) abstraction
C) circuit
D) receptor

D) receptor

__________ do NOT exhibit the property of adaptation.

A) Tonic receptors
B) Phasic receptors
C) Photoreceptors
D) Sensory receptors

A) Tonic receptors

Why might an individual experience the phenomenon known as "referred pain"?

A) Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers.
B) Sensory nuclei in the thalamus become overwhelmed and send impulses to the wrong sensory cortex.
C) Because the eyes may detect an injury before it is sensed, the brain creates referred sensations of pain before there is an authentic sensory stimulus.
D) When the pain associated with an injury is severe, the brain will shut down certain cognitive functions as a defense mechanism.

A) Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers.

Which of the following lists the hierarchy of motor control from lowest to highest level of control?

A) segmental level, projection level, precommand level
B) precommand level, projection level, segmental level
C) segmental level, precommand level, projection level
D) projection level, precommand level, segmental level

A) segmental level, projection level, precommand level

Which structure is involved in the segmental level of motor control?

A) brain stem
B) basal nuclei
C) spinal cord
D) cerebellum

C) spinal cord

Which connective tissue layer directly surrounds each axon in a nerve?

A) endoneurium
B) endomysium
C) perineurium
D) epineurium

A) endoneurium

Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called __________.

A) motor nerves
B) afferent nerves
C) sensory nerves
D) mixed nerves

A) motor nerves

__________ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

A) Myelin sheaths
B) Fascicles
C) Ganglia
D) Nuclei

C) Ganglia

Choose the FALSE statement about nerves.

A) Nerve axons are surrounded by a loose connective tissue layer called the endoneurium.
B) Nerves vary in size.
C) The majority of a nerve's bulk is due to axons.
D) Nerves consist of parallel bundles of myelinated and nonmyelinated axons.

C) The majority of a nerve's bulk is due to axons.

CNS nerve fibers lack the intrinsic capacity to regenerate, while PNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate.

True/ False

True

Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?

A) abducens
B) olfactory
C) trigeminal
D) oculomotor

B) olfactory

Which cranial nerve transmits information about our sense of equilibrium?

A) vagus
B) abducens
C) vestibulocochlear
D) optic

C) vestibulocochlear

There are __________ pairs of cranial nerves.

A) 6
B) 8
C) 10
D) 12
E) 14

D) 12

The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the __________.

A) forebrain
B) brain stem.
C) cerebellum.
D) spinal cord

B) brain stem.

Hiccups could occur if there was irritation or damage to the ______.

A) dorsal rami of spinal nerves associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
B) afferent neurons of spinal nerves associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
C) cutaneous branches of rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
D) motor branches of ventral rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord

D) motor branches of ventral rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord

The brachial plexus can be palpated at the lower lateral border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Injury to the brachial plexus could cause weakness or paralysis to all of the following EXCEPT the ______.

A) deltoid muscle
B) biceps brachii muscle
C) sternocleidomastoid muscle
D) muscles that flex the wrist and fingers

C) sternocleidomastoid muscle

In carpal tunnel syndrome, there may be tingling and numbness in the thumb due to compression of the ______.

A) thumb muscles
B) cutaneous branches of the median nerve
C) muscular branches of the posterior cord that supply the median nerve
D) None of the listed responses is correct.

B) cutaneous branches of the median nerve

Damage to the ulnar nerve could result in the inability to ______.

A) supinate or pronate the forearm
B) flex the wrist
C) extend the forearm
D) All of the listed responses are correct.

B) flex the wrist

If "wrist drop" were to appear, there would also be an increased probability of ______.

A) inability to extend the forearm
B) inability to flex the fingers
C) inability to pronate the forearm
D) inability to contract the biceps brachii

A) inability to extend the forearm

A herniated lumbar disc could interfere with ______.

A) skin sensations from the lateral thigh
B) skin sensations from the medial thigh
C) adduction of the thigh
D) All of the listed responses are correct.

D) All of the listed responses are correct.

Sciatica has no direct affect on ______.

A) perception of sensory information from the skin that covers the front of the leg
B) perception of sensory information from the skin that covers the back of the leg
C) control of the adductor longus
D) control of the semimembranosus

C) control of the adductor longus

What type of nerve fibers are found in the ventral ramus of a spinal nerve?

A) motor only
B) both sensory and motor
C) sensory only
D) autonomic only

B) both sensory and motor

The primary nerve that controls breathing is found in which nerve plexus?

A) sacral
B) brachial
C) cervical
D) lumbar

C) cervical

Spinal nerves are all classified as __________.

A) afferent nerves
B) motor nerves
C) sensory nerves
D) mixed nerves

D) mixed nerves

The phrenic nerve serves the __________.

A) ear
B) shoulder
C) neck
D) diaphragm

D) diaphragm

How many of the pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain stem?

