Brain, Cranial Nerves, Spine, Special Senses

Your page rank:

Total word count: 2911
Pages: 11

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant


How many major regions comprise the human brain?


As you are reading these words on the screen, what part of your brain is allowing you to perform the complex, conscious intellectual task of reading and comprehension?


which division of the diencephalon acts as an information filter for sensory information that is forwarded to the cerebrum?


The cerebellar peduncles link the cerebellum to the cerebrum. True/False


which of the following is NOT a role of astrocytes in the formation and function of the blood brain barrier. A)Induce tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells. (B) Production of carrier proteins and ion channels. (C)Allows all medications to enter the brain tissue. (D)Produces enzymes to destroy toxic substances


What type of neuroglial cell serves as the gatekeeper of the blood-brain barrier by controlling what will get in and what will not get into neurons?

Precentral Gyrus of the Frontal Lobe

The primary motor cortex for control of voluntary muscles is found in the___.

Broca’s Area

A person who can understand a sentence, but would have trouble repeating it, may have a problem in ______.

Wernicke’s Area

Which language area provides understanding of the spoken and written word?


What structure is essential in storing memories and forming long-term memory?

Anterior Pituitary Gland

Releasing and inhibiting hormones, produced by the hypothalamus, are needed to control the____.

superior colliculi of the tectal plate.

What midbrain structure is a visual reflex center?

Lateral Ventricles

Which structure is highlighted?

Central Sulcus

which structure is highlighted?


which structure is highlighted?

CN II (2)- Optic Nerve

which structure is highlighted?

CN XII (12) – Hypoglossal Nerve

Which structure is highlighted?

Falx Cerebelli

which structure is highlighted?

Longitudinal Fissure

Which structure is highlighted?

superior colliculus

which structure is highlighted?

Wernicke Area

As you read these words, what part of your brain is interpreting the words that you read?


The area of the cerebrum that integrates information from the sensory, motor, and association areas to enable an individual to plan and execute appropriate responses is the prefrontal cortex. True/False

Reticular Activating System (RAS)

The area of the brain that processes visual, auditory, and touch stimuli and keeps us in a state of mental alertness is the ___.

Interventricular Foramina

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the third ventricle of the brain by way of the ______.


The Cerebral Cortex is a region of the brain containing ______ matter.


Located in the diencephalon is the ____ ventricle.


CSF helps control the chemical environment surrounding the brain. True/False

Arachnoid Villi

CSF leaves the subarachnoid space via the ___ and enters the bloodstream.


Microglial cells help form the blood brain barrier. True/False


Removal of the left cerebral hemisphere would prevent voluntary movement of the right side of the body. True/False

The cerebral hemispheres could not directly communicate.

The most direct effect of severing the corpus callosum would be that.


The primary motor cortex controls voluntary skeletal muscle activity, with neurons that project ipsilaterally. True/False

Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Sensory information from a painful stimulus on the skin will be received by the _____.

Primary Somatosensory Cortex

More cortical space is dedicated to areas of the body that are more sensitive. This best describes the ____.

Wernicke Area

Difficulty comprehending speech may indicate a problem with the _____

Somatosensory Area

After reaching into her purse, a woman identifies an object based solely on its shape and texture. Which cortical region is highly involved with this action?


Commissural Tracts link the cerebral cortex to lower brain regions and the spinal cord. True/False

usually the categorical hemisphere

In most individuals, the left hemisphere _______.

Amygdaloid Body

The cerebral nucleus involved with emotions and mood is the ___.

The Sleep-Wake Cycle

Damage to the Pineal gland would likely have the most impact on____.

Serves as an Information Filter

The Thalamus


Respiratory centers are located in the pons. True/False

Regulating Blood Pressure

A patient has acquired damage to the vasomotor center within the medulla oblongata. This patient will likely have difficulty with _____.


