Ch 10 A&P Muscular System

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A pair of tweezers is a good example of a second-class lever.

False

Both first- and second-class levers operate at a mechanical disadvantage.

False

Although all skeletal muscles have different shapes, the fascicle arrangement of each muscle is exactly the same.

False

Muscles are only able to pull, they never push.

True

Regardless of type, all levers follow the same basic principle: effort farther than load from fulcrum = mechanical advantage; effort nearer than load to fulcrum = mechanical disadvantage.

True

The muscle that prevents the biting of the cheek when chewing is the buccinator.

True

Muscles that help maintain upright posture are fixators.

True

Deep muscles of the thorax promote movements for breathing.

True

The deltoid is a prime mover of the arm that acts in adduction.

False

The soleus is a synergist of the gastrocnemius during plantar flexion.

True

Muscles that help to maintain posture are often called synergists.

False

In order to propel food down to the esophagus, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles are used.

True

The major head flexors are the sternocleidomastoid muscles, with the help of the muscles attached to the hyoid bone.

True

The arrangement of a muscle’s fascicles determines its range of motion and power.

True

Muscle power does not depend on the direction of the fascicles.

True

The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) is the largest, strongest tendon in the body.

True

Electromyography is the recording and interpretation of graphic records of the electrical activity of contracting muscles.

True

The broadest muscle of the back is the latissimus dorsi.

True

Muscle spasms of the back often are due to the erector spinae contraction.

True

Muscles connecting to the hyoid bone are important for swallowing and speech.

True

The muscles of facial expression insert into skin or other muscles, not bones.

True

Most superficial thorax muscles are extrinsic shoulder muscles.

True

Which type of lever is demonstrated by using scissors?

A) a first-class lever

What muscle is primarily responsible for preventing foot drop?

A) extensor digitorum longus

What is the major factor controlling how levers work?

D) the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum

Which of the following is not a muscle primarily involved in the breathing process?

D) latissimus dorsi

What is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle?

D) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction

What is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement called?

B) an agonist

When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscle’s name, what does it tell you about the muscle?

A) The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively.

The most powerful muscle in the body is the ________.

A) quadriceps femoris

The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. What does the term levator mean?

C) The muscle elevates

Which of the following describes the suprahyoid muscles?

B) They are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity.

The supraspinatus is named for its location on the posterior aspect of the scapula above the spine. What is its action?

B) to stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward location of the humerus and to assist in abduction

Which of the following muscles is not a rotator cuff muscle?

B) levator scapulae

Which of the following muscles is involved in producing horizontal wrinkles in the forehead?

C) the frontal belly of the epicranius

A cute, little curly-haired child is sitting behind you in church. You turn around for a moment and she sticks her tongue out at you. Which tongue muscle did she use?

D) genioglossus

Which group of muscles flexes and rotates the neck?

A) the scalenes

Which of the following muscles is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position?

B) the sartorius

Which of the following muscles inserts by the calcaneal tendon?

D) the gastrocnemius

If a lever operates at a mechanical disadvantage, it means that the ________.

A) load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum

Which of the following muscles fixes and depresses the ribs and stabilizes the pelvis during walking?

D) rectus abdominis

A muscle that opposes, or reverses, a particular movement is a(n) ________.

A) antagonist

What type of muscle assists an agonist by causing a like movement or by stabilizing a joint over which an agonist acts?

C) a synergist

Which of the following is not a member of the hamstrings?

A) gracilis

A nursing infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling. What is this muscle called?

D) buccinator

Spasms of this straplike muscle often result in wryneck or torticollis.

D) sternocleidomastoid

Which generalization concerning movement by skeletal muscles is not true?

C) During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.

Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles?

B) the type of muscle fibers

Which of the following muscles is not a member of the hamstrings group?

A) vastus intermedius

Which of the following best describes the orbicularis oris?

A) It closes, purses, and protrudes the lips.

Which muscle group is involved when a "pulled groin" occurs?

B) thigh adductors

What are the levers that operate at a mechanical advantage called?

B) power levers

Tennis players often complain about pain in the arm (forearm) that swings the racquet. What muscle is usually strained under these conditions?

C) the brachioradialis

Which muscles is (are) contracted to exhale forcibly?

B) internal intercostals and rectus abdominus

Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the thigh?

D) iliopsoas and rectus femoris

First-class levers ________.

C) in the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location

What do the genioglossus, hyoglossus, and styloglossus muscles have in common?

C) All act on the tongue.

If L = load, F = fulcrum, and E = effort, what type of lever system is described as LEF?

C) third-class lever

Which of the following muscles is a flexor of the thigh?

C) adductor magnus

Which of the following muscles is involved in inversion at the ankle joint?

A) tibialis anterior

Which of the following muscles serves as a common intramuscular injection site, particularly in infants?

D) the vastus lateralis

Paralysis of which of the following muscles would make an individual unable to flex the knee?

A) hamstring muscles

Which of the following muscles does not act in plantar flexion?

A) popliteus

Fill in blank: ________ is a powerful forearm extensor.

Triceps brachii

Fill in blank: The ________ is known as the boxer muscle.

Serratus anterior

Fill in blank: The ________ helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing.

buccinator

Fill in blank: The ________ tightens the neck and draws the corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror.

platysma

Fill in blank: The ________ is the main chewing muscle.

masseter

Fill in blank: The abnormal protrusion of the small intestine through a weak point in the muscle of the abdominal wall is called a ________.

hernia

Fill in blank: The quadriceps femoris is composed of three "vastus" muscles and the ________.

rectus femoris

Fill in blank: The ________ is a synergist of the latissimus dorsi; it extends, medially rotates, and adducts the humerus.

teres major

Fill in the blank: The ________ extends the great toe.

extensor hallucis longus

The____ runs deep to the external oblique

Internal oblique

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