CH.1 QUIZZES notes

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Which was not a characteristic of "coverture"?

Children became the property of the state upon a husband’s death.

The freedom of a Christian man or woman meant/means:

subservience, submission, and servitude to God

Which was not an aspect of Native American religious beliefs?

Their written religious text was called the Wicca.

Which of the following European countries did not have a colonial presence in seventeenth-century North America?


Which of the following was not a notable feature of sixteenth-century Spanish America?

The Spanish crown took little interest in the administration of colonial affairs.

Which was not a characteristic of American Indians?

There were four different tribes in the Americas

Which of the following was not a feature of Native American civilization prior to the voyages of Columbus?

Large cities were unknown to the Americas.

Which of the following was not a significant motivation behind European colonization in the New World?

the spread of democracy to the Americas

A significant outcome of the Portuguese arrival in West Africa was:

an expansion of Africa’s internal slave trade.

The reconquista happened in


During the Pueblo Revolt, which of the following names were ordered to never be spoken again?


Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?

Cortés’s conquest of the Aztecs; Las Casas’s Destruction of the Indies; Spanish abolition of Indian enslavement

The chief goal of fifteenth-century Portuguese expansion was:

the of a trading empire in Asia.

Who were the Peninsulares?

persons of European birth

At the time of first contact between Europeans and Native Americans, Native Americans had not developed:

wheeled transportation.

Prior to 1800, the largest settled community in what is now the United States was:


In the 1500s and 1600s, the Spanish in Central and South America relied on many of which of the following groups to work fields and mines?


The first African slaves were transported to the New World in what year?


Which is not an achievement of the Indians of North America in the thousands of years before Columbus’s arrival?

people in present-day Arizona constructed a large circle of red-earthen boulders.

In European exploration, conquest, and colonization of the New World after 1492, all of the following were true except:

Europeans brought with them a broad-ranging tolerance for others’ viewpoints; kindness and tolerance being the mark of civilized peoples.

The oldest site in the present-day United States to be continuously inhabited by Europeans is:

St. Augustine, Florida.

Which was not expressed by Bartolome de Las Casas in A Very Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indes in 1552?

He believed that Indians ought to be allowed to continue to practice their native faiths as a true sign of Christian love and toleration.

Which was not a means by which Cortez conquered the Aztecs?

He bombarded the Aztec capital from his Spanish galleons.

Which of the following was not a prominent cultural belief among Indian societies of North America?

Only holders of property should take part in tribal governance.

In which country did the reconquista occur?


On the eve of colonization of the Americas, freedom in Europe was framed in hierarchical, top-down terms, with each level of society enjoying its own degree of freedom.


Small-scale slavery in which Indians enslaved other Indians existed in Indian society.


Europeans in the 1500s held firmly to the view that all men are created equal.


Horses, cows, pigs, and sheep were unknown to the Americas until Europeans brought them there.


The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was swiftly crushed by Spanish authorities.


When Columbus first sailed to America in 1492, Christian Europe was entirely Catholic; twenty-five years later, following Martin Luther’s 95 Theses, the Protestant Reformation had begun, and Europe was thrown into more than a hundred years of Christian religious wars.


The trans-Atlantic voyages of Columbus were sponsored by Spain, which had just achieved its own territorial unification.


Between 1492 and 1820, approximately 20 million African slaves came from the Old World to the New World.


After four trips across the Atlantic, Columbus recognized he had not reached Asia.


The Aztecs lived in a peaceful, non-violent society.


The reconquista was the reconquest of Spain from the Moors.


Of the ten million people who crossed the Atlantic Ocean to settle in the Americas in the 328 years from 1492 to 1820, most were white Europeans.


A strong immunity to European diseases strengthened Indian resistance to the conquistadors.


New Netherland extended all the way down from Quebec to the lower Mississippi Valley.


Before Europeans arrived in the New World, Native Americans were without extensive trading networks, irrigation systems, or large cities.


Most Indian tribes were matrilineal.


Colonial America was a hierarchical society in which some European colonists were indentured servants, Indians were held in forced labor, and Africans were slaves.


Spanish settlers in the New World comprised a mix of laborers, soldiers, priests, bureaucrats, craftsmen, and professionals.


Approximately 10 million men, women and children came from the Old World to the New World between 1492 and 1820.


In 1493, the Catholic Pope, Alexander VI, divided all the Americas between Spain and Britain.


At the time of Portugal’s Atlantic exploration, the economies of West Africa were organized chiefly around slavery.


Perhaps 80 million Native Americans died in the century and a half following first contact in consequence of diseases carried by Europeans.


At the time of first contact with the Europeans, perhaps 12 million people lived in the Inca kingdom.


Most European men in the 1500s owned property and could vote.


In 1492 the population of Europe was greater than that of the Americas.


Africans enslaved other Africans long before the arrival of European traders.


In 1537, Pope Paul III decreed Indian slavery ended, but not African slavery.


To justify their colonial ventures, Spain invoked the threat of Protestantism.


During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, all European nations had established churches, and religious wars between nations (and sometimes within them) were fierce.


In the Spanish colonies race and class were not importa


Little contact existed among the diverse Indian societies of North America.


When the author, Eric Foner, uses the term "unfree labor," he refers to those persons who were performing work, not for free as volunteers, but for wages.


Which of the following was not a significant feature of indentured servitude in seventeenth-century Virginia?

Indentured servants never comprised more than a small percentage of Virginians, the great majority of whom arrived either as free settlers or slaves.

In 1619, the first elected assembly in colonial America was:

The House of Burgesses in Virginia.

A "visible saint" was the term Puritans used to describe:

a person who had experienced divine grace, often during a lightning storm.