A) one
B) two
C) ten
D) All of the listed responses are correct.
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

B) two

The brachial plexus can contain fibers from __________.

A) C3-C4
B) T1-T12
C) C4- T2
D) L1-L4
E) L4-S4

C) C4- T2

Which of the following cranial nerves is NOT involved with the eye?

A) trigeminal
B) optic
C) trochlear
D) abducens
E) oculomotor

A) trigeminal

Which of the following cranial nerves is purely sensory?

A) accessory
B) trigeminal
C) hypoglossal
D) vagus
E) optic

E) optic

Which of the following cranial nerves has a name that means "the wanderer"?

A) trigeminal
B) vagus
C) trochlear
D) vestibulocochlear
E) glossopharyngeal

B) vagus

Which of the following fibers in the skeletal muscle are stimulated only by the degree of stretch?

A) alpha efferent fibers
B) anulospiral endings (also called primary sensory endings)
C) large alpha motor fibers
D) gamma efferent fibers
E) flower spray endings (also called secondary sensory endings)

E) flower spray endings (also called secondary sensory endings)

Which of the following is NOT a nerve plexus?

A) the lumbar plexus
B) the brachial plexus
C) the sacral plexus
D) the cervical plexus
E) the thoracic plexus

E) the thoracic plexus

Which of the following nerves does NOT arise from the brachial plexus?

A) the axillary nerve
B) the ulnar nerve
C) the phrenic nerve
D) the radial nerve
E) the musculocutaneous nerve

C) the phrenic nerve

Which of the following receptors is considered a free dendritic ending?

A) Ruffini's corpuscles
B) Golgi tendon organs
C) tactile (Meissner's) corpuscles
D) lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles
E) tactile (Merkel) discs

E) tactile (Merkel) discs

Which of the following reflexes is particularly important in maintaining balance?

A) deep tendon reflexes
B) flexor reflexes
C) superficial reflexes
D) withdrawal reflexes
E) crossed extensor reflexes

E) crossed extensor reflexes

Which of the following reflexes would test the integrity of L4 to S2?

A) striking the patellar ligament with a reflex hammer
B) stroking the skin of the lateral abdomen
C) contraction of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh while the posterior compartment muscle relaxes
D) lifting a cut foot if you step on a piece of glass
E) drawing a blunt object downward along the lateral aspect of the foot causes downward curling of the toes

E) drawing a blunt object downward along the lateral aspect of the foot causes downward curling of the toes

Collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system are known as __________.

A) exteroceptors
B) Schwann cells
C) nociceptors
D) encapsulated dendritic endings
E) ganglia

E) ganglia

The lowest level of the motor hierarchy is the __________.

A) sensory level
B) precommand level
C) reflex level
D) projection level
E) segmental level

E) segmental level

Reflexes that result from practice or repetition are known as __________.

A) sensory reflexes
B) speech reflexes
C) acquired motor skills
D) intrinsic reflexes
E) acquired reflexes

E) acquired reflexes

The muscle fiber or gland cell that responds to the efferent impulses is known as the __________.

A) motor neuron
B) receptor
C) effector
D) integration center
E) sensory neuron

C) effector

Which of the following cranial nerves controls chewing food?

A) hypoglossal nerve
B) trigeminal nerve
C) facial nerve
D) vagus nerve
E) vestibulocochlear nerve

B) trigeminal nerve

Which of the following nerves controls the quadriceps muscle group?

A) peroneal nerve
B) tibial nerve
C) lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh
D) femoral nerve
E) median nerve
E) sciatic nerve

D) femoral nerve

Which of the following is a pain transmitter?

A) acetylcholine
B) substance P
C) dopamine
D) insulin

B) substance P

If pain continues for a long time __________.

A) NMDA receptors are suppressed
B) pain tolerance will develop
C) Hyperalgesia develops
D) the incidence of "phantom limb" decreases

C) Hyperalgesia develops

Which of the following receptors are also known as lamellated corpuscles?

A) hair follicle receptors
B) Pacinian corpuscles
C) vanilloid receptors
D) Meissner's corpuscles

B) Pacinian corpuscles

Which of the following receptors is stimulated by a substance known as capsaicin?

A) Meissner's corpuscles
B) Golgi tendon organs
C) Pacinian corpuscles
D) vanilloid receptors

D) vanilloid receptors

`Wallerian degeneration is the __________.

A) degeneration of the axon and myelin sheath distal to the injury site caused by the lack of nutrients
B) degeneration of the axon and myelin sheath caused by repeated stimulation
C) degeneration of the axon and myelin caused by the presence of toxins
D) degeneration of the axon and myelin sheath proximal to the injury site caused by the lack of nutrients

D) degeneration of the axon and myelin sheath proximal to the injury site caused by the lack of nutrients

Transection of the sciatic nerve would cause all the following EXCEPT __________.

