Ch 10 Quiz

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Harry is facing an important test and expects to do poorly. He is so anxious that he cannot concentrate or study effectively, but he figures that since he’s going to do badly anyway, he should not bother. This is an indication of Harry’s

basing friendship on trust

According to Damon, the second stage of building friendship for middle-school-age children is

10 million

More than ______________ households in the United States contain at least one spouse who has remarried

postconventional morality

Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg found that ____________ is relatively rare

60%; 35%

Almost ________ of African American children under the age of 18 and almost _________ of Hispanic American children under the age of 18 live in a single-parent household

the desire to make social interaction nonconfrontational

According to psychologist Carol Beal, the motivation of middle-school-age girls to solve conflict among friends is due to


After a divorce, ______-year-old children feel pressured to choose sides between the mother and father, and may experience a degree of divided loyalty


Following a divorce, a child may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT

African American families

The prevalence of three-generation families who live together is greater among


Parents can help break the cycle of low self-esteem in a child by using a(n) _________ child-rearing style

social identity theory

The term that refers to the complex relationship between self-esteem and minority group status comes from

"Let’s go to the movies."

Sally, who is a middle-school-age girl, wants her friend, Beth, to go to the movies with her. Which of the following statements is Sally likely to use to get her friend to go?

peer relationships are more influential than family relationships

During the middle school years, all of the following occur EXCEPT

play in pairs; develop a dominance hierarchy

Middle-school-age girls tend to __________; while middle-school-age boys tend to _________.

basing friendship on others’ behavior

According to Damon, the first stage of building friendship for middle-school-age children is

divorce is not beneficial to children living in households overwhelmed by parental strife

With regard to children of divorced parents, all of the following are true EXCEPT

goodness as self-sacrifice

Which of the following best describes the first of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?


____________ is the period in which parents and children jointly control children’s behavior.

self-care children

What is the term for children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their caretaker(s) return from work?

African American children begin to notice more visibility on television of African Americans.

Recent research indicates that around age 11, African American children begin to show higher self-esteem than Caucasian American children. Which of the following is NOT a reason for this?

often do quite well in the United States

During middle childhood years, it appears that children in immigrant families

Children can show a high degree of mutual acceptance

Which of the following is true when it comes to middle school children’s friendships?

"Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot."

According to Damon, when Sammy (who is a kindergarten student) is asked, "How do you know that someone is your best friend?" it is highly likely that he will respond

friendships provide more security than relationships with parents and other family members

Friends influence children’s development during the middle childhood years in all of the following ways EXCEPT


Which psychologist promoted the theory that addresses middle childhood children’s focus on meeting the challenges presented by the world?

disregard others’ emotional experiences

Compared to less popular children, popular children are more likely to do all of the following EXCEPT

conventional morality

According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects a person’s approach to moral problems as a member of society, where the person is interested in pleasing others by acting as a good member of society?

a child in China who has one sibling

Which of the following children is likely to be better adjusted, have higher self-esteem, and a stronger motivation to succeed?


Twelve-year-old Sam believes he is a pretty good soccer player but not as good in chorus. This is an indication of Sam’s

postconventional morality

According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, what stage reflects a person’s use of moral principles, which are seen as broader than those of any particular society?

being domineering

Research indicates that popular children share the following personality characteristics EXCEPT

a high level of popularity among peers

Sima is a child of recent immigrants to the U.S. Sima is likely to demonstrate all of the following EXCEPT

families headed by African American or Hispanic American parents

Children who grow up in which of the following families tend to have a stronger sense of extended family?

one or two "best friends" who are of relatively equal status

Middle-school-age boys typically have all of the following EXCEPT

broad principles of fairness/justice

According to one psychologist, girls view morality in all the terms below EXCEPT

psychological characteristics, inner traits that are more abstract

Eleven-year-old Tina characterizes herself as a smart, friendly person who is helpful to others. Tina’s views of herself are based on

Carol Gilligan

Which of the following psychologists developed the three stages of moral development for women?

the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group

Status is

childhood industriousness

According to research by Vaillant & Vaillant, which of the following characteristics is most highly associated with adult success?

adolescence; lack of cognitive development

Kohlberg proposes that moral development occurs in a fixed order, and that people are unable to reach the highest stage of moral reasoning until __________ due to __________.

social identity theory

According to ____________, members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views held by a majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power and status differences between the groups

peer relationships are more influential than family relationships

During the middle school years, all of the following occur EXCEPT


Which of the following psychologists contends that people pass through a series of stages in the kind of reasoning they use to make moral judgments as their sense of justice evolves?

12; school transition

Generally, overall self-esteem is high during middle childhood but begins to decline around the age of ___ due to

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