Among the problems facing the early settlers of Jamestown colony were:

high rates of death and disease.

Which of the following was not a significant outcome of the start of Chesapeake tobacco cultivation?

campaigns to discourage migration by English women, who, it was feared, would distract male Virginians from their work in the fields

The first permanent English settlement in the area now known as the United States was at:

Jamestown, Virginia.

Which of the following did not happen in the 1630s?

The House of Burgesses was established

Which of the following was not a central theme of Puritan thought?

The quest for material prosperity is a sign of moral corruption.

Who was the English-speaking American Indian the Pilgrims encountered at Plymouth Bay in 1620?


Having fled religious intolerance in England, the Puritans in Massachusetts:

were intolerant of persons who disagreed with their version of Christianity.

Cecilius Calvert envisioned Maryland as a refuge for:


The main lure for the majority of migrants from England to the New World was:

land ownership.

In 1600s Virginia, a femme sole could do all of the following except:


Which of the following colonies was established first?


Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?

Mayflower Compact (1620); trial of Anne Hutchinson(1630); Half-Way Covenant (1662)

Who was the most prominent Native American leader in the original area of English settlement in Virginia?


Which was not a characteristic of Roger Williams’ Rhode Island colony?

It required citizens to attend church.

The Mayflower Compact of 1620 asserted that:

just and equal laws made by male representatives onboard were to rule.

The English "enclosure" movement of the 1500s and 1600s forced small farmers off "commons" land so that the land could be taken up by:


Who of the following was the founding Governor of Virginia?

John Smith

In the religious view of the Puritans, you would get to heaven if:

God predestined you to heaven or hell; no earthly act could change that.

Which of the following was not a characteristic of early New England society?

equality of the sexes in church affairs, but not in government affairs

The expansion of tobacco cultivation in the early 1600s led to an increase in demand for which of the following labor groups?

Indentured servants

A key motivation behind early English settlement in the American colonies was:

ALL above – the profits to be made in trans-Atlantic commerce; escape from the material and spiritual corruptions of England; acquisition of land, and thus a measure of personal independence.

Colonial Virginia’s economic substitute for gold was:


Which of the following was not a significant trend of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English society?

the elimination of gender hierarchies

The Half-Way Covenant applied to whom?

grandchildren of the English Great Migration

Which of the following crops did John Rolfe introduce to the English colonies?


The "Rights of Englishmen" were established in the Magna Carta.


Anne Hutchinson scandalized Massachusetts authorities both for her unorthodox religious ideas and for her "unwomanly" engagement in public issues.


Colonial Massachusetts was organized into self-governing towns.


Intermarriage between Indians and English settlers was common.


Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for advocating freedom of individual conscience and religious choice.


In Puritan New England a husband’s authority in his house was nearly absolute; genuine freedom for a woman was understood to come from her subjection to her husband’s will and desires.


Under the Headright System, anyone who brought in a sizable number of servants would immediately acquire a large estate.


At the end of their period of indenture, indentured servants were often given "freedom dues" and became a free member of society.


In the 1600s in Massachusetts, full church membership was not required to vote in colony-wide elections.


The Pilgrims were Puritans.


In 1585, the English attempted to establish Jamestown in North America.


The Half-Way Covenant (1662) held that believers in the divine right of kings were good.


Because Puritan Massachusetts was deeply religious, ministers were frequently elected to colonial offices.


Because Jamestown was settled next to a malarial swamp, many settlers died.


England’s ongoing struggle to subdue Ireland delayed its entry into New World colonization.


Anne Hutchinson offended colonial leaders and was banished from Massachusetts because she claimed God spoke directly to her.


Early New Englanders established trade relations with local Indians; early Virginians did not.


Seventeenth-century Maryland stood out for its system of absolute rule, but also for its practice of religious toleration.


Ordinary settlers in Puritan Massachusetts were called "gentlemen" and "ladies" or "master" and "mistress."


The first Thanksgiving celebrated the Pilgrims’ survival and a successful harvest.


John Rolfe was the first governor of Virginia.


Most immigrants to America from England in the 1600s were poor, young, single men.


Slavery was never allowed in the devoutly Christian colony of Massachusetts.


Most migrants to seventeenth-century New England came out of the poorer reaches of English society.


Harvard College was principally founded to educate young men into the ministry.


New England quickly developed into a land of large plantations and landless servants.


John Rolfe married Powhatan’s daughter.


Indentures usually bound indentured servants for periods of from five to seven years.


In the 1600s nearly two-thirds of English settlers came as indentured servants.


In Puritan Massachusetts, "visible saint" was a term used to describe people of outstanding kindness and generosity.


Most New England colonists sided with Parliament during the English Civil War.


The typical seventeenth-century woman in New England gave birth seven times.


When Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion against the Governor of Virginia, he called for all except:

the freeing of slaves, particularly enslaved Christia

Which of the following was an effect of Bacon’s Rebellion?

the increased use of African slaves

Prior to being taken over by the English in 1664, New York was:

called New Netherland, and controlled by the Dutch.

Which was not a characteristic view of mercantilism?

A country’s imports should exceed its exports.

Which was not part of the Glorious Revolution?

It secured the Catholic succession to the throne of England.

Which is not true regarding King Phillip and King Phillip’s War?

Indian tribes fought together under the unified leadership of Metacom.

Which of the following was not a major cause of Bacon’s Rebellion?

a determination to abolish slavery in Virginia

Which was not part of the Dominion of New England (1686-88)?


Carolina grew slowly until planters discovered what staple crop?


Which of the following was not a theme of seventeenth-century British mercantilism?

Trade should flow freely among all lands, unimpeded by government policy.

