Cells and Organelles

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At what level of organization does life begin?


What surrounds all cells?

a cell membrane

What is meant my semi-permeable?

allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others

What two things make up the cell membrane?

phospholipids and embedded proteins

The cell membrane is also called the ______ membrane.


Centrioles are found inside what type of cell?


What additional layer is found around the outside of plant cells and bacteria?

a cell wall

Centrioles are found at the center of the __________. How do they help the cell?

centrosome, they are where microtubules are made

Where is DNA found inside a cell?

the nucleus

What cell process is controlled by the nucleus?

protein synthesis

DNA coils tightly during division and assembles into visible ___________.


Where are organelles located?

the cytoplasm

Where are proteins made in a cell?


Do all cells need ribosomes?


The process of making proteins is called _______ _________.

protein synthesis

How does rough ER differ from smooth ER?

rough ER has ribosomes on the surface

Rough ER is connected to the _____ membrane and to ______ ER.

outer, smooth

Proteins made by rough ER travel to the Golgi in sacks called _______. Golgi ________ and ________ proteins for export out of the cell.

cistern, modifies, packages

Give 3 jobs for smooth ER.

makes proteins, controls the Calcium level in muscles; detoxifies (poisons, alcohol, and drugs)

What process takes place inside chloroplasts?


What is the energy for this process?


What pigment traps the energy?


Chloroplasts are found in what types of cell(s)?


Both chloroplasts and mitochondria are like in that they both have ______ membranes and their own ______.

double, energy

Food, water, and wastes are stored inside ________.


Digestion takes place inside _________ containing _______.

lysosomes, enzymes

The largest organelle in plants is the _______ _______.

central vacuole

What organelle breaks down and recycles worn out cells?


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