Large Projection tracts decussate (cross/form X) within the caudal region of the medulla oblongata. True/False


The cerebellum initiates voluntary muscle contraction, and movements are fine tuned by the primary motor cortex of the cerebrum. True/False


The limbic system is heavily involved with processing emotions, so it is also known as the emotional brain. True/False


The reticular formation is composed of well-organized nuclei embedded within the cerebral white matter. True/False


Damage to the RAS may result in unconsciousness. True/False


The cerebral association areas are responsible for cognition. True/False

Frontal Association Area

Damage to the ____ will likely result in a personality change or disorder.

Loss of awareness on the opposite side of the body

A Brain Lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex will likely result in the


Part of the limbic system is responsible for the formation of new memories. True/False

Premotor Cortex

Where will the memory of a motor skill likely be stored?

Visual Association Area

Where will the memory of a favorite painting likely be stored?


A patient was found to have damage to his amygdala, and is therefore more likely to exhibit exaggerated emotions. True/False

Facial (CN – VII)(7)

Paralyzed Facial muscles may indicate damage to the ___ nerve.


Spinal Nerves – The dorsal root is ____.


Which portion of a reflex arc is most likely to be located entirely within the central nervous system (CNS)?

Foramen Magnum, First Lumbar Vertebrae

The spinal cord extends from the level of the _____ to the level of the ____.

Cervical, Lumbosacral

The ___ enlargement of the spinal cord is the location where nerves that supply the upper limbs enter and leave the spinal cord, and the ___ enlargement is the location where nerves that supply the lower limbs enter and leave the spinal cord.


The area of the skin that is supplied with sensory innervation by a pair of spinal nerves is called a ___.


There are __ pairs of spinal nerves that exit the vertebral column.

Gray, White

The spinal cord is partitioned into an inner ___ matter region, and an outer ___ matter region.


a spinal nerves splits into __ branches.


Intercostal Nerves are the anterior rami of which spinal nerves?

Sciatic Nerve

Which nerve of the sacral plexus is the largest and longest nerve in the body?

The vertebral column outgrows the spinal cord during development.

Why does the vertebral canal extend beyond the spinal cord, encompassing the cauda equina?

Pia Mater

Which meninx is the deepest in its location?


The space containing cerebrospinal fluid is the ___ space.

Descending Pathway

A command from the brain to signal muscle contraction would pass through a _____.


Which neuron in a sensory pathway is part of the sensory receptor?

losing feeling from the skin of the back

Severing the posterior ramus of a spinal nerve may result in ______.


Stepping on a piece of glass with the left foot will result in the extension of the right leg to help maintain balance. This is an example of a(n) ___ reflex.


Touching a hot object with the right hand will result in the withdrawal of the right hand from the object. This is an example of a(n) ____ reflex.


Tapping the triceps brachii muscle tendon will result in a reflexive elbow extension. This is an example of a(n) __ reflex.


How many neurons are in the somesthetic pathway from the skin to the post central gyrus?


Damage to the ventral root of a spinal nerve would mean that the sensory input of the reflex arc would be interrupted. True/False


All reflexes share the property of being an involuntary response. True/False


There are 31 pairs of mixed nerves that emerge from the spinal cord. True/False


White matter in the spinal cord is found surrounding the gray matter, as well as within the lateral horns. True/False


a conduction pathway in the spinal cord consists of a single sensory neuron and a single motor neuron. True/False


Upper motor neurons may inhibit lower motor neurons. True/False


A spinal nerve is classified as motor or sensory, depending on the type of fiber it contains. True/False


A Nerve plexus is a network of interweaving posterior rami of spinal nerves. True/False


The lumbar plexus can be divided into anterior and posterior divisions. True/False


The anterior rami of two lumbar spinal nerves help form the sacral plexus. True/False


The reflex arc must involve interneurons for processing in the spinal cord. True/False


Structurally, olfactory neurons are unipolar neurons. True/False


Olfactory cilia are also called olfactory hairs. True/False


olfactory cilia contain axon terminals. True/False


olfactory dendrites contain olfactory receptors. True/False


Olfactory hairs have olfactory receptors. True/False


olfactory receptors bind to and actively take in odorants. True/False


olfactory receptors utilize G-protiens to open ion channels. True/False


Match Taste Sensation to chemical trigger. NA+


Match Taste Sensation to chemical trigger. Acidic compounds


Match Taste Sensation to chemical trigger. Sugars, some other carbs, some proteins.