The Dutch primarily settled in:

New York and New Jersey

The largest group of immigrants from continental Europe were the:


The colony founded by a leader who hoped women and blacks would be given equality along with all persons was:


Which was not an element in Leisler’s Rebellion (1689)?

Leisler’s success meant French domination of New York.

One significant consequence of the Glorious Revolution for the American colonies was:

a renewed sense of entitlement to liberty, as the birthright of all English subjects.

Which of the following was not a significant feature of the Salem witchcraft hysteria of the early 1690s?

Many were tried on charges of witchcraft, but no one was actually convicted.

Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?

establishment of Dominion of New England; Glorious Revolution in England; Parliamentary Declaration of Rights

Pennsylvania’s Charter of Liberty:

required persons to affirm Jesus Christ’s divinity.

Which of the following was not a key factor behind the introduction of black slavery in the Chesapeake?

a fear that West Africans, if left alone, might seek to establish colonies of their own in North America, or even Europe

Which did not characterize free blacks (such as Anthony Johnson) in Virginia and Maryland in the 1600s?

They could not own African slaves.

Which of the following was not central to William Penn’s vision for his Quaker colony?

a hands-off policy toward private behavior

In the mid-eighteenth century, colonial America’s leading commercial port was:


In the Salem witchcraft trials of 1692,

almost 150 people, mostly women, were accused of witchcraft.

In 1691, Massachusetts was transformed when a new charter, issued by the English government, absorbed Plymouth into Massachusetts, and:

made property ownership, not church membership, a requirement for voting in General Court elections.

By the late 1600s, the majority of enslaved labor in the West Indies worked on:

sugar plantations.

Which was not part of the aftermath of King Phillip’s War?

The Iroquois, having attacked the colonists, were destroyed.

New York was named after King Charles II’s brother, James, the Duke of York.


After 1667, the Virginia House of Burgesses held that Christians could not enslave other Christians.


Bacon’s Rebellion of 1676 was a rebellion over a tax increase on bacon.


Virginia’s upper class in the 1700s was sometimes called a "cousinocracy."


Tituba, who was one of the people accused of being a witch in Salem, was originally an Indian from the Caribbean who, in 1692, was a slave in Massachusetts.


Slaves showed little inclination to challenge their enslavement in seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Virginia.


By 1700, almost 2 million acres of land was owned by five New York families.


There were no banks in 1700s colonial America.


Vastly more people living in the colonies had far greater opportunities—to vote, own land, worship freely—than existed in Europe.


Under the seventeenth-century British Navigation Acts, certain goods produced in the colonies had to be taken in English ships and sold in ports in England.


The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (1669) ended hereditary nobility, and abolished landgraves and caciques.


Fourteen women and five men were hanged as witches in the Salem witchcraft trials of 1692.


"Racism"—the idea that some races are inherently superior to others and entitled to rule over them—was fully developed in seventeenth-century colonial Virginia.


The rise of black slavery in Virginia developed only gradually, over several generations.


During the eighteenth century, British colonies diversified along ethnic and religious lines.


In human history slaves have all been blacks.


In the first half of the eighteenth century, low taxes, the lack of a military draft, high wages for skilled workers, and an abundance of liberties characterized life for many whites in the British colonies of North America.


During the early to mid-eighteenth century, consumption of manufactured goods penetrated deep into the colonial countryside.


The Indians’ defeat in King Philip’s War hastened the introduction of slavery in Carolina.


The English word slave derives from the word Slav, that is, a people from Eastern Europe who were enslaved by other Europeans into the 1400s.


In the English colonies as a whole, half of the wealth at mid-century was concentrated in the hands of the richest 10 percent of the population.


The English eclipsed the Dutch as the leading producer and trader of inexpensive consumer goods in the 18th century.


By 1750, colonial America had become a land of the very rich and the desperately poor; the in-between ranks of yeomen and craftsmen had all but disappeared.


In the 1700s, 90 percent of colonists in British North America worked farms.


In 1705, the House of Burgesses enacted strict slave codes.


By 1775, three-fifths of the English owned no land, but about two-thirds of the free male colonists in British North America owned land.


Over the century between 1650 and 1750, the agricultural economies of New England, the Middle Colonies, and the backcountry grew more and more alike.


In the late seventeenth century, the Iroquois were known for their fierce hatred and courageous fighting against British colonists.


In 1667, the Virginia House of Burgesses decreed that religious conversion did not release a slave from bondage.


In 1678, when the Lords of Trade in England queried the Massachusetts government about how well it was following the Navigation Acts, the Lords received the reply from the colony that the Navigation Acts did not apply to the colony unless the colony’s own government (not the British Parliament, but rather the Massachusetts General Court) approved them.


In the Walking Purchase of 1737, the Lenni Lanape Indians of Pennsylvania lost more land than they had anticipated when Governor James Logan hired a team of runners to mark off the amount of land "a man could walk" in thirty-six hours.


During the eighteenth century, women’s work in the rural North grew less taxing and less rigidly defined.


During the first half of the eighteenth century, the flow of non-English migrants to British North America was larger than that of English migrants.


In the mid-1700s, per capita, the richest people in the world were most likely the (non-slave) colonists in what would later become the United States.


Which was not a part of "Republicanism"—the central element in the British ideology of liberty—in the eighteenth century?

the view that Lockean liberalism was essential to the good society

The Stono Rebellion in South Carolina:

was a slave revolt.

Which was not an element in the Triangular Trade?

Tea and luxury goods were shipped to Britain from Asia.

The country whose trading posts ringed British mainland colonies to the North and West in the eighteenth century was:


Which of the following was not a regional pattern of colonial slavery?

In the colonial back country, black slaves tended to outnumber free whites.

