Ch. 12 Nervous System III

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Receptors for the general senses are found
A. In a few clusters
B. Only in the integumentary system
C. Widely distributed throughout the body
D. Throughout the visceral organs
E. Only in the skin

C. Widely distributed throughout the body

Special senses arise from receptors located
A. Primarily in the head
B. Throughout the integumentary system
C. In the fingertips
D. In internal organs
E. Only in the central nervous system

A. Primarily in the head

The brain interprets input from sensory receptors as
A. Reception
B. Sensation
C. Interoception
D. Contraception
E. Perception

E. Perception

A type of receptor that does not trigger a sensation
A. Measures pressure in the hands and feet
B. Monitors oxygen levels in the blood
C. Measures heat in the integument
D. Detects mechanical force in the abdomen
E. Detects visual stimuli

B. Monitors oxygen levels in the blood

The ability to ignore your socks around your ankles demonstrates A. general adaptation. B. receptor integration. C. interpretive assimilation.
D. sensory adaptation. E. visceral adaptation

D. Sensory adaptation

The sequence of information flow in response to biting into a slice of pizza is A. perception, sensation, impulse send to CNS, sensory receptors activated. B. sensory receptors activated, impulse sent to CNS, sensation, perception.
C. impulse sent to CNS, sensory receptors activated, perception, sensation.
D. impulse sent to CNS, sensory receptors activated, sensation, perception
E. None of the above

B. Sensory receptors activated, impulse sent to CNS, sensation, perception

Max returns to his dorm room late at night to find his roommate throwing up. The smell is at first so bad that Max wants to vomit too, but after helping his roommate clean up, the odor seems to fade. Max has experienced A. damage to his sensory receptors. B. sensory adaptation. C. a response to the decreasing concentration of odorant molecules in the room.
D. a hallucination. E. vomitus interruptus.

B. Sensory adaptation

Sensory impulses are stimulated at receptors by A. neurotransmitters. B. decreasing permeability of nerve cell membranes. C. changes in membrane permeability. D. changes in action potentials.
E. none of the above

D. Changes in action potentials

Olfactory receptors, which provide the sense of smell, are A. thermoreceptors. B. mechanoreceptors. C. chemoreceptors. D. proprioceptors. E. oculoceptors

C. Chemoreceptors

A sensation is ______, and projection of a sensation is the ______. A. the stimulation of a receptor cell; transmission of an impulse into the brain B. a feeling that results from sensory stimulation; brain causing it to seem to come from the receptors being stimulated
C. a good feeling from a stimulation; right side of the brain projecting the sensation to the left side, or vice versa
D. a change in membrane permeability of a receptor; transmission of an impulse into a sensory area of the brain
E. the brain’s interpretation of stimulation of receptor cells; reaction to the sensation.

B. A feeling that results from sensory stimulation; brain causing it to seem to come from the receptors being stimulated

Which of the following are paired correctly? A. chemoreceptors-stimulated by changes in concentration of chemical substances B. pain receptors-stimulated by damage to tissues C. thermoreceptors-stimulated by temperature changes D. baroreceptors-stimulated by blood pressure changes
E. all of the above

E. All of the above

Henry has hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. He lacks A. chemoreceptors. B. nociceptors. C. mechanoreceptors. D. baroreceptors. E. audioreceptors

B. Nocieptors

The war veteran experiences an intense burning sensation seeming to come from where his foot had been amputated. He most likely has A. hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. B. cataracts.
C. reflex sympathetic dystrophy.
D. anosmia.
E. post traumatic stress disorder.

C. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy

Another name for pain receptors is
A. tactile corpuscles. B. lamellated corpuscles. C. nociceptors. D. mechanoreceptors. E. agonists

C. Nocieptors

Pain impulses are first processed in the A. gray matter of the posterior horn. B. motor cortex of the cerebrum. C. dorsal root ganglion. D. cerebral cortex. E. retinas

A. Gray matter of the posterior horn

Fibers of the spinothalamic tract transmit information to the A. hypothalamus. B. cerebellum C. epithalamus. D. thalamus. E. brainstem

D. Thalamus

A pole vaulter keeps track of his position in mid-air through A. lamellated corpuscles.
B. pain receptors. C. balance receptors. D. baroreceptors. E. proprioceptors

E. Proprioceptors

Pain receptors differ from other somatic receptors by
A. being stimulated only when pain comes from skeletal muscle. B. adapting very little, if at all.
C. not being able to project impulses back to their origin. D. adapting much more than other receptors.
E. all of the above

B. Adapting very little, if at all

Temperature senses use two types of A. chemoreceptors. B. proprioceptors. C. tactile corpuscles. D. free nerve endings. E. photoreceptors.

D. Free nerve endings

Pain receptors A. respond to factors that can damage tissue.
B. adapt rapidly.
C. are among the most specialized receptors. D. are widely distributed in the brain.
E. are destroyed by very intense pain.

A. Respond to factors that can damage tissue

The Golgi tendon organ is stimulated more when
A. muscles are metabolically active and produce oxygen. B. muscle tension increases.
C. muscle tension decreases.
D. muscle tension stays the same.
E. a cell has many Golgi apparatuses

B. Muscle tension increases

As a result of the tympanic reflex,
A. the bridge of auditory ossicles becomes less rigid. B. vibrations are transmitted more effectively to the inner ear.
C. the malleus is pulled toward the eardrum. D. vibrations are transmitted less effectively to the inner ear.
E. the cochlea slightly unwinds

D. Vibrations are transmitted less effectively to the inner ear

Taste receptors are A. found only on the tongue.
B. unable to divide. C. modified connective tissue cells.
D. modified epithelial cells.
E. specialized forms of fibroblasts

D. Modified epithelial cells

Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?
A. Sweet
B. Salty
C. Pungent
D. Sour
E. Bitter

C. Pungent

The hearing receptors are most closely associated with the A. ampulla.
B. spiral organ. C. utricle.
D. saccule.
E. earlobe

B. Spiral Organ

The range of human hearing is about A. 2,000-3,000 vibrations per second. B. 2,000-200,000 vibrations per second. C. 20-20,000 vibrations per second.
D. 2-2,000 vibrations per second.
E. none of the above

C. 20-20,000 vibrations per second

Which of the following is part of the inner tunic of the eye? A. Ciliary body B. Cornea
C. Choroid coat D. Sclera
E. Retina

E. Retina

The lens of the eye thickens when the A. suspensory ligaments pull on the lens capsule.
B. ciliary processes relax.
C. ciliary muscles relax. D. ciliary muscles contract.
E. rods are stimulated.

D. Ciliary muscles contract

Visual sensations from images focused on the side of the retina are blurred because A. there are no rods in this region.
B. there are more cones than rods in this region.
C. there are more rods than cones in this region.
D. the optic disc is located on the side of the retina.
E. none of the above

C. There are more rods than cones in this region

The sets of color receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light are
A. red, green, and blue. B. red, blue, and yellow.
C. green, yellow, and purple.
D. orange, green, and purple.
E. black and white

A. Red, green, and blue

Stereoscopic vision results when the A. images in both eyes are identical.
B. images in the eyes are different.
C. rods of one eye are stimulated and the cones of the other eye are stimulated.
D. brain interprets the images in two dimensions.
E. a person whirls around so that light comes from all directions

B. Images in the eyes are different

Arnold enters a darkened movie theater on a sunny summer afternoon. It takes many minutes for his eyes to adapt to the darkness because A. it takes some time for the retina to rebuild its rhodopsin stores from opsin and retinene.
B. the rods in the eye work only in bright light, and it takes time for the cones to work in weak light.
C. the iris takes time to close after being subjected to bright light.
D. the optic nerve fatigues in bright light, and it takes time to recover.
E. the pupil is too small to admit sufficient light.