A) inability to flex the leg
B) footdrop
C) inability to mediate the act of erection
D) loss of ankle movements

C) inability to mediate the act of erection

Hilton's law states that __________.

A) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint innervates the joint, but not the skin over the joint
B) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint does not innervate the joint
C) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint does innervate the skin over the joint, but not the joint
D) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint also innervates the joint and the skin over the joint

D) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint also innervates the joint and the skin over the joint

Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reflex?

A) maintaining posture
B) singing a song
C) driving a car
D) playing a musical instrument

A) maintaining posture

Stretch reflexes would be hypoactive in all of the following conditions EXCEPT __________.

A) chronic diabetes mellitus
B) stroke patients with lesions of the corticospinal tract
C) neurosyphilis
D) coma

B) stroke patients with lesions of the corticospinal tract

What area of the brain is responsible for precisely starting, stopping, or coordinating movements?

A) motor cortex of the cerebrum
B) precommand areas
C) spinal level
D) brain stem motor areas

B) precommand areas

If a patient has difficulty using the "pincer grasp" to pick up small objects, which nerve is injured?

A) musculocutaneous nerve
B) ulnar nerve
C) median nerve
D) axillary nerve

C) median nerve

The two-point discrimination test tests the patient's __________ ability of sensory perception.

A) pattern recognition
B) magnitude estimation
C) spatial discrimination
D) quality discrimination

C) spatial discrimination

Which of the following branches of a spinal nerve only contain autonomic fibers?

A) the ventral roots
B) the dorsal ramus
C) the dorsal roots
D) the ventral ramus
E) the rami communicantes

E) the rami communicantes

Which of the following structures is NOT a part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

A) sensory receptors
B) brain
C) motor endings
D) ganglia

B) brain

Match the following sensory receptors to the stimuli they detect.

mechanoreceptors
thermoreceptors
photoreceptors
chemoreceptors
nociceptors

A stretch
B light energy
C temperature
D pain
E chemicals in solution

A stretch -mechanoreceptors B light energy -photoreceptors C temperature -thermoreceptors D pain -mechanoreceptors E chemicals in solution -chemoreceptors

Proprioceptors advise the brain of __________.

A) body movements
B) pain localization
C) temperature of the skin
D) chemical imbalances

A) body movements

Simple receptors found in epithelia and connective tissue tend to __________.

A) be mechanoreceptors
B) have encapsulated dendritic endings
C) be sense organs
D) have encapsulated or nonencapsulated dendritic endings

D) have encapsulated or nonencapsulated dendritic endings

Which of the following has nonencapsulated nerve endings?

A) hair follicle receptors
B) Meissner's corpuscles
C) muscle spindles
D) Pacinian corpuscles

A) hair follicle receptors

The final level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the __________ level.

A) receptor
B) abstraction
C) circuit
D) perceptual

D) perceptual

Fast adapting receptors are called __________.

A) phasic receptors
B) threshold receptors
C) sensory receptors
D) tonic receptors

A) phasic receptors

Most nerves are able to carry impulses both toward and away from the CNS.

True/ False

True

CNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate.

True/ False

False

A nerve that carries autonomic signals away from the CNS is classified as __________.

A) visceral efferent
B) somatic efferent
C) visceral afferent
D) somatic afferent

A) visceral efferent

Of the following, choose the FALSE statement about cranial nerves.

A) Most cranial nerves serve structures in the head and neck.
B) The cranial nerves are limited to the head and neck region.
C) There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
D) Cranial nerves are named for the structures they serve or for their functions.

B) The cranial nerves are limited to the head and neck region.

The first two pairs of cranial nerves attach to the __________.

A) spinal cord
B) brain stem
C) forebrain
D) medulla oblongata

C) forebrain

All spinal nerves are mixed nerves.

True/ False

True

If the phrenic nerve were severed, what would be the most immediate effect?

A) The ability to swallow would be blocked.
B) The sense of smell would be blocked.
C) The upper limbs would be paralyzed.
D) Breathing would stop.

D) Breathing would stop.

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the sciatic nerve?

A) The sciatic nerve is the largest branch of the sacral plexus.
B) The sciatic nerve is the thickest and longest nerve of the body.
C) The sciatic nerve is a single nerve.
D) The sciatic nerve supplies the entire lower limb except the anteromedial thigh.

C) The sciatic nerve is a single nerve.

The first level of motor control is the __________.

A) upper motor level
B) segmental level
C) precommand level
D) projection level

B) segmental level

Which structure is involved in the projection level of motor control?

A) spinal cord
B) cerebral basal nuclei
C) primary motor cortex
D) cerebellum

C) primary motor cortex

Choose the true statement.

A) The abdominal reflex is an example of a Golgi tendon reflex.
B) The knee jerk reflex is an example of a superficial reflex.
C) The flexor reflex is initiated by painful stimuli.
D) Stretch reflexes are hyperactive in comatose patients.