What percentage of the populations of New York and New Jersey in the 1770s were made up of slaves?

10 percent

The movement that sought to apply the scientific method of careful investigation based on research and experiment to politics and social life was called:

the Enlightenment.

Belief that God withdrew after creating the world, leaving it to function according to scientific laws, and that study of nature, rather than worship in organized churches, is the best form of religious devotion is called:


Which of the following was not a defining feature of the Great Awakening?

an insistence that one’s spiritual destiny—be it salvation or damnation—could not be affected by one’s actions in life

The military outposts established by the Spanish in California and New Mexico were called:


The Paxton Boys:

were Scotch-Irish farmers who set out to attack Indians near Philadelphia.

Which was not the case for blacks on South Carolina and Georgia rice plantations:

Many were free blacks.

Which of the following was not an important trend in colonial politics during the first half of the 1700s?

elimination of property qualifications for voting and officeholding

Father Junipero Serra founded the first Catholic mission in 1769 at:

San diego

In the eighteenth century, the British Constitution—the unwritten groundwork of British freedom—celebrated all except:

the right for all men to vote.

The view that reason alone was capable of establishing the essentials of religion, and that outdated superstitions included belief in the revealed truth of the Bible and miracles was called:


Slaves killed nine whites in a 1712 slave uprising in:

New York City.

Which was not true of the Middle Passage?

Seventy percent of slaves were destined for North America.

The Seven Years’ War (called the French and Indian War in the colonies) was fought between:

the British and French

The Albany Plan of Union of 1754:

envisioned a council of all the colonies for their common defense.

During the 1700s, voting in the colonies was restricted to:

men who owned property.

Olaudah Equiano was:

All the above (slave who purchased freedom; sailor in royal navy; and able to read/write)

Which of the following was not a feature of slave life in colonial America?

Under the oppressions of slavery, African-Americans had little chance to form families or communities.

The leading promoter of the Great Awakening was:

George Whitefield.

Founded in 1727, The Junto was:

a club that discussed literature, philosophy, science, and politics.

The main crop worked by the "task" system in eighteenth-century South Carolina was:


Which of the following was not a significant effect of the Seven Years’ War?

an easing of frontier tensions between British colonists and Indians

The Proclamation Line of 1763:

prohibited further colonial settlement west of the Appalachian mountains.

By the mid-1700s, which was not one of the distinct well-established slave systems in Britain’s mainland colonies?

cotton-based slavery in the Black Belt of the Deep South

In Jonathan Edwards’s view, what was a sinner’s only hope?

a "new birth" in which they became devout Christians

Which of the following is not a valid comparison of the eighteenth-century ideas of "republicanism" and "liberalism"?

Each condemned material inequality as incompatible with freedom.

During the first half of the eighteenth century British "salutary neglect":

left the colonies to largely govern themselves.

British governance of colonial America during the first half of the eighteenth century was shaped by a policy of:

"salutary neglect."

"Cheap imported textiles undermined traditional craft production, while guns encouraged the further growth of slavery" in Africa, writes Eric Foner. Define "textiles":


During Pontiac’s Rebellion, Neolin, the prophet, asserted all except:

Indians must use British technology to defeat their enemies.

By the eighteenth century northern colonies were free of slavery.


Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821.


As a consequence of British victory in the Seven Years’ War, Britain not only won control of Canada but also gained control of India.


Freedom and slavery simultaneously expanded in the course of the eighteenth century as both the idea of the freeborn Englishman grew and the Atlantic slave trade expanded.


Eighteenth-century liberalism drew heavily upon the thinking of the philosopher John Locke.


In the eighteenth century, only five percent of adult men in Britain could vote, but between 50 and 80 percent of adult white males in the colonies could vote.


The Great Awakening principally awakened (or re-awakened) colonists to faith in Christianity, and it also, by calling people to read the Bible and think about it for themselves, had the effect of encouraging colonists to assert their right to independent judgment. This independence of thought had important implications for the development of the view that people no longer needed to listen to authorities, but could democratically assert their own views in politics.


The exchange of goods among Spanish colonists, French colonists, and Indians in North America was known as the "triangular trade."


As Britain’s global power expanded, British patriotism actually declined.


"Deism" was a religious adaptation of Enlightenment thought in both Europe and colonial America.


In the Ohio Valley (the "middle ground"), the Iroquois were known for their ability to play the French and British empires against each other.


Britons and colonists tended to regard themselves as the freest people in the world.


According to the English minister George Whitefield, people could participate in their own salvation through their own actions; they were not, as predominant Protestant religions had traditionally held, unable to affect their destiny.


During the eighteenth century, both Spain and France steadily lost interest in their North American empires.


By the 1700s, the population of Spanish North America was small, consisting of a few, isolated urban clusters in Florida, Texas, and New Mexico.


The Great Awakening was a religious movement that called colonists to awaken to the truth of the divinity of Jesus Christ.


Indians who lived in the Catholic missions established by Father Junipero Serra in California generally lived happy, healthy, free, and long lives.


During the course of the 1700s the colonies increasingly grew apart from the British empire.


An irony of the 1763 British victory in the Seven Years’ War is that victory ultimately contributed to Britain’s loss of its mainland American colonies, since, in seeking to pay for the Seven Years’ War, the British government raised taxes on American colonists who protested taxation without representation.


England and Scotland were united in 1707 by the Act of Union to create Great Britain.


Most African rulers took part in the Atlantic slave trade.


Almost all African slaves in the eighteenth century came from the same African tribe.


During the Great Awakening of the eighteenth century, most colonial slave owners who proclaimed their Christian faith freed their slaves after concluding that blacks and whites were brothers in Christ.


