Ch. 1

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To enhance quality of life your diet should include?

fruits and vegetables, whole grains and regular exercise

Most important factors that influence your daily food choices are?

Flavor, texture, and appearance

Most commonly purchased foods in America are?

milk, ready-to-eat cereal, bottled water, soft drinks, and bread

What do hunger and appetite influence?

our desire to eat


Physiological drive to eat


Psychological drive or influences that encourages us to eat


Feeling of fullness or satisfaction


The science that links foods to health and disease. It includes the processes by which the human organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, and excretes food substances.


Provide energy in form of calories, vital for growth and maintenance, helps build and maintain all body cells.

Essential Nutrient

when left out of diets can lead to signs of poor health, body cannot all ways product the amount needed for biological functions but when added to diet can regain normal functions.

Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for?

chronic diseases like Disease of the heart (24.6% of all deaths), Cancer (23.3%), Stroke (5.3%), Diabetes (2.8%)

Six Classes of Nutrients

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Water

What are Macronutrients

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and water

What are Micronutrients

vitamins and minerals


a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Most are known as sugars, starches, and fiber,

Carbohydrates are?

Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the Energy yield: 4 kilocalories/gram. o Simple sugars o Monosaccharides o Disaccharides o Complex carbohydrates (i.e., polysaccharides) o Starch (digestible) o Fiber (indigestible)

Lipids are?

Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and little oxygen, the Energy yield: 9 kilocalories/gram, and cholesterol o Fats and oils o Do not dissolve in water o Energy yielding (~9 kcal/gm) o Animal fats (solid) o Plant oils (liquid)


major form of fat found in foods and stored in the body, and they contain fatty acids

Main form for energy storage in the body is from?


What do solid fats do to the body?

Raises blood cholesterol which can clog arteries

You only need 4 tablespoons of _____ each day to support these essential fatty acids

canola or soybean oil

Saturated fatty acids

Contain no C-C double bonds, Solid at room temperature, Raise blood cholesterol

Unsaturated fatty acids

c-c double bonds, lowers cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood


Composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, Energy yield: 4 kilocalories/gram (limited use for this purpose), – blood and cell components – enzymes – immune factors – major part body structure – Essential amino acids – Non-essential amino acids

amino acids

Building blocks of proteins:

Which of the following is not a class of nutrient? A. Alcohol B. Carbohydrates C. Lipids D. Minerals


Which of the following nutrients can directly supply energy for human use? A. Lipids and oils B. Fiber C. Vitamins D. Minerals


Certain nutrients provide us with energy. Some are important for growth and development. Others act to keep body functions running smoothly. Which of the following does not promote growth and development? A. Lipids B. Carbohydrates C. Proteins D. Minerals


What substances, present in fruits and vegetables, provide significant health benefits such as reducing the risk of cancer? A. Phytochemicals B. Beta blockers C. Deoxidizers D. Free radicals


The essential nutrients A. must be consumed at every meal. B. are required for infants but not adults. C. can be made in the body when they are needed. D. cannot be made by the body and therefore must be consumed to maintain health.


The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences advocates that 10% to 35% of calories come from protein and ________________ from carbohydrate. A. 20% to 35% B. 45% to 65% C. 50% to 70% D. 55% to 75%


Fibers belong to the class of nutrients known as A. carbohydrate. B. protein. C. lipids. D. minerals.


Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamins? A. Provide energy B. Become structural components of the body C. Enable chemical processes in the body D. Made in sufficient quantities by the body


Minerals can A. provide energy. B. be destroyed during cooking. C. be degraded by the body. D. become part of the body structural systems.


