Ch. 12 PYSC 581

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Piaget believed that in middle childhood, children are in the cognitive period of _____ thought.

concrete operational

A child is shown a large box and a small box. The large box contains a 5-pound weight and the small box contains a 10-pound weight. The child picks up the boxes and looks at them closely, and then is asked which weighs more. The child is no longer focused only on appearances, so he answers that the small box weighs more. Piaget would say that this child is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.

concrete operational

Dr. Holiday is doing a study to determine how 9-year-olds think. Based on theory, he believes that the 9-year-olds should be able to reason logically about concrete situations, situations that are real, tangible, and visible. Dr. Holiday’s belief is based on _____.

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

According to Piaget, which ability do children gain during middle childhood?


According to Piaget, a child between the ages of 6 and 11 can apply logical principles to _____.

concrete situations (real, tangible, visible)

When capable of concrete operational thought, children _____.

can apply their reasoning to real, tangible situations

A child in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development would be able to reason about _____.

what to tell his parents if he broke a lamp

With concrete operational thought, children can _____.

think logically about visible, tangible things

The logical principle that allows objects to be grouped according to some characteristic that they share is called _____.


Nine-year-old Pete sorted screws, bolts, and nails into three piles by type. He is able to correctly sort the objects into separate piles because of the logical principle of _____.


The knowledge that things can be arranged in a logical sequence is the logical principle of _____.


Seven-year-old Hannah can arrange 10 buttons in order from smallest to largest. Her understanding of _____ allows her to accomplish this.


Which statement is true?

There is no sudden shift between preoperational and concrete operational thought.

Which statement about the difference between a 4-year-old and a 9-year-old is accurate?

The 9-year-old can use mental categories more flexibly, inductively, and simultaneously, whereas the 4-year-old is unable to do so.

Vygotsky viewed _____ as being crucial to children’s development of skills and knowledge.


Dr. Smith is doing a study to determine what 9-year-olds know. Based on theory, he believes that the 9-year-olds will advance in knowledge as a result of instruction. Dr. Smith’s belief is based on _____.

Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development

Vygotsky argued that playing with peers, watching television, and eating with one’s family provide _____ to a 6-year-old child.


With respect to sociocultural context, children from the Varanasi region in India learn what specific ability from their culture?

spatial orientation

The information-processing theory was inspired by the knowledge of how _____ function.


Professor Schuyler believes that people’s brains work very much like a computer in terms of input, processing, and output. The professor believes in _____.

the information-processing perspective

From an information-processing approach, the memory process has three major steps. What is the correct order of this process, beginning with the first component?

sensory memory, working memory, long-term memory

Within an information-processing perspective, the three major steps of the memory process are affected by _____.

maturation and experience

The memory system in which signals are held for a split second is called _____ memory.


Jill has just heard her teacher say something. The sounds produced by the teacher are first stored briefly in Jill’s _____.

sensory memory

The component of the information-processing system in which current conscious mental activity occurs is the _____.

working memory

Which information is most likely to be in your current working memory?

everything that is on this page

To retain information in working memory, individuals must _____.

process the information

The component of the information-processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely is _____.

long-term memory

Tony came to walk with José to school. When José saw Tony’s notebook in his backpack, José rushed back into his house to retrieve his own notebook, which contained his homework. Seeing Tony’s notebook triggered José to retrieve from his _____ the fact that he needed his notebook.

working memory

By the end of middle childhood, the capacity of long-term memory is _____.


Emma studied for the spelling test all week and spelled each of the tested words correctly. Emma’s ability to do well on her spelling test was based on her ability to _____.

retrieve the correct spelling of words from long-term memory

A body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area is referred to as knowledge _____.


Ten-year-old Billy loves baseball and has studied baseball statistics since he was 5 years old. Billy is currently reading this year’s statistics for some of his favorite players. He will easily remember the new statistics because of the _____ he has for baseball statistics.

knowledge base

Which factor contributes to increases in a child’s knowledge base?

personal motivation

_____ is unrelated to development of the knowledge base.

High intelligence

New concepts are best learned when they are connected to _____.

what is already known about a subject

Mechanisms that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis and flow of information within the information-processing system are referred to as _____.

control processes

Metacognition is _____.

thinking about thinking

Evaluating a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish and monitor one’s performance is called _____.


Metacognition refers to _____.

thinking about one’s thinking processes

Addie has weekly spelling tests. On Monday she gets the list of 10 words and realizes she knows how to spell four of the words. Rather than studying these four words, she spends Tuesday and Wednesday studying the six new words. On Wednesday evening she quizzes herself on the six words and learns she now knows how to spell three more. Thursday she studies the three words she still did not know how to spell. Friday morning before the spelling test she quizzes herself on all 10 words and correctly spells all 10 words. Addie’s ability to evaluate the task of learning words and monitor and adjust her performance throughout the learning process is due to _____.


Control processes improve with _____.

age and experience

Executive function is apparent when _____.

Denzel concentrates on his reading in class while ignoring all distractions

Nine-year-old Devon writes, "My brother eats like a hungry pig." This statement demonstrates his understanding of _____.


Mastery of pragmatics allows children to change styles of speech, or "codes," depending on the audience. What code are children likely to use with their teachers?

formal code

Mastery of pragmatics allows children to change styles of speech, or "codes," depending on the audience. What code are children likely to use with their teachers?

formal code

Mastery of pragmatics allows children to change styles of speech, or "codes," depending on the audience. What code are children likely to use with their peers?

informal code

When Kitana wants her teacher to repeat a question, she asks, "Would you please repeat the question?" but when she needs a classmate to repeat himself, she says, "Huh?" This example shows that Kitana understands _____.

the pragmatics of language

John has the ability to talk informally with his friends and more formally to his teachers during class. Clearly John understands the _____.

pragmatics of his language

Some children of every ethnicity are classified as _____, based on their proficiency in English.


Decades of research throughout the world have found a _____ correlation between academic achievement and socioeconomic status, largely due to language.


Children from low-SES families usually have _____ compared to children from higher-SES families.

fewer ELL classifications

Alice is 7 years old and comes from a low-SES family. Compared to her peers from higher-SES families, she has difficulty with language learning in school. According to current research, one factor that may be contributing to Alice’s language learning difficulty is her lack of _____.

early exposure to words

Research indicates that achievement in middle childhood is _____ teacher and parent expectations.

impacted by

Everywhere in the world, children are taught to _____.

read, write, and do arithmetic

While literacy and numeracy are valued in every school, curriculum specifics _____.

vary by place and culture

The unspoken and often unrecognized lessons that children learn in school, which are the unofficial, unstated, or implicit rules and priorities that influence the academic curriculum and every other aspect of learning in school, are called the _____.

hidden curriculum

Jakob likes to question everything, from why his parents keep plants in the house to why his teacher wants the class to make paintings for their class project. The teacher, exasperated, exclaims, "Because I said so, Jakob!" Jakob internalized the message that obedience is valued by his teacher. Obedience in Jakob’s class is an example of a hidden _____.


Over the past two decades, more than 50 nations have participated in at least one massive international test of educational achievement. Longitudinal data find that _____.

if achievement rises, the national economy advances

What is the primary international test of science and math?


What is the main international test of reading given to students?


Holly is taking the PIRLS, which is the main international test of _____.


When TIMSS experts recorded math teachers in the United States, Germany, and Japan, what did they find?

Japanese teachers were excited about math instruction and developed collaborative and individual assignments that engaged students on multiple levels.

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