In eighteenth-century Britain, the ideologies of "Republicanism" and "Liberalism" both underscored the importance of private property as a foundation of freedom.


By the middle of the eighteenth century, most elections were fiercely contested throughout the American colonies.


George Washington, a British soldier, was forced to surrender at Fort Necessity in Pennsylvania after he lost a third of his men in an ill-conceived effort to fight a larger French and Indian force.


What did the Sugar Act of 1764 that so vexed the colonists due to the already existing tax on molasses imported from the French West Indies?

It decreased it.

Which of the following was not a source of misgivings in the colonies over the prospect of a complete break with Britain?

fear that England’s withdrawal from North America would leave the former colonies open to frontier conflict with the Spanish

During the 1760s, back-country protesters in the Carolinas were known as:


The First Continental Congress met for:

two months.

Who was not a member of the American delegation that negotiated the Treaty of Paris?

Samuel Adams

Who was considered "the first martyr" of the American Revolution?

Crispus Attacks

Which of the following was not a part of the balance of power between the British and American forces during the Revolution?

The British public was ambivalent over a war to retain the colonies; the American public was united behind a war for independence.

Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?

Boston Tea Party; Olive Branch Petition; publication of Common Sense; Declaration of Independence

When colonists insisted that because they were not represented in Parliament they could not be taxed by the British government, the British replied that they were represented by:

virtual representation.

Which of the following did the Stamp Act affect?


What did the 1766 Declaratory Act declare?

that Parliament had the power to pass laws for the colonies "in all cases whatever"

The final decisive victory in the War for Independence was:

Cornwallis’s defeat at Yorktown.

The idea that the United States has a special mission to serve as a symbol of freedom, a refuge from tyranny, and a model for the world is called by historians:

American exceptionalism.

On October 17, 1777, the Americans scored an important victory against British forces at:


Committees of Correspondence in the colonies during the 1760s:

were a group of colonial elites who exchanged ideas and information about resistance to the Sugar, Currency, and Stamp Acts.

What two European powers allied with the Americans in the War for Independence?

France and Spain

The Daughters of Liberty were:

women who spun and wove cloth during the 1768 Townshend Duties boycott.

Which of the following was not a feature of the 1774 Intolerable Acts?

the repression of Catholicism in the colonies

Which of the founding fathers argued that Parliament had no right to authorize the Writs of Assistance to combat smuggling?

James Otis

Which was not part of the Boston Tea Party?

John Adams was sent to prison on December 17, 1773.

The two southern colonies that did not enroll free blacks and slaves to fight were:

South Carolina and Georgia.

British success in the Seven Years’ War contributed to the making of the American Revolution because:

the British raised taxes to pay for the debt it incurred during the war.

Thomas Paine’s January 1776 pamphlet Common Sense argued all of the following except:

It was common sense that in the struggle for independence, the slaves to whom Lord Dunmore offered freedom ought to be freed.

Which of the following does not help explain the electrifying impact of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense?

an insistence that America stood ready to supplant Britain as the world’s supreme imperial power

The Carolina "Regulators" of the mid-1760s were:

a group of wealthy residents of the back country who protested the lack of courts and lack of representation in the colonial governance.

Which of the following was not a British law forbidding colonial manufacture?

the Molasses Act of 1733

Which was not part of the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770?

It witnessed tea thrown into Boston Harbor and an Indian massacre.

Who was appointed the military commander of the army during the Second Continental Congress?

George Washington

In September 1780, the able American commander ____________ turned traitor to the American cause and almost turned West Point over to the British.

Benedict Arnold

Who engraved the image of the Boston Massacre which became one of the most influential pieces of political propaganda of the Revolutionary Era?

Paul Revere

The Declaration of Independence:

declared the United States independent of British rule.

The British imposed a direct tax (also called an "internal tax") for the first time on colonists with the:

Stamp Act.

Following the Boston Tea Party, Parliament imposed restrictions on Massachusetts that included closing the port of Boston, curtailing town meetings, and allowing soldiers to be lodged in people’s houses. These restrictions were called:

Coercive or Intolerable Acts.

Which of the following was not a feature of the Stamp Act crisis of 1765?

The Stamp Act was passed by the Stamp Act Congress as a way to subvert the power of Parliament to tax the colonies.

Who won the Revolutionary War?


Which was not a consequence of the 1765 Stamp Act?

Postal service was restricted to only those willing to obey the law.

The tactics of American resistance to British colonial policy from the mid-1760s through the mid-1770s included:

all of the above (boycotts on the importation of British goods; mass demonstrations in the port towns; speeches and pamphlets challenging Britain’s right to tax its colonial subjects.)

Sons of Liberty (1765) were said to oppose "every limitation of trade and duty on it." In this context, define "duty":


Urban merchants had particular reservations about colonial boycotts of British goods.


The Tea Act raised the price of British tea in the colonies.


"Liberty" was the foremost popular rallying cry in the Age of Revolution that began in British North America and spread to Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean.


Opposition to the Stamp Act was the first great drama of the revolutionary era.


The American Declaration of Independence has been an inspirational political document for peoples around the world.


By "unalienable rights" Thomas Jefferson meant rights so basic that no government could take them away.


The Coercive Acts were known as the Abominable Acts in the colonies.


During the Revolution, the British took great care not to disrupt the lives of American civilians.


At Trenton, Washington staged a surprise attack on Hessian mercenaries in the service of the British.


When, on April 19, 1775, British soldiers marched from Boston to the nearby town of Concord to seize a cache of weapons, some forty-nine Americans and seventy-three British soldiers died in skirmishes.


By late 1774, colonial Committees of Safety had begun transferring effective power from established colonial governments (under British control) to grassroots bodies; by 1775, some 7,000 men were serving on local committees throughout the colonies.