C) The flexor reflex is initiated by painful stimuli.

In a reflex arc, the __________ transmits afferent impulses to the CNS.

A) integration center
B) sensory neuron
C) receptor
D) effector

B) sensory neuron

The pinching motion (with opposed thumb and forefinger) is highly dependent upon impulses transmitted by the __________.

A) median nerve
B) axillary nerve
C) musculocutaneous nerve
D) ulnar nerve

A) median nerve

In carpal tunnel syndrome, the __________ is compressed.

A) median nerve
B) axillary nerve
C) radial nerve
D) musculocutaneous nerve

A) median nerve

The thickest and longest nerve in the body is the __________.

A) femoral nerve
B) obturator nerve
C) pudendal nerve
D) sciatic nerve

D) sciatic nerve

A joint and the muscle that moves that joint tend to be innervated by different nerves.

True/ False

False

Somatic reflexes activate __________.

A) glands
B) smooth muscle
C) skeletal muscle
D) cardiac muscle

C) skeletal muscle

Ch. 13 A&P 1 (Mastering) - Subjecto.com

Ch. 13 A&P 1 (Mastering)

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Bell’s palsy is ________.

A) characterized by partial paralysis of diaphragm muscles
B) characterized by paralysis of facial muscles
C) often caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve
D) characterized by loss of vision

B) characterized by paralysis of facial muscles

Transduction refers to conversion of ________.

A) receptor energy to stimulus energy
B) afferent impulses to efferent impulses
C) presynaptic nerve impulses to postsynaptic nerve impulses
D) stimulus energy into energy of a graded potential

D) stimulus energy into energy of a graded potential

In a crossed-extensor reflex, if the right arm was grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________.

A) also flex
B) extend
C) abduct
D) adduct

B) extend

Select the correct definition.

A) Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.
B) Perceptual detection is the ability to detect how much stimulus is applied to the body.
C) Spatial discrimination allows us to recognize submodalities of a particular sensation.
D) Magnitude estimation is the simplest level of sensation.

A) Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.

The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve.

A) maxillary
B) ophthalmic
C) mandibular
D) cervical

D) cervical

Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________.

A) exteroceptors
B) proprioceptors
C) interoceptors
D) mechanoreceptors

A) exteroceptors

Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?

A) The stimulus energy must occur within the receptor’s receptive field.
B) The stimulus energy must match the specificity of the receptor.
C) The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential.
D) A generator potential in the associated sensory neuron must reach threshold.

C) The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential called a transduction potential.

The cranial nerve with a cervical origin (spinal cord) is the ________.

A) vagus
B) hypoglossal
C) accessory
D) glossopharyngeal

C) accessory

Which of the following is not an aspect of sensory perception?

A) visceral identification
B) magnitude estimation
C) spatial discrimination
D) feature abstraction
E) pattern recognition

A) visceral identification

Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.

A) interoceptors
B) photoreceptors
C) nociceptors
D) proprioceptors

C) nociceptors

characteristics of sensory neurons in the stretch reflex?

These sensory neurons transmit afferent impulses toward the spinal cord (CNS). When a stretch activates the muscle spindle, these sensory neurons transmit impulses at a higher frequency.

Which is the true statement about the synapses in the spinal cord in the stretch reflex?

A) Multipolar interneurons make inhibitory polysynaptic synapses to the antagonist muscle.
B) The antagonist muscle is activated by increased frequency stimuli.
C) Polysynaptic interneurons first synapse with higher brain centers.
D) Sensory neurons synapse with motor neuron interneurons to excite the extrafusal fibers of the stretched muscle.

A) Multipolar interneurons make inhibitory polysynaptic synapses to the antagonist muscle.

Examine the cross section through the lumbar section of the spinal cord and the two patellar reflex pathways shown. What identifies these synapses?

Afferent impulses synapse with motor neurons and interneurons. Pathways will activate one muscle and simultaneously inhibit its antagonist muscle.

Examine and characterize the two motor pathways in the stretch patellar reflex.

A) Alpha motor neurons send efferent messages to the quadriceps, while parallel efferent messages to the hamstrings are reduced.
B) Alpha motor neurons send efferent messages to excite the quadriceps and the hamstrings are reduced.
C) Alpha motor neurons activate the quadriceps. Once the quadriceps have contracted, alpha motor neurons inhibit the hamstrings.
D) Interneurons excite alpha motor neurons, which in turn excite the muscle.

A) Alpha motor neurons send efferent messages to the quadriceps, while parallel efferent messages to the hamstrings are reduced.

Order the following terms as they would occur in a typical stretch reflex. Some items may be placed equivalently (in sequential order from left to right); some events may occur simultaneously (statements overlapping).