A. It takes some time for the retina to rebuild its rhodopsin stores from opsin and retinene

Rhodopsin is found in ____ cells.
A. cone
B. lens
C. iris
D. olfactory receptor E. rod

E. Rod

Light is refracted when it passes
A. from air into glass. B. into glass at a right angle.
C. between media of different optical densities at a right angle.
D. between media of different optical densities at an oblique angle.
E. between media of the same optical density.

D. Between media of different optical densities at an oblique angle

As they extend from the retina to the brain, the nerve fibers A. from the nasal half of each retina cross over.
B. from the temporal half of each retina cross over.
C. all cross over.
D. do not cross over. E. degenerate

A. From the nasal half of each retina cross over

Anosmia is loss of A. touch.
B. smell.
C. hearing.
D. vision.
E. taste

B. Smell

If you were a physician evaluating a young person who has conductive deafness, which of the following would you consider in your differential diagnosis?
A. A torn tympanic membrane.
B. A brain tumor. C. Damage to the auditory nerve.
D. Use of the antibiotic drug streptomycin. E. Recent attendance at a rock concert.

A. A torn tympanic membrane

If a person’s right visual cortex is damaged, the injury will most likely affect vision from the
A. right eye only.
B. left eye only.
C. nasal side of one eye and the temporal side of the other eye. D. nasal side of both eyes.
E. periphery only

C. Nasal side of one eye and the temporal side of the other eye

The taste receptor that amino acids such as glutamate activate is A. sour.
B. salty.
C. bitter.
D. umami.
E. sweet

D. Umami

Umami receptors sense
A. monosodium glutamate. B. aspartame. C. caffeine. D. tryptophan.
E. uric acid

A. Monosodium glutamate

Jenny slurps up a plate of beef lo mein at a Chinese restaurant. "That tastes great, but I can’t quite describe it." What type of taste sensation is she experiencing? A. paprika.
B. tsunami.
C. origami. D. neuropathy. E. umami

E. Umami

Movement of hair cells in the semicircular canals signals
A. sound waves to the brain.
B. the direction of motion.
C. the frequency of the sound.
D. the velocity of the movement.
E. the onset of pattern baldness

B. The direction of motion

A chimp adopts two orphaned tiger cubs. They live in a zoo. The chimp has a more intense visual world than his adopted offspring because A. she is older.
B. she has lived in the zoo longer.
C. she has three types of cones that connect individually to neural pathways to the brain. The cubs only have two types.
D. she has two types of cones that connect individually to neural pathways to the brain. The cubs have three types, which causes eyestrain.
E. tigers are very prone to developing cataracts

C. She has three types of cones that connect individually to neural pathways to the brain. The cubs only have two types

Treatment for cataract is usually removal of the
A. cornea.
B. sclera.
C. lens.
D. vitreous humor. E. eyebrows and eyelashes

C. Lens

Glaucoma is usually caused by
A. clouding of the lens. B. clouding of the lens capsule. C. accumulation of vitreous humor. D. accumulation of aqueous humor. E. accumulation of good humor

D. Accumulation of aqeous humor

Farsightedness after the age of forty-five is most likely caused by A. loss of lens capsule elasticity.
B. shortening of the eyeball.
C. lengthening of the eyeball.
D. changes in curvature of the cornea.
E. clouding of the cornea.

A. Loss of lens capsule elasticity

A person who is colorblind lacks A. retinas.
B. one type of photopigment. C. corneas.
D. a gene that encodes the proteins in rod cells.
E. irises

B. One type of phtopigment

The painkiller sold as Ziconotide comes from a
A. bacterium.
B. fungus.
C. lizard.
D. plant.
E. snail

E. Snail

Opiate drugs come from a
A. bacterium.
B. fungus.
C. snail.
D. plant.
E. rodent.

D. Plant

Lorelei thinks of the days of the week and months of the year as particular colors. She has
A. synesthesia. B. neuropathy.
C. a deficiency of neurons in her visual cortex.
D. too few synapses in her hypothalamus. E. dyslexia

A. Synesthesia

Smell and taste disorders may be caused by
A. a side effect of a drug.
B. infections that clog the nose.
C. a head injury. D. allergies.
E. all of the above.