At the beginning of the war, George Washington refused to accept black recruits.


In the 1760s, "liberty" became the foremost slogan of colonial resistance.


By the time of the Stamp Act crisis, "natural rights" had eclipsed the "rights of freeborn Englishmen" in the language of colonial protest.


The Stamp Act crisis was, in part, a battle to define and extend liberty in colonial America.


By substituting "pursuit of happiness" for "property," Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence significantly broadened the American conception of freedom.


The first battle of the war was very successful for George Washington.


As tensions between Britain and the colonies mounted, social conflict within the colonies faded.


The 1764 Sugar Act provoked the colonists by increasing the tax on molasses imported into North America.


During the War for Independence, 5 percent of U.S. males aged sixteen to forty-five died.


By 1780, demoralization within the patriots’ ranks was widespread.


More Americans than Frenchmen participated in George Washington’s decisive victory at Yorktown.


Some slaves gained their freedom by serving as soldiers during the Revolution.


In the early 1770s, "freedom petitions" were:

slave petitions urging slavery’s end, presented to New England courts and legislatures.

Which of the following was not an effect of the struggle for independence on political life in America?

Patriots of all stripes united around the principle of universal suffrage, regardless of economic status.

The first time in recorded human history that slavery was eradicated by legislative power of government was:

in the United States when, between 1777 and 1804, every state north of Maryland took steps toward emancipation.

How many slaves fled to British lines during the American Revolution?

almost 100,000

Three months after independence was declared in 1776, which state adopted a new state constitution with only a one-house legislature?


Who developed the state constitution that gave the governor an effective veto over laws passed by the legislature, included a two-chamber legislature and powerful judiciary, and was subsequently an important model for the U.S. Constitution?

John Adams

What famous American woman wrote to her husband that the Second Continental Congress should "remember the ladies" when they drew up a "Code of Laws":

Abigail Adams

The decline of indentured servitude and apprenticeship had many causes. Which of the following was not one of these causes?

Increased use of African slaves

Which of the following was not an effect of the struggle for independence on economic thought and policy in America?

The estates of wealthy landowners were appropriated by Congress and redistributed among the rural poor.

Who wrote that he hoped to erect a "wall of separation" between church and state:

Thomas Jefferson

For most free Americans in the new republic, equality meant:

equal opportunity rather than equality of condition.

Thomas Jefferson helped pass laws in the state of Virginia that abolished primogeniture. Define "primogeniture":

passing of all of a family’s land to the oldest son

Who, out of the following, dressed in men’s clothes to fight in the American Revolution?

Deborah Sampson

Members of which of the following groups were not subject to arrest by the Pennsylvania government because of refusal to participate in the American Revolution?


In 1776, the slave population of the United States was:

20 percent

The foremost center of political radicalism during the revolutionary era was:


Which of the following was not an effect of the struggle for independence on the issue of slavery in America?

Ironically, the arrival of independence was accompanied by an expansion of slavery throughout the United States

Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776) argued:

that the "invisible hand" of the free market was more effective and fair than government intervention in the economy.

Which was not the case for Indians following the War for Independence?

Indians were incorporated as citizens within the new republic.

What percentage of non-slave Americans remained loyal to the British during the American Revolution?

20 to 25 percent

Which of the following was not an effect of the struggle for independence on the relative status of men and women in America?

the elimination of legal inequality between husband and wife

Phillis Wheatley is celebrated in American history as:

a published poet and slave.

Which of the following was not a course adopted by African-Americans to advance the cause of emancipation during the revolutionary era?

assassination of pro-slavery public figures

Which Indian tribe sided with the Americans against the British in the War for Independence?


Which of the following was not an effect of the struggle for independence on religion in America?

a marked decline in the influence of religion in American society

"Throughout the new nation, states disestablished their established churches." Define "disestablished":

to remove public funding for

The daughter of a Massachusetts farmer who disguised herself as a man and fought in the Continental Army during the American Revolution was:

Deborah Sampson.

The first antislavery tract in America was

The Selling of Joseph.

Which of the following defines republican motherhood?

training sons to be future citizens

The estimated percentage of free Americans who remained loyal to the British during the Revolution was:

20 to 25 percent.

Few men considered women naturally submissive and irrational in Revolutionary Era America.


Except for New York, all new states barred Jews from voting.


By 1776, the year in which he wrote The Declaration of Independence with its famous phrase "all men are created equal," Thomas Jefferson owned more than 100 slaves.


Lucy Knox, the wife of General Henry Knox, wrote to her husband during the war that when he returned home he should not consider himself, "Commander in Chief of your own house, but be convinced that there is such a thing as equal command."


Evangelical Christians supported the separation of church and state following the American Revolution because they wanted to protect religion from the corrupting embrace of government.


Committed to freedom of conscience and thought, most patriots adopted a live-and-let-live attitude toward the Loyalists during the Revolutionary War.


Initially, African-Americans saw the ideals of the Revolution as an opportunity to claim their freedom.


During the Revolution, Indians were divided in allegiance.


The authority of church leaders went remarkably unchallenged during the revolutionary era.


There was a rapid rise in indentured servitude in the early republic.


Because of religious freedom an astonishing number of new religious denominations proliferated in the early republic; today more than 1,300 religions are practiced in the United States.


While fighting in the American Revolution, Deborah Sampson extracted a bullet from her own leg to keep doctors from discovering her true identity.


Deists and members of evangelical sects worked together to separate church and state.


Loyalists who did not leave the country were quickly integrated into American society.


Some Americans employed the revolutionary language of equality on behalf of women’s rights.


Advertisements for runaway slaves were rare in the early republic.