Muscle stretch -> Muscle spindles are activated -> Sensory neurons transmit afferent impulses -> Extrafusal fibers of the stretched muscle are excited , interneurons sends inhibitory impulses to antagonistic motor neurons -> Efferent impulses to antagonistic muscles are reduced, efferent impulses cause the stretched muscle to contract

A patient sustains a ventral horn injury to the lumbar region of the spine. This injury has damaged the cell bodies of several afferent nerves within the region. Predict how the patient’s patellar reflex might be affected.

A) The patient’s patellar reflex would be hyperactive.
B) Both the quadriceps and the hamstring would contract.
C) The hamstring would relax, but the quadriceps would not contract.
D) The quadriceps would contract, but the hamstring would not relax.
E) The patient’s patellar reflex would be absent or weak.

E) The patient’s patellar reflex would be absent or weak.

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.

True/False

False

receptor types above might function as a nociceptor?

Nociceptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli like noxious chemicals and extremes of temperature or pH. Nociceptors are generally associated with free nerve endings of specialized neurons.

The receptor function as exteroceptors?

Exteroceptors are sensitive to stimuli arising outside the body.

Which of the receptor types contribute to the sense of touch by responding to deep pressure stimuli?

Deep pressure is detected by specific types of encapsulated receptors, such as the Pacinian corpuscles

Which pathways comprise the autonomic nervous system?

The outflow of the ANS is characterized by a two neuron chain spanning from CNS to effector organ.

Neurons that control the voluntary movement of the arm would be associated with which pathway?

the single heavily myelinated neuron that spans the distance from the CNS to a skeletal muscle

A collection of neuron cell bodies in the PNS are found within

A) ganglia
B) rami
C) nuclei
D) tracts

A) ganglia

The site of the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine?

A) within the ganglia of the sympathetic division
B) terminus of a parasympathetic postganglionic neuron
C) within the ganglia of the parasympathetic division
D) terminus of a sympathetic postganglionic neuron
E) terminus of a somatic motor neuron

D) terminus of a sympathetic postganglionic neuron

Which of the following statements is true?

A) The effects of neurotransmitters released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons are always stimulatory.
B) The effects of neurotransmitters released by somatic motor neurons may be either stimulatory or inhibitory.
C) The effects of neurotransmitters released from either sympathetic or parasympathetic postganglionic neurons may be stimulatory or inhibitory.
D) The effects of neurotransmitters released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons are always inhibitory.

C) The effects of neurotransmitters released from either sympathetic or parasympathetic postganglionic neurons may be stimulatory or inhibitory.

Which type of sensory receptor allows us to feel an insect landing on our skin?

A) nociceptor
B) mechanoreceptor
C) chemoreceptor
D) thermoreceptor

B) mechanoreceptor

__________ are receptors that can respond to changes in pressure.

A) Chemoreceptors
B) Nociceptors
C) Mechanoreceptors
D) Photoreceptors

C) Mechanoreceptors

Which of the following is NOT used to classify sensory receptors?

A) the number of dendritic endings present
B) structural complexity
C) the type of stimulus they detect
D) location

A) the number of dendritic

Which of the following is composed of encapsulated nerve endings?

A) free nerve endings of sensory neurons
B) hair follicle receptors
C) tactile discs
D) muscle spindles

D) muscle spindles

Anatomically, all general sensory receptors are encapsulated nerve endings.

True/ False

False

The hyperalgesia that is common in phantom limb pain could be blocked if a new drug was developed that could prevent (without triggering any side-effects) the ______.

A) diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors
B) release of enkephalins
C) binding of enkephalins to NMDA receptors
D) diffusion of enkephalins across synaptic clefts

A) diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors

Three main levels of neural integration operate in the somatosensory system. Which level involves processing in the sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?

A) circuit level
B) receptor level
C) perceptual level
D) integrative level

C) perceptual level

The first level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the __________ level.

A) perceptual
B) abstraction
C) circuit
D) receptor

D) receptor

__________ do NOT exhibit the property of adaptation.

A) Tonic receptors
B) Phasic receptors
C) Photoreceptors
D) Sensory receptors

A) Tonic receptors

Why might an individual experience the phenomenon known as "referred pain"?

A) Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers.
B) Sensory nuclei in the thalamus become overwhelmed and send impulses to the wrong sensory cortex.
C) Because the eyes may detect an injury before it is sensed, the brain creates referred sensations of pain before there is an authentic sensory stimulus.
D) When the pain associated with an injury is severe, the brain will shut down certain cognitive functions as a defense mechanism.

A) Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers.

Which of the following lists the hierarchy of motor control from lowest to highest level of control?

A) segmental level, projection level, precommand level
B) precommand level, projection level, segmental level
C) segmental level, precommand level, projection level
D) projection level, precommand level, segmental level

A) segmental level, projection level, precommand level

Which structure is involved in the segmental level of motor control?

A) brain stem
B) basal nuclei
C) spinal cord
D) cerebellum

C) spinal cord

Which connective tissue layer directly surrounds each axon in a nerve?