Match Taste Sensation to chemical trigger. Alkaloids/base compounds


Match Taste Sensation to chemical trigger. Amino Acid glutamate and related compounds.


Match Taste Sensation to chemical trigger. Artificial sweetners


Match Taste Sensation to chemical trigger. Beef


Accommodation is a result of parasympathetic stimulation from the optic nerve (I) . True/False


In accommodation, the lens becomes more spherical in shape. True/False


One reason accommodation becomes more difficult as an object is brought closer to the eye is because the lens cannot become any more flattened. True/False


When we look at a close-up object, the pupil diameter decreases. True/False


when the pupil in constricted, the light entering the eye tends to pass through the center of the lens rather than through the edges of the lens. True/False


The smaller the pupil diameter, the more light enters the eye and is directed toward the retina. True/False


Both pupils can pick up the light rays when the eyes are looking forward. True/False


Convergence states that eyes are rotated medially as an object moves closer. True/False


In convergence, rotation of the eyes is accomplished by the medial oblique muscles. True/False


An observer can see convergence by watching the medial rotation of the eyes of the subject when bringing an object towards the nose. True/False


Each visual field is divided into three parts: central, temporal, and nasal. True/False


Light from each part of a visual field projects to the same side of the retina except for the central part which projects to both. True/False


An optic nerve consists of axons extending from the retina to the optic chiasm. True/False


In the optic chiasm, axons from the nasal part of the retina cross while axons from the temporal part do not. True/False


An optic tract consists of axons that have passed through the optic chiasm with or without crossing to the thalamus. True/False


The right part of each visual field projects to the left side of the brain, and the left part of each visual field projects to the right side of the brain. True/False


What structure is attached to the oval window and transfers vibration of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear?


Correct order in which sound travels in the inner ear. 1)endolymph of cochlear duct. (2)round window (3)perilymph of scala vestibule (4)vestibular membrane (5)oval window (6)perilymph of scala tympani (7) basilar membrane.

…Both Magnify vibrations of soft sounds and sharpen pitch perception

Outer hair cells, near the center of the basilar membrane, will _____.


What ion is responsible for depolarization of hair cells of the spiral organ?


What neurotransmitter is released from depolarized hair cells to stimulate fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve?

Axons of ganglion cells from nasal halves of both retinas

Which nerve fibers cross in the optic chiasm?

Gets higher

As the number of cycles per second increases, the sound we perceive _______.

Detectable odors are actually combinations of a smaller number of primary odors

How can a person perceive over 4,000 different odors?

Hair cells of the otolithic membrane of the macula sacculi

When you travel in an elevator, the __ sense when the elevator is moving.


If a receptor’s receptive field is __, it allows for greater specificity of localization.

Hair cells

The sensory receptors of the inner ear for equilibrium are ____.


Photoreceptors in the retina of the eye detect changes in light intensity and wavelength. In other words, they are detecting ____.

Somatic Sensory Receptor

A pressure receptor in the skin could be classified as a ____.

Visceral sensory neurons travel along the same pathway as many somatic sensory neurons

Why is visceral pain sometimes localized incorrectly?

Bony and Membranous labyrinths

Perilymph is contained within the ____.

Membranous Labyrinth

Which of the following structures is deepest in the inner ear? 1. bony labyrinth 2. membranous labyrinth 3. perilymph 4. temporal bone

Primary auditory cortex

After the thalamus, auditory nerve signals reach the ____.


The brain can determine the static position of the head due to sensors in the ____.

Tympanic membrane

During hearing, the structure that’s first to vibrate is the ____.