E. All of the above

A cochlear implant treats
A. a torn tympanic membrane. B. otosclerosis. C. conductive deafness. D. sensorineural deafness.
E. an ear infection

D. Sensorineural deafness

Otosclerosis affects the
A. tympanic membrane.
B. auditory ossicles. C. cochlea.
D. auditory nerve. E. outer ear.

B. Auditory ossicles

The condition in which some parts of an image are in focus on the retina and other parts are blurred is called
A. presbyopia. B. astigmatism. C. hyperopia. D. myopia.
E. cataract

B. Astigmatism

General senses result from stimulation of receptors in the head only.


Sensory receptors are specialized cells or multicellular structures that collect information from the environment and stimulate neurons to send impulses along sensory fibers to the brain, where the cerebral cortex forms a perception.


Receptors that are stimulated by changes in chemical concentrations are called thermoreceptors.


Stretching of tissues can cause pain sensations to arise from visceral organs.


Referred pain occurs when the brain projects the sensation back to the original source in the body from which the pain originated.


Endorphins are neuropeptides that have morphine-like actions.


The stapes transmit vibrations to the round window of the inner ear.


The utricle and saccule contain the sensory receptors associated with the sense of dynamic equilibrium.


The conjunctiva is a layer of tissue that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers most of the anterior surface of the eye.


The auditory ossicles are in the inner ear.


Tears contain an enzyme that reduces the risk of eye infection.


When the radial muscles of the iris contract, the diameter of the pupil decreases.


When all three sets of cones are stimulated, a person senses white light.


The taste of food is the same, whether a person has a respiratory infection or not.


The optic disc is medial to the fovea centralis and is the site from which nerve fibers from the retina leave the eye and become part of the optic nerve.


Rods are more sensitive to light than cones, but cones are important for color vision.


Nerve impulses from taste receptors can travel in the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves.


Sound vibrations are conducted from the malleus to the stapes to the incus.


Nerve impulses from the spiral organ travel on the vestibulocochlear nerve.


Optic nerve fibers cross over in the thalamus.


Light breaks down rhodopsin.


Floaters are bowel movements that float due to a fatty diet.


Colorblindness is inherited.


A person who associates sounds with tastes has synesthesia.


In hyperopia, the eyeball is too short and the focal point is in front of the retina.


In astigmatism the cornea or the lens is elliptically rather than spherically curved.


Senses whose receptors are in the head are termed _____


The brain’s interpretation of a sensation creates a _____


Pain receptors are also called _____


A receptor that detects changes in blood pressure is a ______


______ corpuscles are abundant in the skin of the palms and soles


The two types of nerve fibers that conduct impulses away from pain receptors are _____ and _____

Acute; chronic

Edward is suffering a heart attack, but he feels pain in his shoulder and jaw rather than his chest, at first. This pain is termed ______


The _____ _____ connects the middle ear and the pharynx.

Auditory tube (eustachian tube)

The sensory receptors associated with the semicircular canals are located in swellings called ______


The transparent, anterior portion of the eye’s outer tunic is called the _____


The adjustment of the thickness of the lens to make close vision possible is called _____


The ____ _____ is the region of sharpest vision in the retina.

Fovea centralis

After traveling through the olfactory bulbs, nerve impulses pass along the ______ ______ to the olfactory interpreting centers.

Olfactory tracts

The _____ ______ of the middle tunic secretes aqueous humor.

Ciliary body

A clouded lens, which is common in older people, is called _____.


Erica goes for an optometric exam. She especially hates the part where a puff of air is directed at her open eye. This is a test to detect the increased intraocular pressure of glaucoma, and the instrument that measures her response is called a _________.


Mixing up senses is a condition called ______.


Warren thinks everything smells like excrement. He has _____.


A device that can restore some hearing is a ______ implant.


An assessment of hearing using a tuning fork is called the ____ test.

Rinne ( or Weber)

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