A) endoneurium
B) endomysium
C) perineurium
D) epineurium

A) endoneurium

Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called __________.

A) motor nerves
B) afferent nerves
C) sensory nerves
D) mixed nerves

A) motor nerves

__________ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

A) Myelin sheaths
B) Fascicles
C) Ganglia
D) Nuclei

C) Ganglia

Choose the FALSE statement about nerves.

A) Nerve axons are surrounded by a loose connective tissue layer called the endoneurium.
B) Nerves vary in size.
C) The majority of a nerve’s bulk is due to axons.
D) Nerves consist of parallel bundles of myelinated and nonmyelinated axons.

C) The majority of a nerve’s bulk is due to axons.

CNS nerve fibers lack the intrinsic capacity to regenerate, while PNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate.

True/ False

True

Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?

A) abducens
B) olfactory
C) trigeminal
D) oculomotor

B) olfactory

Which cranial nerve transmits information about our sense of equilibrium?

A) vagus
B) abducens
C) vestibulocochlear
D) optic

C) vestibulocochlear

There are __________ pairs of cranial nerves.

A) 6
B) 8
C) 10
D) 12
E) 14

D) 12

The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the __________.

A) forebrain
B) brain stem.
C) cerebellum.
D) spinal cord

B) brain stem.

Hiccups could occur if there was irritation or damage to the ______.

A) dorsal rami of spinal nerves associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
B) afferent neurons of spinal nerves associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
C) cutaneous branches of rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
D) motor branches of ventral rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord

D) motor branches of ventral rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord

The brachial plexus can be palpated at the lower lateral border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Injury to the brachial plexus could cause weakness or paralysis to all of the following EXCEPT the ______.

A) deltoid muscle
B) biceps brachii muscle
C) sternocleidomastoid muscle
D) muscles that flex the wrist and fingers

C) sternocleidomastoid muscle

In carpal tunnel syndrome, there may be tingling and numbness in the thumb due to compression of the ______.

A) thumb muscles
B) cutaneous branches of the median nerve
C) muscular branches of the posterior cord that supply the median nerve
D) None of the listed responses is correct.

B) cutaneous branches of the median nerve

Damage to the ulnar nerve could result in the inability to ______.

A) supinate or pronate the forearm
B) flex the wrist
C) extend the forearm
D) All of the listed responses are correct.

B) flex the wrist

If "wrist drop" were to appear, there would also be an increased probability of ______.

A) inability to extend the forearm
B) inability to flex the fingers
C) inability to pronate the forearm
D) inability to contract the biceps brachii

A) inability to extend the forearm

A herniated lumbar disc could interfere with ______.

A) skin sensations from the lateral thigh
B) skin sensations from the medial thigh
C) adduction of the thigh
D) All of the listed responses are correct.

D) All of the listed responses are correct.

Sciatica has no direct affect on ______.

A) perception of sensory information from the skin that covers the front of the leg
B) perception of sensory information from the skin that covers the back of the leg
C) control of the adductor longus
D) control of the semimembranosus

C) control of the adductor longus

What type of nerve fibers are found in the ventral ramus of a spinal nerve?

A) motor only
B) both sensory and motor
C) sensory only
D) autonomic only

B) both sensory and motor

The primary nerve that controls breathing is found in which nerve plexus?

A) sacral
B) brachial
C) cervical
D) lumbar

C) cervical

Spinal nerves are all classified as __________.

A) afferent nerves
B) motor nerves
C) sensory nerves
D) mixed nerves

D) mixed nerves

The phrenic nerve serves the __________.

A) ear
B) shoulder
C) neck
D) diaphragm

D) diaphragm

How many of the pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain stem?

A) one
B) two
C) ten
D) All of the listed responses are correct.
E) None of the listed responses is correct.

B) two

The brachial plexus can contain fibers from __________.

A) C3-C4
B) T1-T12
C) C4- T2
D) L1-L4
E) L4-S4

C) C4- T2

Which of the following cranial nerves is NOT involved with the eye?

A) trigeminal
B) optic
C) trochlear
D) abducens
E) oculomotor

A) trigeminal

Which of the following cranial nerves is purely sensory?

A) accessory
B) trigeminal
C) hypoglossal
D) vagus
E) optic

E) optic

Which of the following cranial nerves has a name that means "the wanderer"?

A) trigeminal
B) vagus
C) trochlear
D) vestibulocochlear
E) glossopharyngeal

B) vagus

Which of the following fibers in the skeletal muscle are stimulated only by the degree of stretch?

A) alpha efferent fibers
B) anulospiral endings (also called primary sensory endings)
C) large alpha motor fibers
D) gamma efferent fibers
E) flower spray endings (also called secondary sensory endings)

E) flower spray endings (also called secondary sensory endings)

Which of the following is NOT a nerve plexus?