Hair cells of spiral organ

During hearing, the last structure to vibrate is the _____.


The foot plate is part of the ___.


Middle ear has four bones. True/False


When a generator (receptor) potential reaches threshold, an action potential will be produced. True/False


The greater the receptor density, the greater the sensory acuity. True/False


High pitched sounds produce a peak displacement of the basilar membrane near the apex of the cochlea.


Rods and cones face the light coming into the eye. True/False


A receptor is an axon that carries sensory impulses to the spinal cord’s dorsal horn of gray matter.


Our brain perceives different colors because each cone responds to a different wavelength on the visual spectrum.


Walking into a room and recognizing the smell of a favorite dish is an example of a sensation. True/False


Encapsulated tactile receptors are found in the skin and consist of dendrites with no protective coat. True/False


The sense of taste if heavily influenced by the olfactory sense as well. True/False


The lacrimal apparatus of the eye is associated with ___.

Occipital lobe

Brain region involved with visual interpretation.

Lacrimal glands

Eye structure. Produces tears.


Eye structure. produces mucus

ciliary glands

eye structure. produces sweat like substance.

tarsal glands.

eye structure. produces oily substance.

superior oblique

Eye skeletal muscle. depresses eye and turns it laterally

inferior rectus

Eye skeletal muscle. depresses eye and turns it medially

lateral rectus

Eye skeletal muscle. moves eye laterally.

superior rectus

Eye skeletal muscle. elevates eye and turn it medially

inferior oblique

Eye skeletal muscle. elevates eye and turns it laterally

medial rectus

Eye skeletal muscle. moves eye medially.

Internal ear

What part of the ear functions in both hearing and equilibrium?


Another name for an instrument used to examine the ear is a(n) ____.

Pearly white and moist.

What correctly describes the appearance of a healthy tympanic membrane?

otitus media

If the examination revealed an inflamed tympanic membrane, what would the likely diagnosis be?

Basilar membrane

The hair cells in the spiral organ, rest on the _____.

Base of semicircular ducts

The anatomical location of the crista ampullaris is the ____.

semicircular canals

what structures are essential in the mechanism of dynamic equilibrium?


The involuntary rolling or trailing of the eyes in one direction followed by rapid movement in the opposite direction is called ______.


the sensation of dizziness and rotational movement when such movement is not occurring describes _____.


Neurons located in tendons, ligaments, and skeletal muscles that aid in maintaining equilibrium are ______.


How many layers are in the wall of the eye?

"white" of the eye

Structure with function. Sclera

layer containing rods and cones

Structure with function. retina

anteriormost, transparent portion of the eye

Structure with function. cornea

pigmentes smooth muscle fibers that regulate the amount of light entering the eye.

Structure with function. iris

area of high cone density

Structure with function. Macula lutea

control of lens shape

Structure with function. ciliary muscles

"blind" spot

Structure with function. optic disc

dim light

Rods are specialized receptors that function in ______

Bipolar neurons, ganglion cells, optic nerve

correct pathway, rods and cones pass visual stimuli toward the cerebral hemispheres.

All photoreceptors

The blind spot lacks ___.

elasticity of the lens

Measuring the near point of accommodation is a test of the ____.


The color tests determine whether there are deficiencies in which cell type?


taste receptors are ____.

olfactory sensory neurons

the bipolar neurons whose cilia extend outward from the epithelium on the roof of the nasal cavity are known as ___.

olfactory bulbs

olfactory nerve fibers carry electrical impulses through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to synapse with other neurons in the ___.

T1 through L2

Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system can be located in the spinal cord from _____.


Another name for a complex network of spinal nerves is ____.

The cranial nerves and S2 through S4

Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system are located in ______.

Share This

More flashcards like this

NCLEX 10000 Integumentary Disorders

When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? a) ...

Read more


A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. I can’t do anything without ...

Read more

NASM Flashcards

Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

Read more

Unfinished tasks keep piling up?

Let us complete them for you. Quickly and professionally.

Check Price

Successful message