The years following independence saw the emergence of free black communities, especially in the northern states.


Indentured servitude went into rapid decline following national independence.


Militias did much to promote the expansion of political democracy in revolutionary America.


From 1776 to 1807 women were legally allowed to vote in New Jersey.


While not granted to many Americans, by 1776 suffrage was often considered, in the United States, to be synonymous with freedom.


In eighteenth century America the idea of "compassionate" marriage included the notion that men and women would marry voluntarily and live in a mutual, affectionate relationship.


Except in Vermont, property ownership was not a requirement for voting in the early Republic.


Indian tribes who stayed neutral during the Revolution ended up better off than those who took sides.


James Otis argued that black colonists were entitled to the same civil rights as any British subject.


Many women who entered public debate felt the need to apologize for their forthrightness.


Confiscated property of Loyalists was returned to them following the Treaty of Paris.


By 1810, there were fewer free blacks than there had been in 1776.


The Declaration of Independence elevated the principle of equality to a central place in the American conception of freedom.


At the end of war, as many as 100,000 Loyalists were banished from the United States or emigrated voluntarily.


Which of the following was not a feature of the new federal constitution?

Congress was empowered to abolish slavery in the United States—but not before 1808.

Which was not a characteristic of the Articles of Confederation?

Each state had two votes in the upper chamber and votes in the lower chamber were proportionately distributed by population.

The 1787 Northwest Ordinance prohibited:


Which state was not eventually created from the region delimited by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?


Which of the following was not an element of western policy under the Articles of Confederation?

procedures for the naturalization of Indians as American citizens

Which of the following was not a key principle embedded in the Bill of Rights?

free public education

The eighty-five essays published by "Publius" and gathered into a book in 1788 was entitled:

The Federalist Papers.

The U.S. Constitution:

is a purely secular document that contains one reference to God and bars tests for federal officeholders.

Which of the following was not a concern voiced by the nationalists over the state of the republic under the Articles of Confederation?

Freedom of speech was imperiled under the current system.

Today the U.S. House of Representatives has 435 members, but initially it had:

65 members.

What state had the largest African American population in 1790?


Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?

Shays’s Rebellion; Philadelphia Convention; ratification of Constitution.Treaty of Greenville; American defeat of Miami Confederacy; prohibition of slavery in Old Northwest

Shays’s Rebellion in late 1786 and early 1787 was a rebellion of:

debt-ridden farmers who closed the courts in western Massachusetts.

Which of the following was not a significant difference between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists during the ratification debates?

Federalists were overwhelmingly northern; Anti-Federalists were overwhelmingly southern.

The plan at the Constitutional Convention that proposed creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in each house determined by each state’s population was the:

Virginia Plan.

Under the rule of the U.S. Constitution, which remains in the hands of the states?


Define "prohibited":


One of the leading Federalist thinkers was:

James Madison.

Which is not true of the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution?

They assert that presidents are to make declarations of war.

Which two states voted against ratification?

Rhode Island and North Carolina

Initially—and until the Fourteenth Amendment (1868)—the rights guaranteed to American citizens in the Bill of Rights:

applied only to the federal government and its laws, not to the states.

Who wrote, "The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants"?

Thomas Jefferson

Define "secular":

not pertaining to or connected with religion

Which was not a characteristic of the Articles of Confederation?

Each state had two votes in the upper chamber and votes in the lower chamber were proportionately distributed by population.

In James Madison’s view in The Federalist, the "first object of government" is:

protection of property rights.

The "father of the Constitution" was:

James Madison.

In James Madison’s view in The Federalist, the nation’s large size both geographically and in terms of its population was:

a source of stability.

Which is not true of Anti-Federalists?

They were often financiers and others in cities and nearby rural areas.

Which was not an attribute of the new nation?

the federal government made the laws and states enforced them

Who, out of the following, helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris of 1783?

Benjamin Franklin

The U.S. Constitution provides that the president is to be elected:

by an electoral college.

The costliest loss of human life suffered by the U.S. Army in warfare against Indians in American history—630 dead—occurred:

in the Ohio Valley in an attack by the Miami Confederacy led by Little Turtle.

Federalism refers to:

the relationship between state and national governments.

Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government had the power to:

declare war.

Fewer than one-tenth of one percent of the population attended college in the late eighteenth century.


After the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, twelve Native America communities ceded most of their land from Ohio and Indiana to the federal government.


The 1790 Naturalization Act barred non-white foreigners from attaining American citizenship.


The first written constitution of the United States was the Articles of Confederation.


Only thirty-nine of the original fifty-five delegates to the Constitutional Convention signed the document.


The Bill of Rights offered Indians a vital source of protection against further intrusions upon their land.


More than half of the fifty-five men at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 had attended college.


The Constitution of the United States was signed in 1776.


By the time of the Declaration of Independence, the United States had already become larger than Great Britain, Spain, and France combined.


As originally written, the Constitution acknowledged and tacitly supported the institution of slavery.


The father of the constitution was Thomas Jefferson.


Twelve of the first sixteen presidents owned slaves.


Thomas Jefferson was one of the authors of the Federalist Papers.


The Bill of Rights was a concession offered by the Federalists to overcome widespread fears of despotic national government.


Shays’s Rebellion was inspired by a belief that the Massachusetts government was not doing enough to protect indebted farmers from losing their land.


In the era of the Revolution, free blacks in most states had the right to vote.


Under the Articles of Confederation, national government consisted of a weak legislative branch and a strong judicial branch.


The constitution imposed high property qualifications for voting.


The final plan of the U.S. Constitution called for a two-house Congress consisting of a House of Representatives with its members apportioned according to population and a Senate in which each state two members.