A) the lumbar plexus
B) the brachial plexus
C) the sacral plexus
D) the cervical plexus
E) the thoracic plexus

E) the thoracic plexus

Which of the following nerves does NOT arise from the brachial plexus?

A) the axillary nerve
B) the ulnar nerve
C) the phrenic nerve
D) the radial nerve
E) the musculocutaneous nerve

C) the phrenic nerve

Which of the following receptors is considered a free dendritic ending?

A) Ruffini’s corpuscles
B) Golgi tendon organs
C) tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles
D) lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles
E) tactile (Merkel) discs

E) tactile (Merkel) discs

Which of the following reflexes is particularly important in maintaining balance?

A) deep tendon reflexes
B) flexor reflexes
C) superficial reflexes
D) withdrawal reflexes
E) crossed extensor reflexes

E) crossed extensor reflexes

Which of the following reflexes would test the integrity of L4 to S2?

A) striking the patellar ligament with a reflex hammer
B) stroking the skin of the lateral abdomen
C) contraction of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh while the posterior compartment muscle relaxes
D) lifting a cut foot if you step on a piece of glass
E) drawing a blunt object downward along the lateral aspect of the foot causes downward curling of the toes

E) drawing a blunt object downward along the lateral aspect of the foot causes downward curling of the toes

Collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system are known as __________.

A) exteroceptors
B) Schwann cells
C) nociceptors
D) encapsulated dendritic endings
E) ganglia

E) ganglia

The lowest level of the motor hierarchy is the __________.

A) sensory level
B) precommand level
C) reflex level
D) projection level
E) segmental level

E) segmental level

Reflexes that result from practice or repetition are known as __________.

A) sensory reflexes
B) speech reflexes
C) acquired motor skills
D) intrinsic reflexes
E) acquired reflexes

E) acquired reflexes

The muscle fiber or gland cell that responds to the efferent impulses is known as the __________.

A) motor neuron
B) receptor
C) effector
D) integration center
E) sensory neuron

C) effector

Which of the following cranial nerves controls chewing food?

A) hypoglossal nerve
B) trigeminal nerve
C) facial nerve
D) vagus nerve
E) vestibulocochlear nerve

B) trigeminal nerve

Which of the following nerves controls the quadriceps muscle group?

A) peroneal nerve
B) tibial nerve
C) lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh
D) femoral nerve
E) median nerve
E) sciatic nerve

D) femoral nerve

Which of the following is a pain transmitter?

A) acetylcholine
B) substance P
C) dopamine
D) insulin

B) substance P

If pain continues for a long time __________.

A) NMDA receptors are suppressed
B) pain tolerance will develop
C) Hyperalgesia develops
D) the incidence of "phantom limb" decreases

C) Hyperalgesia develops

Which of the following receptors are also known as lamellated corpuscles?

A) hair follicle receptors
B) Pacinian corpuscles
C) vanilloid receptors
D) Meissner’s corpuscles

B) Pacinian corpuscles

Which of the following receptors is stimulated by a substance known as capsaicin?

A) Meissner’s corpuscles
B) Golgi tendon organs
C) Pacinian corpuscles
D) vanilloid receptors

D) vanilloid receptors

`Wallerian degeneration is the __________.

A) degeneration of the axon and myelin sheath distal to the injury site caused by the lack of nutrients
B) degeneration of the axon and myelin sheath caused by repeated stimulation
C) degeneration of the axon and myelin caused by the presence of toxins
D) degeneration of the axon and myelin sheath proximal to the injury site caused by the lack of nutrients

D) degeneration of the axon and myelin sheath proximal to the injury site caused by the lack of nutrients

Transection of the sciatic nerve would cause all the following EXCEPT __________.

A) inability to flex the leg
B) footdrop
C) inability to mediate the act of erection
D) loss of ankle movements

C) inability to mediate the act of erection

Hilton’s law states that __________.

A) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint innervates the joint, but not the skin over the joint
B) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint does not innervate the joint
C) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint does innervate the skin over the joint, but not the joint
D) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint also innervates the joint and the skin over the joint

D) any nerve serving a muscle that produces a movement at a joint also innervates the joint and the skin over the joint

Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reflex?

A) maintaining posture
B) singing a song
C) driving a car
D) playing a musical instrument

A) maintaining posture

Stretch reflexes would be hypoactive in all of the following conditions EXCEPT __________.

A) chronic diabetes mellitus
B) stroke patients with lesions of the corticospinal tract
C) neurosyphilis
D) coma

B) stroke patients with lesions of the corticospinal tract

What area of the brain is responsible for precisely starting, stopping, or coordinating movements?

A) motor cortex of the cerebrum
B) precommand areas
C) spinal level
D) brain stem motor areas

B) precommand areas

If a patient has difficulty using the "pincer grasp" to pick up small objects, which nerve is injured?