Which of the following is not a characteristic shared by carbohydrates? A. Contain more kcalories than protein B. Supply 4 kcalories per gram C. Add sweetness to food D. Provide a major source of fuel for the body


Which of the following is characteristic of lipids? A. Supply 4 kcalories per gram B. Add structural strength to bones and muscles C. Supply a concentrated form of fuel for the body D. Add sweetness to food


Gram for gram, which provides the most energy? A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Alcohol D. Fats


Which of the following is not a characteristic of protein? A. Major component of body structure B. Supplies 4 kcalories per gram C. Most significant energy source for humans D. Forms enzymes


Which of the following yield greater than 4 kcalories per gram? A. Plant fats B. Plant carbohydrates C. Plant proteins D. Animal proteins


Which of the following is not true about water? A. Provides energy B. Provides a way to transport nutrients and waste C. By-product of cell chemical reactions D. Dietary need of approximately 9-13 cups per day


Which of the following is true about the energy content of nutrients? A. Lipids supply 7 kcalories per gram. B. Carbohydrates and proteins supply 4 kcalories per gram. C. Alcohol supplies 9 kcalories per gram. D. Lipids and alcohol supply 9 kcalories per gram.


A serving of bleu cheese dressing containing 23 grams of fat would yield _____ kcalories. A. 161 B. 92 C. 207 D. 255



Enable chemical reactions in the body, they provide no usable calories, fat-soluble, and water-soluble.

Fat-soluble Vitamins

dissolve in fat (vitamins A, D, E, and K), b/c not readily excreted accumulation of vitamin A can lead to toxicity

Water soluble Vitamins

dissolve in water (vitamin C and B vitamins)- cooking destroys them.


Inorganic substances, Numerous functions in the body, Not destroyed during cooking, Major and trace minerals, Electrolytes, Yield no energy


do not contain carbon atoms, Not destroyed during cooking but can be lost in water when drained, yield no energy, 16 or more essential minerals

Major minerals

needed in amounts greater than 100 milligrams

Trace minerals

needed in amounts less than 100 milligrams


minerals that conduct electricity (sodium, potassium, and chloride)


Numerous vital functions in the body, Majority of our body weight 60% -Recommended intake -9 women-13 men cups/day Found in foods, Yields no energy


Hereditary material that provides the blueprint for the production of cell proteins


State in which there is no longer a desire to eat; a felling of satisfaction

Amino Acid

The building blocks for protein containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

risk factor

An aspect of our lives that may make us more likely to develop a disease


Chemical elements used in the body to promote chemical reactions and to form body structures


A condition in which blood pressure remains persistently elevated


Heat needed to raise 1 liter of water 1 degree celsius


Compound that speeds the rate of chemical process but is not altered by the process


psychological (External) influences that encourage us to find and eat food


Chemical substances in food that contributes to health


Compound secreted into the bloodstream that acts to control the function of distant cells


Substances found in fruits and vegetables that contribute to a reduced risk of cancer or heart diseases in people who consume them regularly, Not considered essential nutrients


A condition characterized by excess body fat


Physiological (internal) drive to find and eat food, mostly regulated by innate cues to eating


Compound needed on very small amounts in the diet to help regulate and support chemical reactions in the body

What nutrients provide energy?

Carbohydrates, Fats, and Protein

Nutrients are stored in 3 groups

1. those that provide energy, 2. those that promote growth, development, and maintenance 3. those that keep body functions running smoothy


Energy derived from food is measured in kilocalories, 1,000 calories = 1 kcal = 1(food) Calorie

Carbohydrates amount of energy in kilocalories/gram


Lipidsamount of energy in kilocalories/gram


Protein amount of energy in kilocalories/gram


Alcohol amount of energy in kilocalories/gram


Overweight and obesity rates in 2010 have increased to

68% of U.S. adults

Obesity plays a role in

chronic illnesses like, Heart disease, Stroke, High blood pressure, High cholesterol, Diabetes, Arthritis, Certain cancers

Health objectives for our nation released every

10 years

Habits of college students fall short of recommendations for

whole grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, and meat;


chemical process in the body by which energy is provided in useful forms and vital activities are sustained

Simple sugars

monosaccharide or disaccharide in the diet

Complex Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharide molecules. include glycogen, starches, and fiber

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