Alexander Hamilton was an Anti-Federalist.


During the ratification debates of 1787-88, the Federalists were more effectively mobilized than the Anti-Federalists.


By 1790, there were no slaves in New England.


The founding fathers meant "We the People" to refer to all Americans.


Movement of Americans westward slowed dramatically under the Articles of Confederation.


In his will, Tadeusz Kosciuszko left funds for Thomas Jefferson to purchase and free slaves, but the founding father never used the money to do so.


In the "XYZ affair" of 1797:

French officials presented American diplomats with a demand for bribes.

Which of the following was not an underlying purpose of Hamilton’s financial program of 1790-91?

to restrain industrial development

By 1798, the United States and what country were engaged in a "quasi-war"?


Most of the labor in building the public buildings of the national government in Washington, D.C., was done by:


The great war hero to emerge from the War of 1812 was:

Andrew Jackson.

Among the more memorable passages of Jefferson’s first inaugural address is the following:

"We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."

Which was not true of Gabriel’s Rebellion in 1800?

led by Toussant L’Ouverture

With the Louisiana Purchase:

the size of the nation was doubled.

Which of the following policies of President Adams was not a major point of partisan controversy?

his handling of Indian relations

Which was not true of the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794?

Six leaders of the Whiskey Rebellion were hanged.

Which was not true of the Republican Party in the early Republic?

They were more sympathetic to England than were the Federalists.

The "Second War of Independence" was:

the War of 1812.

The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, written respectively by Madison and Jefferson, attacked what federal law?

Sedition Act

Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?

French Revolution; Thomas Paine’s The Rights of Man; Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Woman; Gabriel’s Rebellion

On their journey of exploration from Missouri to Oregon, Lewis and Clark were accompanied by the Indian interpreter:


Which was not part of Fries’s Rebellion of 1799?

John Fries, a local militia leader and auctioneer, was hanged.

The War of 1812 was ended by what treaty?

in December 1814 by the Treaty of Ghent

Which was not true of the Federalist Party?

They favored Jefferson’s view of the Constitution.

An influential figure in the popular quest for expanded rights during the 1790s was

all of the above

George Washington was elected the first President of the United States:

unanimously by the electors of the Electoral College.

The "Revolution of 1800" was:

the peaceful transfer of the office of the presidency between political parties.

Who killed the first U.S. secretary of the treasury in a duel?

Aaron Burr

Which was not true of the Embargo Act of 1807?

It banned trade only with Britain and France.

"Impressment" as practiced by the British was:

kidnapping sailors.

Which of the following was not a significant feature of the War of 1812?

Northerners strongly supported the war; southerners strongly opposed it.

"The Star-Spangled Banner," written by Frances Scott Key, commemorates what event in the War of 1812?

Fort McHenry withstood British bombardment

The case that established "judicial review" was:

Marbury v. Madison

Which was not part of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan of 1790-91?

cease the tax on whiskey

Which of the following was not a feature of the emerging rivalry between Republicans and Federalists during Washington’s presidency?

The two parties differed sharply on domestic affairs, but hardly at all on foreign affairs.

Which is the proper chronological order of U.S. presidents?

Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe

By 1807, at the time the Congress enacted the Embargo Act, how many American sailors had the British impressed?

over 6,000

Which of the following was not a major development during Jefferson’s presidency?

an act declaring all Indian lands between the Appalachian mountains and the Mississippi River off-limits to white settlement

The two political parties of the mid-1790s were the:

Republicans and Federalists.

Jefferson’s embargo on U.S. exports proved an economic disaster for American port towns.


In 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft published A Vindication of the Rights of Women in response to Thomas Paine’s Rights of Man.


The discoveries made by Lewis and Clark on their expedition through the West persuaded Jefferson to go ahead with the Louisiana Purchase.


No one was ever convicted under the 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts.


The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions put forth the idea of secession.


The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions condemned state laws against seditious speech.


President Thomas Jefferson refused to purchase the Louisiana Territory because it was an affront to his strict constructionist view of the Constitution, but Congress overrode his veto in purchasing the Louisiana Territory.


In 1798, the United States was involved in a "quasi-war" with Spain.


The "Revolution of 1800" was against the French.


In consequence of the December 1814 Hartford Convention, the Federalist Party grew in strength and vigor, as "Mr. Madison’s War" was clearly unpopular.


James Madison, the "father of the Constitution," opposed Congress’s even receiving a petition from slaves from North Carolina.


In the Revolution of 1800, Thomas Jefferson led a coup against the administration of John Quincy Adams.


The main target of the Sedition Act was the British.


One of Lewis and Clarke’s tasks was to record information about the flora and fauna they encountered.


The Barbary Wars were the United States’ first contact with the Islamic World.


The Haitian Revolution renewed fears of a slave rebellion in the United States.


The War of 1812 was ended only after the British pledged to cease the impressment of American sailors.


Jefferson was the first president to begin his term in Washington, D.C.


The Embargo of 1807 set the stage for vast economic prosperity in the United States.


During the Adams presidency, Thomas Jefferson opposed the suppression of political dissent by federal government—but not by state government.


The Whiskey Rebellion reinforced Federalist beliefs in the need for a strong standing army.


The Haitian Revolution and Gabriel’s rebellion convinced large numbers of white southerners that slavery had to go.


Lewis and Clarke were guided by Pocahontes across the Bitterroot Mountains.


Jefferson barely won the election of 1804.


Alexander Hamilton shot Aaron Burr in a hunting accident.


The democratic ferment of the 1790s drew much inspiration from the French Revolution and British radicalism.


The Shawnee brothers Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa led the way in promoting Indian adoption of white customs.


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