A) musculocutaneous nerve
B) ulnar nerve
C) median nerve
D) axillary nerve

C) median nerve

The two-point discrimination test tests the patient’s __________ ability of sensory perception.

A) pattern recognition
B) magnitude estimation
C) spatial discrimination
D) quality discrimination

C) spatial discrimination

Which of the following branches of a spinal nerve only contain autonomic fibers?

A) the ventral roots
B) the dorsal ramus
C) the dorsal roots
D) the ventral ramus
E) the rami communicantes

E) the rami communicantes

Which of the following structures is NOT a part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

A) sensory receptors
B) brain
C) motor endings
D) ganglia

B) brain

Match the following sensory receptors to the stimuli they detect.

mechanoreceptors
thermoreceptors
photoreceptors
chemoreceptors
nociceptors

A stretch
B light energy
C temperature
D pain
E chemicals in solution

A stretch -mechanoreceptors B light energy -photoreceptors C temperature -thermoreceptors D pain -mechanoreceptors E chemicals in solution -chemoreceptors

Proprioceptors advise the brain of __________.

A) body movements
B) pain localization
C) temperature of the skin
D) chemical imbalances

A) body movements

Simple receptors found in epithelia and connective tissue tend to __________.

A) be mechanoreceptors
B) have encapsulated dendritic endings
C) be sense organs
D) have encapsulated or nonencapsulated dendritic endings

D) have encapsulated or nonencapsulated dendritic endings

Which of the following has nonencapsulated nerve endings?

A) hair follicle receptors
B) Meissner’s corpuscles
C) muscle spindles
D) Pacinian corpuscles

A) hair follicle receptors

The final level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the __________ level.

A) receptor
B) abstraction
C) circuit
D) perceptual

D) perceptual

Fast adapting receptors are called __________.

A) phasic receptors
B) threshold receptors
C) sensory receptors
D) tonic receptors

A) phasic receptors

Most nerves are able to carry impulses both toward and away from the CNS.

True/ False

True

CNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate.

True/ False

False

A nerve that carries autonomic signals away from the CNS is classified as __________.

A) visceral efferent
B) somatic efferent
C) visceral afferent
D) somatic afferent

A) visceral efferent

Of the following, choose the FALSE statement about cranial nerves.

A) Most cranial nerves serve structures in the head and neck.
B) The cranial nerves are limited to the head and neck region.
C) There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
D) Cranial nerves are named for the structures they serve or for their functions.

B) The cranial nerves are limited to the head and neck region.

The first two pairs of cranial nerves attach to the __________.

A) spinal cord
B) brain stem
C) forebrain
D) medulla oblongata

C) forebrain

All spinal nerves are mixed nerves.

True/ False

True

If the phrenic nerve were severed, what would be the most immediate effect?

A) The ability to swallow would be blocked.
B) The sense of smell would be blocked.
C) The upper limbs would be paralyzed.
D) Breathing would stop.

D) Breathing would stop.

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the sciatic nerve?

A) The sciatic nerve is the largest branch of the sacral plexus.
B) The sciatic nerve is the thickest and longest nerve of the body.
C) The sciatic nerve is a single nerve.
D) The sciatic nerve supplies the entire lower limb except the anteromedial thigh.

C) The sciatic nerve is a single nerve.

The first level of motor control is the __________.

A) upper motor level
B) segmental level
C) precommand level
D) projection level

B) segmental level

Which structure is involved in the projection level of motor control?

A) spinal cord
B) cerebral basal nuclei
C) primary motor cortex
D) cerebellum

C) primary motor cortex

Choose the true statement.

A) The abdominal reflex is an example of a Golgi tendon reflex.
B) The knee jerk reflex is an example of a superficial reflex.
C) The flexor reflex is initiated by painful stimuli.
D) Stretch reflexes are hyperactive in comatose patients.

C) The flexor reflex is initiated by painful stimuli.

In a reflex arc, the __________ transmits afferent impulses to the CNS.

A) integration center
B) sensory neuron
C) receptor
D) effector

B) sensory neuron

The pinching motion (with opposed thumb and forefinger) is highly dependent upon impulses transmitted by the __________.

A) median nerve
B) axillary nerve
C) musculocutaneous nerve
D) ulnar nerve

A) median nerve

In carpal tunnel syndrome, the __________ is compressed.

A) median nerve
B) axillary nerve
C) radial nerve
D) musculocutaneous nerve

A) median nerve

The thickest and longest nerve in the body is the __________.

A) femoral nerve
B) obturator nerve
C) pudendal nerve
D) sciatic nerve

D) sciatic nerve

A joint and the muscle that moves that joint tend to be innervated by different nerves.

True/ False

False

Somatic reflexes activate __________.

A) glands
B) smooth muscle
C) skeletal muscle
D) cardiac muscle

C) skeletal muscle

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